Hiroko Koyama

Gifu University, Gihu, Gifu, Japan

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Publications (15)34.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The nucleosides zidovudine (AZT), stavudine (d4T), and telbivudine (LdT) are approved for use in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. To promote positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies on their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and applications in cancer diagnosis, a convenient one-pot method for Pd(0)-Cu(I) co-mediated rapid C-C coupling of [(11) C]methyl iodide with stannyl precursor was successfully established and applied to synthesize the PET tracers [(11) C]zidovudine, [(11) C]stavudine, and [(11) C]telbivudine. After HPLC purification and radiopharmaceutical formulation, the desired PET tracers were obtained with high radioactivity (6.4-7.0 GBq) and specific radioactivity (74-147 GBq/µmol) and with high chemical (>99%) and radiochemical (>99.5%) purities. This one-pot Pd(0)-Cu(I) co-mediated rapid C-[(11) C]methylation also worked well for syntheses of [methyl-(11) C]thymidine and [methyl-(11) C]4'-thiothymidine, resulting twice the radioactivity of those prepared by a previous two-pot method. The mechanism of one-pot Pd(0)-Cu(I) co-mediated rapid C-[(11) C]methylation was also discussed.
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 07/2014; · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retinoids are a class of chemical compounds which include both natural dietary vitamin A (retinol) metabolites and active synthetic analogs. Both experimental and clinical studies have revealed that retinoids regulate a wide variety of essential biological processes. In this study, we synthesized (11)C-labeled all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), the most potent biologically active metabolite of retinol and used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. The synthesis of (11)C-labeled ATRA was accomplished by a combination of rapid Pd(0)-mediated C-[(11)C]methylation of the corresponding pinacol borate precursor prepared by 8 steps and hydrolysis. [(11)C]ATRA will prove useful as a PET imaging agent, particularly for elucidating the improved therapeutic activity of ATRA (natural retinoid) for acute promyelocytic leukemia by comparing with the corresponding PET probe [(11)C]Tamibarotene (artificial retinoid).
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Positron emission tomography is a noninvasive method for monitoring drug (or diagnostic) behavior and its localization on the target molecules in the living systems, including the human body, using a short-lived positron-emitting radionuclide. New methodologies for introducing representative short-lived radionuclides, (11) C and (18) F, into the carbon frameworks of biologically active organic compounds have been established by developing rapid C-[(11) C]methylations and C-[(18) F]fluoromethylations using rapid Pd(0) -mediated cross-coupling reactions between [(11) C]methyl iodide (sp(3) -hybridized carbon) and an excess amount of organotributylstannane or organoboronic acid ester having sp(2) (phenyl, heteroaromatic, or alkenyl), sp(alkynyl), or sp(3) (benzyl and cinnamyl)-hybridized carbons; and [(18) F]fluoromethyl halide (iodide or bromide) and an organoboronic acid ester, respectively. These rapid reactions provide a firm foundation for an efficient and general synthesis of short-lived (11) C- or (18) F-labeled PET molecular probes to promote in vivo molecular imaging studies.
    The Chemical Record 06/2014; 14(3):516-41. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pd0-mediated rapid cross coupling between sp3-hybridized carbons of CH3I and benzyl- or cinnamylboronic acid esters using [Pd{P(tert-C4H9)3}2]/CsF in DMF/H2O gave the corresponding methylated compounds in high yield. The utility was well demonstrated for the synthesis of short-lived PET tracer, N-(4-[11C]ethylphenyl)propionamide, in 90 ± 1% radio-HPLC analytical yield and 49 ± 3% radiochemical yield.
    RSC Advances 05/2013; 3(24):9391-9401. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The DNA repair protein O (6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT, AGT) is a determinant of the resistance of tumor cells to alkylating anticancer agents that target the O(6) position of guanine. MGMT promoter methylation in tumors is regarded as the most common predictor of the responsiveness of glioblastoma to alkylating agents. However, MGMT promoter methylation status has been investigated mainly by methylation-specific PCR, which is a qualitative and subjective assay. In addition, the actual enzymatic activities associated with the methylation status of MGMT have not been explored. In the present study, MGMT promoter methylation in glioblastomas was quantified by bisulfite pyrosequencing, and its correlation with enzymatic activity was determined using a novel quantitative assay for studying the functional activity of MGMT. MGMT enzymatic activity was assessed using fluorometrically labeled oligonucleotide substrates containing MGMT-specific DNA lesions and capillary electrophoresis to detect and quantify these lesions. In comparison with existing traditional assays, this assay was equally sensitive but less time consuming and easier to perform. MGMT promoter methylation was assessed in 41 glioblastomas by bisulfite pyrosequencing, and five samples with different values were chosen for comparison with enzymatic assays. Bisulfite pyrosequencing using primers designed to work in the upstream promoter regions of MGMT demonstrated high quantitative capability and reproducibility in triplicate measurements. In comparative studies, MGMT promoter methylation values obtained by bisulfite pyrosequencing were inversely proportional to the measured enzymatic activity. The present results indicate that the quantification of MGMT methylation by bisulfite pyrosequencing represents its enzymatic activity and thus, its therapeutic responsiveness to alkylating agents.
    Tumor Biology 04/2012; 33(2):373-81. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel PET probe, [11C]H-1152, specific for Rho-kinases, was synthesized efficiently for the first time based on rapid Pd0-mediated C-[11C]methylation using [11C]methyl iodide and a tributylstannyl precursor, giving the isolated radioactivity of 3.8±1.2 GBq (n=3), specific radioactivity of 97±10 GBq μmol−1 (n=3), and high chemical and radiochemical purities (>99%). The decay-corrected radiochemical yield based on 11CH3I was 63±14%. New potentials of a trifluoroacetyl (TFA) group as a tolerant protecting and facile deprotecting group of a secondary amine were demonstrated by highly selective stannylation (via lithiation of isoquinoline moiety using t-C4H9Li) and ready removal by hydroxide ion leaving the arylstannyl moiety intact, respectively. The role of excess hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPA) to realize an efficient stannylation of the isoquinoline lithium species is also discussed briefly.
    Tetrahedron. 03/2012; 68(10):2336–2341.
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza viruses have developed resistance to current drugs, creating a need for new antiviral targets and new drugs to treat influenza virus infections. In this study, computational and experimental screening of an extensive compound library identified THC19, which was able to suppress influenza virus replication. This compound had no cytotoxic effects and did not disrupt cell cycle progression or induce apoptosis in MDCK cells as confirmed by WST-1 assays, flow cytometry analysis, and caspase-3 assays. Time-of-addition experiments showed that THC19 acts at a relatively early stage of the viral lifecycle. Subsequent mini-genome assays revealed that THC19 inhibited viral genome replication and/or transcription, suggesting that it interferes with one or more of the viral components that form the ribonucleoprotein complexes, namely polymerase basic 2 (PB2), polymerase basic 1 (PB1), polymerase acidic (PA), nucleoprotein (NP) and viral RNA. Finally, mini-genome assays where PB2, PB1, PA or NP from A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus were replaced with those from A/Udorn/307/1972 (H3N2) virus effectively demonstrated that THC19 inhibited viral multiplication in a manner dependent upon the PA subunit. Taken together, these results suggest that influenza virus PA protein is a potential target for, and may aid the development of, novel compounds that inhibit influenza A virus replication.
    Microbes and Infection 03/2012; 14(9):740-7. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    Positron Emission Tomography - Current Clinical and Research Aspects, 02/2012: chapter 5: pages 115–152; InTech., ISBN: 978-953-307-824-3
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    ABSTRACT: SAR studies for the exploration a novel class of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents based on the hematoxylin structure (1) are described. The systematic deoxygenations of 1 including asymmetric synthesis were conducted to obtain a compound showing high potencies for inhibiting the nuclear import and viral replication as anti-HIV-1 agent. Among all, C-3-deoxygenated analog 16 exhibited most promising biological activities as anti-HIV-1 agent such as lower cytotoxicity (16:1; >80:40 μM), stronger inhibition of nuclear import (0.5:1.3 μM), and viral replication in HIV-1-infected TZM-bl cells (24.6:100 μM), human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) (30.1 μM: toxic). Different spectra of inhibitory activities against infected three healthy humans macrophages with high (donor A) and low (donor B and C) amounts of virus were also observed. Thus 16 showed 10-times stronger activity than 1 (16:1; 0.1:<1.0 μM) in the case of A, while 16 and 1 showed comparable activities in the cases of B and C (>0.01 and >0.00 1μM). The comparison of the inhibition of viral p24 antigen production was clearly indicated that compound 16 is at least twofold more potent anti-viral activity than 1. Thus, structures and actions of deoxy analogs particularly 16 could provide valuable information for the development of a novel class of anti-HIV-1 agents.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 02/2012; 22(3):1469-74. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pd(0)-mediated rapid couplings of CH(3)I (and then [(11)C]CH(3)I) with excess 5-tributylstannyl-2'-deoxyuridine and -4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridine were investigated for the syntheses of [methyl-(11)C]thymidine and its stable analogue, 4'-[methyl-(11)C]thiothymidine as PET probes for cancer diagnosis. The previously reported conditions were attempted using Pd(2)(dba)(3)/P(o-CH(3)C(6)H(4))(3) (1 : 4 in molar ratio) at 130 °C for 5 min in DMF, giving desired products only in 32 and 30% yields. Therefore, we adapted the current reaction conditions developed in our laboratory for heteroaromatic compounds. The reaction using CH(3)I/stannane/Pd(2)(dba)(3)/P(o-CH(3)C(6)H(4))(3)/CuCl/K(2)CO(3) (1 : 25 : 1 : 32 : 2 : 5) at 80 °C gave thymidine in 85% yield. Whereas, CH(3)I/stannane/Pd(2)(dba)(3)/P(o-CH(3)C(6)H(4))(3)/CuBr/CsF (1 : 25 : 1 : 32 : 2 : 5) including another CuBr/CsF system promoted the reaction at a milder temperature (60 °C), giving thymidine in 100% yield. Chemo-response of thiothymidine-precursor was different from thymidine system. Thus, the above optimized conditions including CuBr/CsF system gave 4'-thiothymidine only in 40% yield. The reaction using 5-fold amount of CuBr/CsF at 80 °C gave much higher yield (83%), but unexpectedly, the reaction was accompanied by a considerable amount of undesired destannylated product. Such destannylation was greatly suppressed by changing to a CuCl/K(2)CO(3) system using CH(3)I/stannane/Pd(2)(dba)(3)/P(o-CH(3)C(6)H(4))(3)/CuCl/K(2)CO(3) (1 : 25 : 1 : 32 : 2 : 5) at 80 °C, giving the 4'-thiothymidine in 98% yield. The each optimized conditions were successfully applied to the syntheses of the corresponding PET probes in 87 and 93% HPLC analytical yields. [(11)C]Compounds were isolated by preparative HPLC after the reaction conducted under slightly improved conditions, exhibiting sufficient radioactivity of 3.7-3.8 GBq and specific radioactivity of 89-200 GBq µmol(-1) with radiochemical purity of ≥99.5% for animal and human PET studies.
    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 06/2011; 9(11):4287-94. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue virus (DENV) is the etiologic agent for dengue fever, for which there is no approved vaccine or specific anti-viral drug. As a remedy for this, we explored the use of compounds that interfere with the action of required host factors and describe here the characterization of a kinase inhibitor (SFV785), which has selective effects on NTRK1 and MAPKAPK5 kinase activity, and anti-viral activity on Hepatitis C, DENV and yellow fever viruses. SFV785 inhibited DENV propagation without inhibiting DENV RNA synthesis or translation. The compound did not cause any changes in the cellular distribution of non-structural 3, a protein critical for DENV RNA synthesis, but altered the distribution of the structural envelope protein from a reticulate network to enlarged discrete vesicles, which altered the co-localization with the DENV replication complex. Ultrastructural electron microscopy analyses of DENV-infected SFV785-treated cells showed the presence of viral particles that were distinctly different from viable enveloped virions within enlarged ER cisternae. These viral particles were devoid of the dense nucleocapsid. The secretion of the viral particles was not inhibited by SFV785, however a reduction in the amount of secreted infectious virions, DENV RNA and capsid were observed. Collectively, these observations suggest that SFV785 inhibited the recruitment and assembly of the nucleocapsid in specific ER compartments during the DENV assembly process and hence the production of infectious DENV. SFV785 and derivative compounds could be useful biochemical probes to explore the DENV lifecycle and could also represent a new class of anti-virals.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e23246. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Substances that mimic the actions of causative gene products of familial Parkinson's disease (PD) are candidate as causative agents of idiopathic PD. 1-Benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1BnTIQ), an endogenous neurotoxin, is present at three times higher levels in CSF of PD patients than in CSF of control subjects. However, the mechanism of 1BnTIQ's neurotoxicity is unclear. In this study, we tried to identify 1BnTIQ-binding proteins by using a diazido-functionalized 1BnTIQ analog, 1-(3-azido-5-azidomethylbenzyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline, designed and synthesized as a probe for radioisotope-free photoaffinity labeling. One major photolabeled protein identified using this probe was tubulin beta, which has been reported to be a substrate of parkin, a ubiquitin E3 ligase and a causative gene product of familial PD. Loss of function mutation of parkin is reported to result in loss of tubulin beta ubiquitination. Therefore, we examined the effect of 1BnTIQ on ubiquitination of tubulin beta. The polyubiquitinated tubulin beta level in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was reduced in the presence of 1BnTIQ, even at concentrations as low as those detected in parkinsonian CSF. In vitro ubiquitination assay gave similar results. It is suggested that 1BnTIQ has the same effect on tubulin ubiquitination as does mutant parkin in familial PD. Taken together, substances which reduce polyubiquitination of tubulin such as 1BnTIQ are supposed to be candidates of etiological factors of PD.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 09/2010; 114(5):1291-301. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Pd(0)-mediated rapid trapping of methyl iodide with an excess amount of a heteroaryl-substituted tributylstannane has been investigated with the aim of incorporating a short-lived (11)C-labelled methyl group into the heteroaromatic carbon frameworks of important organic compounds, such as drugs with various heteroaromatic structures, in order to execute a positron emission tomography (PET) study of vital systems. The reaction was first performed by using our previously developed CH(3)I/stannane/[Pd(2)(dba)(3)]/P(o-CH(3)C(6)H(4))(3)/CuCl/K(2)CO(3) (1:40:0.5:2:2:2) system in DMF at 60 degrees C for 5 min (conditions A), however, the reaction gave low yields for various heteroaromatic compounds. Increasing the amount of phosphine ligand (conditions B) led to a significant improvement in the yield, but the conditions were still not suitable for a range of basic heteroaromatic structures. Use of the CuBr/CsF system (conditions C) also provided a result similar to that obtained under conditions B with an increased amount of the phosphine. Thus, pyridine and related heteroaromatic compounds remained less reactive substrates. The problem was overcome by replacing the DMF solvent with N-methyl-2-pyrolidinone (NMP). The reaction in NMP at 60-100 degrees C for 5 min using a CH(3)I/stannane/[Pd(2)(dba)(3)]/P(o-CH(3)C(6)H(4))(3)/CuBr/CsF (1:40:0.5:16:2:5) combination (conditions D) gave the methylated products in yields of more than 80 % (based on the reaction of CH(3)I) for all of the heteroaromatic compounds listed in this study. Thus, the combined use of NMP and an increased amount of phosphine is important for promoting the reaction efficiently. The use of this general approach to rapid methylation has been well demonstrated by the synthesis of the PET tracers 2- and 3-[(11)C]methylpyridines by using [Pd(2)(dba)(3)]/P(o-CH(3)C(6)H(4))(3)/CuBr/CsF (1:16:2:5) in NMP at 60 degrees C for 5 min, which gives the desired products in HPLC analytical yields of 88 and 91 %, respectively.
    Chemistry 10/2009; 15(45):12489-95. · 5.83 Impact Factor
  • Masaaki Suzuki, Hiroko Koyama, Ryoji Noyori
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    ABSTRACT: The structures of cyclopentanone lithium enolate under HMPA titration in 0.04–0.8 M diethyl ether and dimethyl ether solvents have been investigated using the low-temperature 7Li, 31P, and 13C NMR. The progressive solvation by HMPA occurs for the tetra- and dimeric enolates, and upon addition of >2equiv. of HMPA, the lithium enolate has been converged on a mixture of tetra-HMPA coordinated tetramer and bis-HMPA coordinated dimer with the ratio of 5:95 and
    Tetrahedron. 01/2004; 60(7):1571-1579.
  • Masaaki Suzuki, Hiroko Koyama, Ryoji Noyori
    Bulletin of The Chemical Society of Japan - BULL CHEM SOC JPN. 01/2004; 77(2):259-268.