[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Jinba) shoot branching is determined by bud outgrowth during the vegetative growth stage. The degree of axillary bud outgrowth is highly influenced by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Here, we demonstrated that phosphorus (Pi) starvation significantly reduces axillary bud outgrowth in chrysanthemum. A strigolactone (SL) biosynthesis gene, DgCCD7, was isolated and characterized as an ortholog of MAX3/DAD3/RMS5/D17. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), three putative SLs were identified and levels of all three SLs showed strong increase under Pi starvation conditions. Determinations of the distribution of SLs and regulation of DgCCD7/8 in response to Pi changes in root indicate that SL acts systemically. However, temporal expression patterns of biosynthesis and signaling genes in nodes revealed that Pi starvation causes a local response of SL pathway. Treatment of node segments with or without auxin and Pi revealed that in the absence of exogenous auxin, Pi delayed axillary buds outgrowth and up-regulated local SL pathway genes. These data indicated that an auxin-SL regulatory loop responded to Pi starvation for delaying bud outgrowth locally, root biosynthesized SLs were transported acropetally and functioned in shoot branching inhibition under Pi starvation. We proposed that SLs contributed to chrysanthemum shoot branching control in response to Pi-limiting conditions in a systemic way.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The single-head cut-flower chrysanthemum is one of the most important and popular varieties of Chinese export cut flowers, but the less collateral varieties are very rare in the market. To produce new, high-quality varieties, we generated two hybrid combinations from the varieties Fukashi (SZ), Jinba (SM), and FengWofen (FW; “SM × SZ” and “SZ × FW”, respectively). A detailed analysis of morphological tests revealed the heredity and variation in the F1 populations. Hybrid plant height showed significant negative heterosis. Flower diameter and the number of small flowers were both diminished, but the ornamental traits of the population overall showed wide variation. The results provided a basis of genetic differences for subsequent analysis. In both crosses, Fukashi played an important regulatory role in determining branching traits in the middle zone and basal zone of the progeny plants: it reduced hybrid branching traits in the middle zone to a certain extent, however, it increased those in the basal zone and there were some transgressive progeny. These results indicate that hybridization is an effective way to contribute to the phenotypic variation of cut-flower chrysanthemums. The inheritance of branching traits identified in this study will be important in improving the plant architecture of chrysanthemum cultivars.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Key message
Promoter activities of
, two rose genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, are highly sensitive to various abiotic stresses in an organ-specific manner.
Our previous studies indicated that two rose (Rosa hybrida) 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase genes, RhACS1 and RhACS2, play a role in dehydration-induced ethylene production and inhibition of cell expansion in rose petals. Here, both RhACS1 and RhACS2 promoters were analyzed using histochemical staining and glucuronidase synthase (GUS) gene reporter activity assays following their introduction into transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. It was found that the promoter activities of both genes were strong throughout the course of development from young seedlings to mature flowering plants in various organs, including hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves, roots and lateral roots. RhACS1 promoter activity was induced by drought in both rosette leaves and roots of transgenic A. thaliana lines, but was reduced following a re-hydration treatment. In contrast, RhACS2 promoter activity was decreased by drought in rosette leaves, while its response pattern was similar to that of RhACS1 in roots. A mannitol treatment induced the activity of both the RhACS1 and RhACS2 promoters, indicating that both genes are also regulated by osmotic stress. In addition, RhACS2 appeared to be abscisic acid (ABA)-inducible, while RhACS1 was less sensitive to ABA. Finally, four truncated sequences of the RhACS1 promoter were generated and GUS activity assays demonstrated that deleting a 327 bp region between bp 862 and −535 resulted in a substantial decrease of the promoter activity. Taken together, our results suggest that the RhACS1 and RhACS2 promoters respond to abiotic stresses in a developmentally regulated and spatially specific manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homeobox (HB) proteins are important transcription factors that regulate the developmental decisions of eukaryotes. WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) transcription factors, known as a plant-specific HB family, play a key role in plant developmental processes. Our previous work has indicated that rhizoids are induced by auxin in rose (Rosa spp.), which acts as critical part of an efficient plant regeneration system. However, the function of WOX genes in auxin-induced rhizoid formation remains unclear. Here, we isolated and characterized a WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene from Rosa canina, RcWOX1, containing a typical homeodomain with 65 amino acid residues. Real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that RcWOX1 was expressed in the whole process of callus formation and in the early stage of rhizoid formation. Moreover, its expression was induced by auxin treatment. In Arabidopsis transgenic lines expressing the RcWOX1pro::GUS and 35S::GFP-RcWOX1, RcWOX1 was specifically expressed in roots and localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of RcWOX1 in Arabidopsis increased lateral root density and induced upregulation of PIN1 and PIN7 genes. Therefore, we postulated that RcWOX1 is a functional transcription factor that plays an essential role in auxin-induced rhizoid formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of radiation damage on in vitro mutation induction in chrysanthemum. White petals of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Youka) were selected to induce mutation by gamma radiation. Calli produced were irradiated with gamma rays at 0, 10, 15 and 20 Gy. We found that the plants from the irradiated calli were different from control plants in number of leaves, leaf length & width, number of flowers, flower diameter, petiole diameter and petiole length after transplanting into the greenhouse for almost 70 days. Three mutants in flower color and shape were found in 15 Gy-treated plants. First type of mutant (M.1) has tubular petals. The second (M.2) and third (M.3) ones both have yellow flowers, while one of them has spooned shaped ray florets similar to the original cultivar and the other one has flat shaped florets. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that most of carotenoid-biosynthesis related genes, except for violaxanthin deepoxidase (VDE) and lycopene ε-cyclase (LCYE), showed similar expression patterns in petals of the original ‘Youka’ and its mutants (M2 & M3). VDE and LCYE results showed high expression levels in M3 and M2 & M3 respectively, comparing with the control. On the other hand, expression patterns for VDE were similar in control and M2. These yellow mutants were maintained vegetatively and proved to be true-to-type in one successive generation. It can be concluded that gamma radiation with 15 Gy dose can be used for in vitro induction of flower color and shape mutations of chrysanthemum cv. Youka.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BABY BOOM (BBM), initially identified in Brassica napus, can enhance the shoot regeneration capacity in tissue culture and is involved in the conversion from the vegetative to embryogenic state. This study aimed to isolate BBM orthologue genes from Rosa canina and analyse their functions. Two full-length cDNAs, designated RcBBM1 and RcBBM2, were isolated from R. canina by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The predicted amino acid sequences of the two RcBBMs contained the bbm-1 motif and the motifs typically conserved in the eudicotANT (euANT) lineage. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the RcBBMs were most closely related to the BBM orthologue genes identified in Glycine max and Medicago truncatula. The transcripts of the RcBBMs were detected in young roots, calluses, and protocorm-like bodies (PLBs), whereas they were undetectable in stems, leaves, and flowers. RcBBM1-GFP and RcBBM2-GFP fusion proteins were both localized in the nucleus. 35S::RcBBM1 and 35S::RcBBM2 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines exhibited enhanced shoot regeneration capacity in tissue culture, but did not undergo spontaneous somatic embryogenesis. The results suggest that RcBBMs may be candidate genes for improving the shoot regeneration efficiency of R. canina.
Biologia Plantarum 09/2014; 58(3):427-435. DOI:10.1007/s10535-014-0420-y · 1.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drought is a major abiotic stress that affects the development and growth of most plants, and limits crop yield worldwide. Although it has been well documented concerning the response of plants to drought, much less is known about how plants respond to water recovery process, namely rehydration. Here, we reported the precise spatio-temporal response of plant reproductive organs to rehydration using rose flowers as an experimental system. We found that rehydration could trigger a rapid and transient ethylene production in the gynoecia. This ethylene burst serves as a signal to ensure water recovery in flowers and promotes flower opening by influencing expression of a set of rehydration-responsive genes. An in-gel kinase assay suggested that the rehydration-induced ethylene burst resulted from a transient accumulation of RhACS1/2 proteins in gynoecia. Meanwhile, RhMPK6, a rose homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana MPK6, is rapidly activated by rehydration within 0.5 h. Furthermore, RhMPK6 was able to phosphorylate RhACS1 but not RhACS2 in vitro. Application of the kinase inhibitor, K252a, suppressed RhACS1 accumulation and rehydration-induced ethylene production in gynoecia, while the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) had the opposite effect, confirming that the accumulation of RhACS1 was phosphorylation-dependent. Finally, silencing of RhMPK6 significantly reduced ethylene production in gynoecia when flowers were subjected to rehydration. Taken together, our results suggest that temporal- and spatial-specific activation of an RhMPK6-RhACS1 cascade is responsible for rehydration-induced ethylene production in gynoecia, and that the resultant ethylene mediated signaling pathway is a key factor in flower rehydration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The Plant Journal 06/2014; 79(6). DOI:10.1111/tpj.12594 · 5.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that the SUP genes play important roles in flower development and plant growth and morphogenesis. In this study, we isolated and characterized a SUPERMAN-like gene DgSZFP from chrysanthemum. DgSZFP contains one conserved Cys2/His2-type zinc finger motifs in the N-terminal region and an EAR-box in C-terminus. Its expression was significantly higher in nodes, flower buds, disc stamens, and petals than in the other tissues. Overexpression of DgSZFP in tobacco resulted in enhanced branching, reduced plant height, increased the width of petal tubes, produced the staminoid petals and petaloid stamens in flowers, and enhanced the seed weight and size. In addition, DgSZFP-overexpression tobacco plants accumulated high concentrations of cytokinin and chlorophyll. These results suggest that DgSZFP may be the candidate gene for regulating branching and floral organ development in chrysanthemum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a useful tool for functional characterization of genes in plants. Unfortunately, the efficiency of infection by Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) is relatively low for some non-Solanaceae plants, which are economically important, such as rose (Rosa sp.). Here, to generate an easy traceable TRV vector, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was tagged to the 3' terminus of the coat protein gene in the original TRV2 vector, and the silencing efficiency of the modified TRV-GFP vector was tested in several plants, including Nicotiana benthamiana, Arabidopsis thaliana, rose, strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), and chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum). The results showed that the efficiency of infection by TRV-GFP was equal to that of the original TRV vector in each tested plant. Spread of the modified TRV virus was easy to monitor by using fluorescent microscopy and a hand-held UV lamp. When TRV-GFP was used to silence the endogenous phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene in rose cuttings and seedlings, the typical photobleached phenotype was observed in 75-80% plants which were identified as GFP positive by UV lamp. In addition, the abundance of GFP protein, which represented the concentration of TRV virus, was proved to correlate negatively with the level of the PDS gene, suggesting that GFP could be used as an indicator of the degree of silencing of a target gene. Taken together, this work provides a visualizable and efficient tool to predict positive gene silencing plants, which is valuable for research into gene function in plants, especially for non-Solanaceae plants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethylene plays an important role in organ growth. In Arabidopsis, ethylene can inhibit root elongation by stabilizing DELLA proteins. In previous work, it was found that ethylene suppressed cell expansion in rose petals, and five unisequences of DELLA genes are induced by ethylene. However, the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of DELLA genes by ethylene is still not clear. The results showed that the expression of RhGAI1 was induced in both ethylene-treated and ETR gene-silenced rose petals, and the promoter activity of RhGAI1 was strongly induced by RhEIN3-3 in Arabidopsis protoplasts. What is more, RhEIN3-3 could bind to the promoter of RhGAI1 directly in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Cell expansion was suppressed in RhGAI1-Δ17-overexpressed Arabidopsis petals and promoted in RhGAI1-silenced rose petals. Moreover, in RhGAI1-silenced petals, the expression of nine cell expansion-related genes was clearly changed, and RhGAI1 can bind to the promoter of RhCesA2 in an EMSA. These results suggested that RhGAI1 was regulated by ethylene at the transcriptional level, and RhGAI1 was a direct target of RhEIN3-3. Also, RhGAI1 was shown to be involved in cell expansion partially through regulating the expression of cell expansion-related genes. Furthermore, RhCesA2 was a direct target of RhGAI1. This work uncovers the transcriptional regulation of RhGAI1 by ethylene and provides a better understanding of how ethylene regulates petal expansion in roses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro, a new protocol of plant regeneration in rose was achieved via protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) induced from the root-like organs named rhizoids that developed from leaf explants. The development of rhizoids is a critical stage for efficient regeneration, which is triggered by exogenous auxin. However, the role of cytokinin in the control of organogenesis in rose is as yet uncharacterized. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism of cytokinin-modulated rhizoid formation in Rosa canina. Here, we found that cytokinin is a key regulator in the formation of rhizoids. Treatment with cytokinin reduced callus activity and significantly inhibited rhizoid formation in Rosa canina. We further isolated the full-length cDNA of a type-A response regulator gene of cytokinin signaling, RcRR1, from which the deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved DDK motif. Gene expression analysis revealed that RcRR1 was differentially expressed during rhizoid formation and its expression level was rapidly up-regulated by cytokinin. In addition, the functionality of RcRR1 was tested in Arabidopsis. RcRR1 was found to be localized to the nucleus in GFP-RcRR1 transgenic plants and overexpression of RcRR1 resulted in increased primary root length and lateral root density. More importantly, RcRR1 overexpression transgenic plants also showed reduced sensitivity to cytokinin during root growth; auxin distribution and the expression of auxin efflux carriers PIN genes were altered in RcRR1 overexpression plants. Taken together, these results demonstrate that RcRR1 is a functional type-A response regulator which is involved in cytokinin-regulated rhizoid formation in Rosa canina.
PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72914. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072914 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell expansion is crucial for plant growth. It is well known that the phytohormone ethylene functions in plant development as a key modulator of cell expansion. However, the role of ethylene in the regulation of this process remains unclear. In this study, 2,189 ethylene-responsive transcripts were identified in rose petals using transcriptome sequencing and microarray analysis. Among these transcripts, a NAC-domain transcription factor gene, RhNAC100, was rapidly and dramatically induced by ethylene in the petals. Interestingly, accumulation of the RhNAC100 transcript was modulated by ethylene via miR164-dependent post-transcriptional regulation. Overexpression of RhNAC100 in Arabidopsis thaliana substantially reduced the petal size by repressing petal cell expansion. In contrast, silencing of RhNAC100 in rose petals using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) significantly increased petal size and promoted cell expansion in the petal abaxial subepidermis (p < 0.05). Expression analysis showed that 22 out of the 29 cell expansion-related genes tested exhibited changes in expression in RhNAC100-silenced rose petals. Moreover, of those genes, one cellulose synthase and two aquaporin genes (RhCesA2, RhPIP1;1 and RhPIP2;1), were identified as targets of RhNAC100. Our results suggest that ethylene regulates cell expansion by fine-tuning the miR164/RhNAC100 module and also provide new insights into the function of NAC transcription factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aquaporins (AQPs) are multifunctional membrane channels and facilitate the transport of water across plant cell membranes. Among the plant AQPs, plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), which cluster in two phylogenetic groups (PIP1 and PIP2), play a key role in plant growth. Our previous work has indicated that RhPIP2;1, a member of PIP2, is involved in ethylene-regulated cell expansion of rose petals. However, whether PIP1s also play a role in petal expansion is still unclear. Here, we identified RhPIP1;1, a PIP1 subfamily member, from 18 PIPs assemble transcripts in rose microarray database responsive to ethylene. RhPIP1;1 was rapidly and significantly down-regulated by ethylene treatment. RhETRs-silencing also clearly decreased the expression of RhPIP1;1 in rose petals. The activity of the RhPIP1;1 promoter was repressed by ethylene in rosettes and roots of Arabidopsis. RhPIP1;1 is mainly localized on endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. We demonstrated that RhPIP1;1-silencing significantly inhibited the expansion of petals with decreased petal size and cell area, as well as reduced fresh weight when compared to controls. Expression of RhPIP1;1 in Xenopus oocytes indicated that RhPIP1;1 was inactive in terms of water transport, while coexpression of RhPIP1;1 with the functional RhPIP2;1 led to a significant increase in plasma membrane permeability. Yeast growth, β-Galactosidase activity, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and colocalization assay proved existence of the interaction between RhPIP1;1 and RhPIP2;1. We argue that RhPIP1;1 plays an important role in ethylene-regulated petal cell expansion, at least partially through the interaction with RhPIP2;1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs play an important role in plant development and plant responses to various biotic and abiotic stimuli. As one of the most important ornamental crops, rose (Rosa hybrida) possesses several specific morphological and physiological features, including recurrent flowering, highly divergent flower shapes, colors and volatiles. Ethylene plays an important role in regulating petal cell expansion during rose flower opening. Here, we report the population and expression profiles of miRNAs in rose petals during flower opening and in response to ethylene based on high throughput sequencing. We identified a total of 33 conserved miRNAs, as well as 47 putative novel miRNAs were identified from rose petals. The conserved and novel targets to those miRNAs were predicted using the rose floral transcriptome database. Expression profiling revealed that expression of 28 known (84.8% of known miRNAs) and 39 novel (83.0% of novel miRNAs) miRNAs was substantially changed in rose petals during the earlier opening period. We also found that 28 known and 22 novel miRNAs showed expression changes in response to ethylene treatment. Furthermore, we performed integrative analysis of expression profiles of miRNAs and their targets. We found that ethylene-caused expression changes of five miRNAs (miR156, miR164, miR166, miR5139 and rhy-miRC1) were inversely correlated to those of their seven target genes. These results indicate that these miRNA/target modules might be regulated by ethylene and were involved in ethylene-regulated petal growth.
PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e64290. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0064290 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dehydration is a major factor resulting in huge loss from cut flowers during transportation. In the present study, dehydration inhibited petal cell expansion and resulted in irregular flowers in cut roses, mimicking ethylene-treated flowers. Among the five floral organs, dehydration substantially elevated ethylene production in the sepals, whilst rehydration caused rapid and elevated ethylene levels in the gynoecia and sepals. Among the five ethylene biosynthetic enzyme genes (RhACS1-5), expression of RhACS1 and RhACS2 was induced by dehydration and rehydration in the two floral organs. Silencing both RhACS1 and RhACS2 significantly suppressed dehydration- and rehydration-induced ethylene in the sepals and gynoecia. This weakened the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. β-glucuronidase activity driven by both the RhACS1 and RhACS2 promoters was dramatically induced in the sepals, pistil, and stamens, but not in the petals of transgenic Arabidopsis. This further supports the organ-specific induction of these two genes. Among the five rose ethylene receptor genes (RhETR1-5), expression of RhETR3 was predominantly induced by dehydration and rehydration in the petals. RhETR3 silencing clearly aggravated the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. However, no significant difference in the effect between RhETR3-silenced flowers and RhETR-genes-silenced flowers was observed. Furthermore, RhETR-genes silencing extensively altered the expression of 21 cell expansion-related downstream genes in response to ethylene. These results suggest that induction of ethylene biosynthesis by dehydration proceeds in an organ-specific manner, indicating that ethylene can function as a mediator in dehydration-caused inhibition of cell expansion in rose petals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diverse plasticity of plant architecture is largely determined by shoot branching. Shoot branching is an event regulated by multiple environmental, developmental and hormonal stimuli through triggering lateral bud response. After perceiving these signals, the lateral buds will respond and make a decision on whether to grow out. TCP transcriptional factors, BRC1/TB1/FC1, were previously proven to be involved in local inhibition of shoot branching in Arabidopsis, pea, tomato, maize and rice. To investigate the function of BRC1, we isolated the BRC1 homolog from chrysanthemum. There were two transcripts of DgBRC1 coming from two alleles in one locus, both of which complemented the multiple branches phenotype of Arabidopsis brc1-1, indicating that both are functionally conserved. DgBRC1 was mainly expressed in dormant axillary buds, and down-regulated at the bud activation stage, and up-regulated by higher planting densities. DgBRC1 transcripts could respond to apical auxin supply and polar auxin transport. Moreover, we found that the acropetal cytokinin stream promoted branch outgrowth whether or not apical auxin was present. Basipetal cytokinin promoted outgrowth of branches in the absence of apical auxin, while strengthening the inhibitory effects on lower buds in the presence of apical auxin. The influence of auxin and strigolactons (SLs) on the production of cytokinin was investigated, we found that auxin locally down-regulated biosynthesis of cytokinin in nodes, SLs also down-regulated the biosynthesis of cytokinin, the interactions among these phytohormones need further investigation.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e61717. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0061717 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Cys2/His2-type zinc finger protein gene, DgZFP, was isolated from chrysanthemum by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach. The DgZFP encodes a protein of 211 amino acids residues with a calculated molecular mass of 22.9 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point is 8.59. DgZFP contains two Cys2/His2-type zinc finger motifs, one nuclear localization domain, one Leu-rich domain, and one ethylene-responsive element-binding factor (ERF)-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) domain. The transcript of DgZFP was enriched in flowers than in roots, stems, and leaves of the adult chrysanthemum plants. The gene expression was strongly induced by NaCl, drought and cold treatment, and weakly by ABA treatment in the seedlings. Subcellular localization revealed that DgZFP was localized preferentially distributed to nucleus. Overexpression of DgZFP improved salt tolerance and resulted in growth suppression in transgenic tobacco. We argued that DgZFP is a new member of the Cys2/His2-type zinc finger protein genes, and it maybe function as a regulator in response to salt stress in plants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We isolated 13 DREB1 (dehydration responsive element binding factor 1) genes from chrysanthemum and further divided them into three groups, DgDREB1A, DgDREB1B and DgDREB1C, based on the phylogenetic analysis. Each group showed their unique expression patterns under cold, dehydration and salt stress conditions. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing DgDREB1A (1A plants) exhibited significantly stronger tolerance to freezing and drought than those overexpressing DgDREB1B (1B plants) and the control plants. In addition, 1A plants showed delayed flowering, but not dwarfism; while 1B plants showed dwarfism, but not delayed flowering. In 1A plants, the expression of three stress-related DREB1-downstream genes, COR47, COR15A, and RD29A, was strongly induced while the expression of CO and FT, two photoperiod responsive flowering-time genes, was inhibited. In 1B plants, the expression of GA2ox7, a GA-deactivation enzyme gene, was dramatically enhanced. The results above strongly suggest that members from different DgDREB1 groups may have distinct effects on plant development: DgDREB1A may be involved in photoperiod-related flowering-time determination and DgDREB1B in GA-mediated plant development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous work has indicated that an ethylene-responsive aquaporin gene, Rh-PIP2;1, played an important role in the epidermal cell expansion of rose petals. In this work, we isolated an 896 bp promoter sequence of the Rh-PIP2;1 and found that the promoter was rare in plants, occurring with an Inr motif, but without a TATA box. In transgenic Arabidopsis harboring the Rh-PIP2;1 promoter::GUS construct, the activity of Rh-PIP2;1 promoter was found to be developmental-dependent in almost all of the tested organs, and was particularly active in organs that were rapidly expanding, and in tissues with high water flux capacity. Moreover, the promoter activity was inhibited by ACC, ABA, NaCl, and cold in the roots of 3 or 6-day-old plants, and was increased by GA(3) and mannitol in the rosettes of 9 or 12-day-old plants. Deleting the fragment from -886 to -828 resulted in nearly complete disappearance of the promoter activity in roots, and a substantial decrease in the leaves, hypocotyls and floral organs. Taken together, our results indicated that the Rh-PIP2;1 promoter responded to hormones and abiotic stresses in a developmental- and spatial-dependent manner, and the -886 to -828 region was crucial for the activity of the Rh-PIP2;1 promoter.