E. Beltranena

Government of Alberta, Agriculture and Rural Development, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

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Publications (47)45.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study tested the ability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to estimate the fatty acid (FA) composition and iodine value (IV) of backfat from carcasses of pigs fed reduced-oil corn dried distillers grains with solubles. NIRS was suitable for screening purposes for the proportions of total saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, n − 3 and n − 6 FAs and some individual FAs such as C16:0, C18:1, C18:2n − 6 and C18:3n − 3 (R2 = 0.80–0.89; RMSECVs, root mean square errors of cross-validation = 0.21–1.37% total FA) in both cold and warm intact backfat samples. This technology also met the requirements for a quick screening for the backfat IV in both cold and warm intact samples (R2 = 0.90 and 0.87; RMSECVs = 1.66 and 1.80% total FA, respectively), which would help provide differential feed-back to pig producers and the feed industry and may provide the opportunity for breeding pigs for a desirable fat quality.
    Meat Science 12/2014; 98(4):585–590. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 400 g field pea/kg replaced 300 g soybean meal/kg in diets for weaned pigs.•Increasing inclusion of field pea did not affect feed intake and growth over 35 days starting 1 week after weaning.•Increasing inclusion of field pea reduced dietary crude protein digestibility.
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 10/2014; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Text: Canola co-products serve as source of dietary AA and energy to pigs. However, fermentation characteristics of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) in the pig intestine are unknown. Thus, we determined in vitro degradation and fermentation characteristics of Brassica juncea CM (JCM) and Brassica napus CM (NCM) in comparison to soybean meal (SBM). Samples were first hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin. Subsequently, residues were incubated in a buffer with fresh pig feces as inocula in a randomized complete block design providing 12 replicates per feedstuff per run for 2 runs. Accumulated gas production was measured for 72 h and modeled to estimate kinetics of gas production. Concentration of VFA per unit weight of feedstuff was measured in fermented solutions. In previous studies, ileal and hindgut GE digestibility values for feedstuffs were obtained (by difference method) from ileal-cannulated barrows (~50 kg BW) fed cornstarch-based diets containing 50% feedstuffs for 5 d. On DM basis, SBM, JCM, and NCM contained 50.6, 44.0, and 38.1% CP; and 8.5, 22.3, and 30.6% NDF, respectively. The in vitro DM digestibility for SBM (82.3%) was greater (P < 0.05) than the in vitro DM digestibility for JCM (68.5%), which was greater (P < 0.05) than that of NCM (63.4%). Ileal GE digestibility was greatest (P < 0.05) for SBM followed by JCM and then NCM. Total gas production for SBM was greater (P < 0.05) than that of JCM, which was greater (P < 0.05) than that for NCM. Total VFA production was lower (P < 0.05) for SBM (0.73 mmol/g DM) than for NCM (1.05 mmol/g DM), which was lower (P < 0.05) than that of JCM (1.37 mmol/g DM). A similar trend was observed for hindgut GE digestibility (as percentage) for feedstuffs; 15, 21.4, and 24.4% for SBM, NCM, and JCM, respectively. In conclusion, in vitro fermentation characteristics of SBM, and canola meals simulated their digestion in the pig hindgut (r2 = 0.979). The NCM or JCM can contribute more energy to the pig via hindgut fermentation than the SBM, whereas JCM can contribute more energy to the pig via hindgut fermentation than the NCM. Keywords: canola meal, in vitro fermentation, pig
    2014 ADSA-ASAS-CSAS Joint Annual Meeting; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Text: Cereal grains vary considerably in price and quality. Barley is usually priced 10-20% lower than wheat in Western Canada. Wheat contains more NE than barley and is preferred during the energy-dependent phase of growth. We investigated if feeding of low quality barley (LB) will reduce growth performance and diet apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in weaned pigs compared to high quality barley (HB) or hard red spring wheat. Diets contained 20% soybean meal and 62% cereal grain varying in NE (Mcal/kg) content (2.33, 2.23 and 2.44 for HB, LB, and wheat, respectively). Grain constituents used to predict the NE value were predicted by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy. Starting 1 wk after weaning at 28 d of age, 280 weaned pigs (initial BW 8.7 ± 0.9 kg) were fed diets for 3 wk (d 1 to 21). Five pelleted diets were formulated as (Mcal NE/kg using canola oil; g standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys/Mcal NE using synthetic AA): A) wheat (2.39, 4.47); B) HB (2.39, 4.46); C) LB (2.33, 4.57); D) LB, corrected for NE (2.39, 4.45); and E) LB, low NE (2.25, 4.68). Feed intake and BW were measured weekly to calculate pen ADFI, ADG, and G:F. Feces were collected to calculate diet ATTD of DM, GE, and CP and diet DE and NE value. Compared with diet A and B, pigs fed diet D had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI (542, 596 vs. 652 g/d), ADG (365, 403 vs. 443 g/d) and G:F (0.646, 0.662 vs. 0.681); while differences were not observed among diets C, D, and E. Pigs fed diet A had ADFI and ADG lower (P < 0.05) than pigs fed other 4 diets. The ATTD of CP, GE, and DM of diet E (77.0, 77.3, 76.9%) was greater (P < 0.05) than of diet B (72.4, 74.3, 74.0%) and C (74.9, 75.3, 74.7%) and similar to diet D (75.9, 76.4, 75.8%), respectively. Pigs fed diet A had ATTD of GE greater (P < 0.05) than pigs fed other 4 diets. The DE value (Mcal/kg) of diet D (3.62) and E (3.55) were greater (P< 0.05) than of diet B (3.46) and lower than of diet A (3.71). In conclusion, feeding LB instead of HB and wheat did not reduce growth performance. Feeding barley instead of wheat is economical and achieved greater growth performance even though diet energy digestibility was lower. Keywords: barley, pig, digestibility
    2014 ADSA-ASAS-CSAS Joint Annual Meeting; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Text: Co-products from crops processed for the food, biofuel, or bio-industry are attractive feed ingredients to manage feed costs per unit of gain in pigs. Compared with crops from which they are derived, alternative feed ingredients may contain more anti-nutritional factors such as phytate, fiber, and indigestible proteins that may limit nutrient digestibility. Together with feed processing technologies and advanced feed quality evaluation techniques, supplemental feed enzymes are important parts of a strategy to mitigate the risks associated with high dietary inclusion of co-products and reduce feed cost per unit of gain. Supplementation of feed enzymes to cereal-based diets has been studied. Recently, feed enzyme technology has been applied to co-products. Among feed enzymes, phytase inclusion has one of the most consistent effects on increased nutrient digestibility, especially for P. For fiber-degrading enzymes (carbohydrases) and proteases, some important considerations are: a) the substrate for the enzyme must be the main limitation for digestibility of the nutrient of interest, b) processing technology may affect the content and functional characteristics of fiber in the co-product, and c) age and thus gut development may affect responses to enzyme supplementation. Generally, carbohydrases increase energy digestibility, but their effects on AA and P digestibility are variable depending on trial conditions. Protease enzymes appear to have less consistent effects on nutrient digestibility in grower pigs. Due to the alterations made in nutrient flow through the intestinal tract, supplemental enzymes may also alter nutrient availability to intestinal microbes, and hence alter microbial populations. Thus apart from opportunities, a major challenge for using carbohydrases and proteases is to obtain effects as consistent as observed for phytase. If solved, application of enzyme technology combined with modern feed processing and feed quality evaluation technologies may then provide the pig with additional energy, AA, and P resulting in cost-effective, predictable growth performance and carcass quality. Keywords: enzyme, feed ingredient, pig
    2014 ADSA-ASAS-CSAS Joint Annual Meeting; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Immature green canola seed (full-fat green canola seed; FFGC) is rejected by canola crushing plants due to chlorophyll staining of oil destined for human consumption. With > 35% oil, FFGC can contribute energy to pig diets. The nutritive value of FFGC for growing-finishing pigs was determined in 2 studies. In Exp. 1, 6 ileal-cannulated barrows (46.5 kg BW) were fed 3 diets as a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square to determine standardized ileal digestible (SID) coefficients of AA, and calculate DE and NE values for FFGC. A diet including 40% FFGC replaced wheat in a basal diet, and a cornstarch-based N-free diet were fed to determine energy and nutrient digestibility by difference and to estimate basal endogenous AA losses to calculate SID of AA. In Exp. 2, 1,100 pigs (32.9 kg BW), housed in 50 pens of 22 barrows or gilts per pen, were fed 5 diets including 0, 5, 10, and 15% constant or declining amounts (15, 10, 5, 0, and 0%, respectively) of FFGC over 5 phases to determine effects of feeding FFGC on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Phase diets were formulated to provide 4.00, 3.60, 3.25, 2.90, and 2.65 g SID Lys/Mcal NE for d 0 to 21, d 22 to 42, d 43 to 62, d 63 to 74, and d 75 to 123 kg market weight. Carcass characteristics were measured using the Destron grading system. On DM basis, FFGC contained 43% ether extract, 25% CP, 22% NDF, 10 μmol/g glucosinolates, 1.35% Lys, 0.5% Met, 0.9% Thr, and 0.27% Trp. In FFGC, SID coefficients of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were 86.9, 87.3, 76.9, and 84.3%, respectively, and calculated DE and NE values were 4.92 and 3.50 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. Overall, increasing dietary FFGC inclusion from 0 to 15% linearly decreased (P < 0.05) G:F, carcass weight, and dressing percentage (0.392 to 0.381 kg/kg, 96.7 to 95.7 kg, and 78.4 to 77.8%, respectively) and tended to decrease (P = 0.078) ADG. Pigs fed decreasing amounts of FFGC by growth phase compared with controls (0% FFGC) had lower (P = 0.011) overall G:F (0.392 vs. 0.372 kg/kg). Increasing dietary FFGC inclusion did not affect carcass backfat thickness and loin depth. The FFGC was a good source of dietary energy and AA. However, increasing dietary FFGC inclusion for pigs reduced G:F and dressing percentage likely because of the increased dietary fiber content, resulting from increasing FFGC and barley and reducing wheat, soybean meal, and tallow in diets. Inclusion of FFGC in swine diets should, thus, be based on targeted G:F and relative cost to other feedstuffs.
    Journal of animal science. 07/2014;
  • J L Yáñez, E Beltranena, R T Zijlstra
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    ABSTRACT: Nutrient digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited by constraints such as particle size and fiber. Wheat DDGS contains more fiber than corn DDGS that may reduce its nutritional value in swine feeds. Dry fractionation may create DDGS fractions with low and high fiber content; thus, wheat DDGS was processed sequentially using a vibratory sifter and gravity table. Sufficient material was obtained from 3 wheat DDGS fractions that differed in particle size from fine to coarse (FA, FC, and FD). Five cornstarch-based diets were mixed that contained either 40% wheat DDGS, 30% FA, 30% FC plus 10% soybean meal (SBM), 30% FD plus 15% SBM, or 35% SBM. A sixth, N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses and as control for energy digestibility calculations. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (29 kg BW) were fed 6 diets at 2.8 × maintenance for DE in six 9-d periods as a 6 × 6 Latin square. Feces and ileal digesta were collected sequentially for 2 d each. Wheat DDGS fractions FA, FC, and FD were 258, 530, and 723 μm in mean particle size and contained 44.8, 39.3, and 33.8% CP, and 29.1, 35.1, and 37.5% in NDF, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS, greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, and did not differ between FC, FD, and wheat DDGS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ between SBM and wheat DDGS (P > 0.05) for most AA. The SID of Arg, Lys, Trp, and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS, but was similar for FA, FC, and wheat DDGS, and was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than SBM. The DE and NE value was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM, FA, and FC than wheat DDGS and did not differ between FD and wheat DDGS. The SID content of indispensable AA and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS. The SID content of Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, and Val was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, but did not differ for indispensable AA between FC and wheat DDGS. The SID content of His, Ile, Leu, Met, and Phe was lower (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS. In conclusion, dry fractionation creates DDGS fractions with a differing chemical composition. Fine particle fractions contain less fiber and more CP than coarse particle fractions, but their AA digestibility was lower, likely due to most of the solubles being fine particles that are more susceptible to AA damage than protein entrapped in particles of larger size.
    Journal of animal science. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Expellers contain more dietary energy than meals to support growth performance of young pigs. The feeding value of extruded Brassica (B.) juncea canola expeller was evaluated feeding 240 weaned pigs (initial body weight 7.6 kg), starting 1 week after weaning at 19 days of age. The extruded B. juncea expeller contained (as is) 344 g crude protein, 15.7 g chemically-available lysine (Lys), 169 g ether extract, 127 g acid detergent fibre, 195 g neutral detergent fibre/kg and 11 μmol/g total glucosinolates. Pigs were fed 5 pelleted wheat-based diets for two growth phases: Phase 1, days 0-14; and Phase 2, days 15-35. Diets including 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 g extruded B. juncea expeller/kg were formulated to provide 10.0 and 9.7 MJ net energy (NE)/kg and 1.17 and 1.06 standardised ileal digestible (SID) Lys/MJ NE for Phase 1 and 2 diets, respectively. The extruded B. juncea expeller substituted soybean meal. Diets were balanced for NE by decreasing canola oil inclusion from 55 to 29 and 26 to 0 g/kg for Phase 1 and 2, respectively; and for amino acids by increasing crystalline amino acids. Increasing dietary inclusion of extruded B. juncea expeller linearly reduced (P < 0.001) apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, gross energy and crude protein and decreased diet digestible energy values in both phases. For day 0-35, increasing inclusion of extruded B. juncea expeller did not affect feed efficiency, but quadratically increased average daily feed intake (ADFI; P < 0.001) and average daily gain (ADG, P < 0.01), which corresponded with a quadratic increase (P < 0.01) in intake of NE and SID Lys. On day 35, pigs fed 60, 120, 180 and 240 g extruded B. juncea expeller/kg were 1.1, 1.5, 1.5 and 1.1 kg heavier (P < 0.05), respectively, than control pigs. Feed energy values may explain the achieved performance. For diet formulation, we used 22.46 MJ NE/kg for canola oil ( NRC, 1998) instead of the more recent 31.63 MJ NE/kg ( NRC, 2012). Using the revised NE value, calculated diet NE values (as fed) decreased from 10.55 to 10.30 in Phase 1 and from 9.92 to 9.71 MJ NE/kg in Phase 2 diets for pigs fed 0 to 240 g extruded B. juncea expeller/kg. In conclusion, reduced diet NE value coincided with increased NE and SID Lys intake that consequently increased ADG. The linear increase of ADFI and ADG may have been curved at 240 g extruded B. juncea expeller/kg by increased dietary glucosinolates intake that prevented further increases in ADFI.
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 06/2014; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of feeding increasing inclusions of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) in diets including a relatively high content (150 g/kg) of co-fermented wheat and corn (70:30) distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on diet nutrient digestibility, growth performance, dressing and carcass traits of pigs was evaluated in a commercial-scale study. In total, 550 barrows and 550 gilts [29.9 ± 0.2 kg body weight] housed in 50 pens (22 barrows or gilts) were fed one of 5 dietary regimens over 5 growth phases (3 grower and 2 finisher). Canola meal (0, 60, 120, 180 or 240 g/kg) replaced barley, soybean meal and field pea in diets formulated to equal net energy (NE; 9.7, 9.7, 9.6, 9.4 and 9.4 MJ/kg) and standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine content (10.9, 9.9, 7.6, 6.7 and 6.2 g/kg). Considering all 5 growth phases, dietary crude protein (CP), crude fibre, acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre increased 13.7, 3.4, 8.2 and 5.8 g/kg, respectively, per each 60 g/kg increase in CM inclusion. Increasing dietary CM inclusion by 60 g/kg decreased (P > 0.05) the apparent total tract digestibility coefficient of gross energy, CP, dry matter, organic matter and ash by 0.01, 0.004, 0.02, 0.01 and 0.04, respectively. For the entire trial (d 0 to 90), increasing dietary CM inclusion by 60 g/kg linearly reduced (P < 0.05) feed intake (ADFI) by 19 g/d and weight gain (ADG) by 7.4 g/d. Increasing dietary CM inclusion resulted in a quadratic response on G:F (ADG/ADFI; P < 0.05). Pigs fed 240 g/kg attained slaughter weight (120 kg) 3 days after pigs fed 60 g/kg CM (linear; P < 0.05). Increasing dietary CM inclusion in diets including 150 g/kg DDGS did not affect carcass weight, dressing, backfat thickness, loin depth, estimated lean yield, or index. In conclusion, increasing dietary CM inclusion from 0 to 240 g/kg in grower-finisher diets including 150 g/kg DDGS had only a minor effect on overall growth performance and did not affect carcass traits of barrows and gilts.
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 03/2014; · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • T A Woyengo, E Beltranena, R T Zijlstra
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    ABSTRACT: Sustained price increases for traditional cereal grain and protein meal feed commodities have forced the pork industry to consider the dietary inclusion of alternative feedstuffs. Crop seed may serve as feedstuffs but their demand as feedstock for human food, bio-fuel, and bio-industrial products has increased. Together with these products, co-products such as distillers dried grains with solubles, wheat millrun, and canola meal are produced. As omnivores, pigs are ideally suited to convert these non-human edible co-products into high quality food animal protein. Thus, co-products and other low cost alternative feedstuffs such as pulses and oilseeds can be included in pig diets to reduce feed cost per metric ton of feed. However, inclusion of alternative feedstuffs in pig diets does not necessarily reduce feed cost per kg of gain. Therefore, the use of novel and existing feedstuffs in pig diets must be optimized following their characterization for energy and AA profile. Alternative feedstuffs generally have a high content of at least 1 of the following anti-nutritional factors (ANF): fiber, tannins, glucosinolates, and heat-labile trypsin inhibitors. Several methods can optimize nutrient use of pigs fed alternative feedstuffs by reducing effects of their ANF. These methods include: 1) particle size reduction to increase nutrient digestibility; 2) dehulling or scarification to reduce tannin and fiber content of pulses and oilseeds; 3) air classification to create fractions that have a greater content of nutrients and lower content of ANF than the feedstock; 4) heat treatments such as extrusion, toasting, roasting, and micronization to reduce heat labile ANF; 5) dietary supplementation with fiber-degrading enzymes, or pre-digestion of fibrous feedstuffs or diets with fiber-degrading enzymes to increase dietary nutrient availability; and 6) formulation of diets based on bioavailable AA coefficients. In conclusion, the feeding of alternative ingredients may reduce feed cost per unit of pork produced provided that their price per unit NE or digestible lysine is less than that of the traditional feedstuffs and that negative effects of their ANF are controlled.
    Journal of Animal Science 02/2014; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Novel Brassica (B.) juncea has a thinner seed coat and therefore lower fibre content than conventional B. napus canola meal (CM) and could potentially be fed at greater dietary inclusions to pigs. In a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, 528 barrows and 528 gilts [33.6 kg body weight] housed in 48 pens (22 barrows or gilts) were fed either B. juncea or B. napus CM at 100, 200 or 300 g/kg of diet with up to 200 g/kg wheat DDGS to slaughter weight (120 kg). Compared with B. napus, B. juncea CM had 32 g/kg greater CP, 12 g/kg lower crude fat, 86 g/kg lower ADF, and 91 g/kg lower NDF content. However, aliphatic glucosinolate content was 2.7 times greater in B. juncea (11.76 μmol/g) than B. napus CM (4.34 μmol/g). For the entire trial (d 0-72), daily weight gain (ADG) was not affected by canola species, but feed disappearance (ADFI) was 45 g/d lower (P = 0.06) and feed efficiency 7 g/g greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed B. juncea than B. napus CM. Carcass traits were not affected by canola species except dressing, which was 1% lower (P < 0.05) for pigs fed B. juncea than B. napus CM. For the entire trial, increasing CM inclusion from 100 to 300 g/kg of diet decreased ADFI (P < 0.001) by 184 g/d, decreased ADG by 32 g/d (P < 0.05), but increased feed efficiency (P < 0.001) by 14 g/g. Dietary CM inclusion level did not affect farm ship live weight to slaughter, carcass backfat thickness, lean yield, or index. Nonetheless, carcass weight was 0.9 kg lower (P < 0.05), dressing was 1% lower (P < 0.001), loin depth was 1.3 mm lower (P < 0.01), and days to slaughter was 2.3 days greater for pigs fed 300 compared with those fed 100 g CM/kg diet. In conclusion, growing-finishing pigs can be fed diets including B. juncea CM the same as conventional B. napus CM without decreasing growth performance or carcass traits. Feeding growing-finishing pigs a diet with 300 vs. 200 or 100 g/kg CM with up to 200 g/kg of wheat DDGS resulted in decreased weight gain and a minor decrease in carcass weight, dressing and loin depth, but increased feed efficiency.
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 01/2014; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Residual oil content that increases the dietary energy value makes expeller-pressed canola meal (EPCM) and cold-pressed canola cake (CPCC) attractive feedstuffs for swine. The energy and amino acid (AA) digestibility of EPCM and CPCC were evaluated feeding six crossbred Hypor barrows (initial weight of 65.7 ± 1.7 kg) surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs were fed twice daily at 2.8 times the estimated maintenance requirement of digestible energy (DE). Diets containing 500 g/kg of either EPCM or CPCC and an N-free diet were tested in a replicated 3×3 Latin square. The oil content of EPCM was half that of CPCC (105 vs. 202 g/kg). Total glucosinolate content of EPCM was double that of CPCC (11.9 vs. 5.6 μmol/g). The apparent total tract digestibility coefficient and apparent ileal digestibility coefficient (CAID) of energy were lower (P<0.05) in EPCM than CPCC. The DE (P<0.05) and calculated net energy (NE) content were lower (P<0.001) in EPCM than CPCC (14.3 vs. 16.5 and 9.0 vs. 11.5 MJ NE/kg as fed, respectively). The CAID of lysine and cysteine was lower (P<0.05) in EPCM than CPCC. The standardized ileal digestibility coefficient (CSID) of alanine, cysteine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine and valine was lower (P<0.05) in EPCM than CPCC. However, the standardized ileal digestible content of all AA was greater (P<0.05) in EPCM than CPCC. In conclusion, lower residual oil and greater content of antinutritional factors (glucosinolates and fibre) in EPCM compared with CPCC were important factors that lowered energy digestibility and DE and NE values in EPCM compared to CPCC and likely lowered CSID of some indispensable AA in EPCM vs. CPCC, including lysine.
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 12/2013; 186(s 3–4):169–176. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA and calculate the NE value for regular-oligosaccharide, micronized full-fat soybean (R-MFFSB), low-oligosaccharide, micronized full-fat soybean (LO-MFFSB), lentil, and enzymatically hydrolyzed casein (EHC) for growing pigs. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (31.4 kg BW) were fed 6 diets in a 6 × 6 Latin square. Five diets were cornstarch-based, containing either soybean meal (SBM), R-MFFSB, LO-MFFSB, or EHC as sole protein source, or N-free. The sixth diet contained lentil as sole protein and energy source. The SID of AA for diets was calculated using the N-free diet. Digestibility of AA in feedstuffs was determined by the direct method. Energy digestibility in SBM, R-MFFSB, and LO-MFFSB was determined by difference from the N-free diet, whereas energy digestibility in lentil was determined by the direct method. On DM basis, SBM, R-MFFSB, LO-MFFSB, and lentil contained 52, 43, 43, and 27% CP; 8, 12, 14, and 16% NDF; and 1.8, 19, 21, and 1.6% ether extract, respectively. The SID of Lys for SBM was greater (P < 0.05) than that for R-MFFSB or LO-MFFSB (76 vs. 79 and 79%). The SID of other indispensable AA (except Trp) for SBM was also greater (P < 0.05) than that for R-MFFSB or LO-MFFSB. The R-MFFSB and LO-MFFSB were similar in SID of AA. The SID of Lys for lentil (81%) was lower (P < 0.05) than that for SBM with a similar trend for SID of other indispensable AA except for Met and Thr whose SID was similar to SBM. The SID of AA for EHC ranged from 98 to 112%. The SBM had a lower (P < 0.05) NE value than R-MFFSB or LO-MFFSB (2.63 vs. 2.95 and 3.00 Mcal/kg DM). Lentil and SBM were similar in NE value (2.60 vs. 2.63 Mcal/kg DM). In conclusion, R-MFFSB and LO-MFFSB were similar in energy and AA value for pigs. Lentil had lower SID of AA than SBM. However, lentil and SBM were similar in NE value; thus, lentil can serve as alternative pulse feedstuff for pigs. The AA in EHC were mostly completely digested indicating that EHC can be fed to estimate ileal endogenous AA losses.
    Journal of Animal Science 10/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • R. T. Zijlstra, E. Beltranena
    Animal Frontiers. 03/2013; 3(2):48-53.
  • J.L. Landero, E. Beltranena, R.T. Zijlstra
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of substituting soybean meal (SBM) with increasing levels of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) derived from modern Brassica juncea were evaluated on diet nutrient digestibility and growth performance of young pigs. In total, 240 weaned pigs with an initial body weight of 7.7 kg, starting 1 week after weaning at 19 days of age were involved. Pigs were fed Phase 1 test diets for 2 weeks (days 0–14) and sequentially Phase 2 test diets for 3 weeks (days 15–35). Five pelleted wheat-based diets containing 0, 60, 120, 180 or 240 g juncea CM/kg were formulated to contain 10.0 and 9.7 MJ net energy (NE)/kg and 1.2 and 1.1 g standardised ileal digestible (SID) lysine/MJ NE, for the Phase 1 and 2 diets, respectively. Juncea CM was added at the expense of SBM and the diets were balanced for NE by increasing canola oil from 56 to 80 and 26 to 50 g/kg for Phase 1 and 2 diets, respectively, and for amino acids by increasing crystalline amino acids. Increasing inclusion of juncea CM linearly reduced (P<0.001) the apparent total tract digestibility of gross energy, dry matter, and crude protein for both feeding phases. Increasing inclusion of juncea CM also decreased diet digestible energy values in Phase 1 (P<0.001) and Phase 2 (P<0.05). For the entire trial (days 0–35), increasing inclusion of juncea CM linearly reduced (P<0.01) body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency (gain:feed). At the end of the experiment, pigs fed 60, 120, 180 and 240 g juncea CM/kg were 0.9, 1.1, 1.3 and 1.9 kg lighter than pigs not fed juncea CM. In conclusion, substitution of SBM with increasing inclusion of juncea CM in nursery diets formulated to equal NE and SID amino acid content linearly reduced diet nutrient digestibility and growth performance of weaned pigs in a dose–response manner. These reductions were likely due to a sensitivity of young pigs to the glucosinolate gluconapin that is the most abundant in juncea CM or high dietary crude fat content due to oil addition.
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 03/2013; 180(s 1–4):64–72. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary inclusion of co-products (Co-P) provides opportunities for diversifying the feedstuff matrix by using local feedstuffs, reducing feed costs, and producing value-added pork. In 2 studies, we determined effects of Co-P (canola meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, and co-extruded oil seed and field pea) inclusion level and reduced dietary CP-concentration on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and jowl fatty acid profiles of growing-finishing pigs. Pigs were fed iso-energetic and iso-lysinic diets over 4 growth phases with 8 pen observations per dietary regimen. At slaughter, carcasses were characterized for all pigs and jowl fat was collected from 2 pigs per pen. In Exp. 1, 1,056 pigs (initial BW, 35.3 ± 0.4 kg) were fed 3 levels of dietary Co-P (low, mid, and high) and 2 CP-concentrations (low and normal). Overall (d 0 to 86), increasing Co-P inclusion from low to mid or high decreased (P < 0.001) ADFI and ADG of pigs. Low CP-concentration increased (P < 0.05) ADFI and ADG compared with normal CP-concentration. An interaction (P = 0.026) occurred between dietary Co-P inclusion and CP-concentration for G:F; low CP reduced (P < 0.05) G:F compared with normal CP for pig fed low Co-P, but G:F did not differ between CP-concentrations for pigs fed mid and high Co-P. Increasing dietary Co-P inclusion from low to high increased (P < 0.001) α-linolenic acid (ALA) in jowl fat, but decreased (P < 0.001) carcass weight and loin depth. In Exp. 2, 1,008 pigs (initial BW, 30.3 ± 0.4 kg) were assigned to 5 dietary regimens with Co-P increasing from 2.0 to 50.0% or a sixth regimen with 10% extra supplemental AA for the 37.5% Co-P diet. Overall (d 0 to 97), increasing Co-P inclusion did not affect ADFI, ADG, and G:F. Increasing dietary Co-P inclusion linearly decreased (P < 0.01) carcass weight, dressing percentage, backfat thickness, and loin depth, but linearly increased (P < 0.001) jowl ALA. Supplementing 10% extra AA to the 37.5% Co-P diet did not affect growth performance or dressing percentage, but increased (P = 0.014) carcass leanness and decreased (P = 0.023) backfat thickness compared with the 37.5% Co-P diet, indicating that dietary AA supply did not limit BW gain. In conclusion, Co-P can be included by up to 50% in diets for growing-finishing pigs without affecting G:F. However, increasing dietary Co-P may reduce ADG, ADFI, and carcass weight even if diets are balanced for dietary NE and SID AA content.
    Journal of Animal Science 03/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dietary energy value of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) is limited by its relative high fibre content. The fibre-rich hull of canola is denser than the oil-free cotyledons, so these seed components partially fractionate in a stream of air. Air classification thus separates CM into a low-fibre, light-particle fraction and a high-fibre, heavy-particle fraction of interest for feeding monogastric and ruminant species, respectively. Crude fibre (CF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in light-particle fraction were reduced by 96, 34 and 28% compared with CM (83 CF, 165 ADF, 238 NDF g/kg, as-is). Brassica (B) napus, Brassica juncea, or their fractions were evaluated feeding 288 weaned pigs (7.1 kg) for 37 d as a 2 × 3 factorial with 12 replicate pens per treatment. Wheat-based diets including 200 g of test feedstuff/kg provided 10.5 and 10.0 MJ net energy (NE)/kg and 1.27 and 1.15 g standardised ileal digestible lysine/MJ NE and were fed for 9 and 28 d, respectively. Pen feed added, orts, and individual pig body weight were measured weekly to calculate average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed efficiency (G:F). Pen faecal samples were collected on d 16 and 17 to calculate diet apparent total tract digestibility coefficients (CATTD) of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), crude protein (CP) and digestible energy (DE) value. Pigs fed B. juncea had 3 and 2% higher (P<0.001) CATTD of DM (0.82 vs. 0.79) and GE (0.84 vs. 0.82) than pigs fed B. napus. Feeding the light-particle fraction increased (P<0.001) CATTD of DM (0.82 vs. 0.79), GE (0.84 vs. 0.82), and CP (0.79 vs. 0.77) by 4, 3 and 3% compared with CM, respectively. For the entire trial, pigs fed B. juncea consumed 33 g/d less (P<0.001) feed (723 vs. 756 g/d), had 0.02 higher (P<0.05) G:F (0.735 vs. 0.718 g:g), but ADG (503 vs. 514 g/d) was not different (P>0.05) compared to pigs fed B. napus. Feeding pigs the light-particle fractions did not affect (P>0.05) ADFI (741 vs. 736 g/d), increased (P<0.05) G:F 0.02 (0.739 vs. 0.721 g:g) and tended to increase (P=0.07) ADG (519 vs. 501 g/d) by 18 g/d compared to CM. In conclusion, air classification of canola meal increased diet nutrient digestibility, but only modestly increased G:F of weaned pigs due to dietary fibre reduction.
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 01/2013; 179(s 1–4):112–120. · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • J.L. Landero, E. Beltranena, R.T. Zijlstra
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of substitution of soybean meal with increasing levels of green lentil (Lens culinaris) were evaluated in 240 starter pigs from 9 to 20 kg. Five pelleted wheat-based diets containing 0, 75, 150, 225, or 300 g lentil/kg were formulated to contain 9.76 MJ net energy (NE)/kg and 1.20 g standardised ileal digestible lysine (Lys)/MJ NE and were fed for 3 weeks starting 2 weeks after weaning at 19 days of age. Lentil was added by replacing soybean meal and wheat and the diets were balanced for NE using canola oil and for amino acids using crystalline Lys, threonine, methionine and tryptophan. Increasing dietary inclusion of lentil linearly decreased (P<0.001) the diet apparent total tract digestibility coefficient for crude protein from 0.821 to 0.798 and digestible energy value from 14.4 to 14.0 MJ/kg. For the entire trial (day 0–21), increasing dietary inclusion of lentil linearly decreased (P<0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and quadratically reduced (P<0.01) feed efficiency (G:F). Specifically, pigs fed 75–225 g lentil/kg had a similar ADG and G:F than pigs fed 0 g lentil/kg, whilst the inclusion of 300 g lentil/kg reduced (P<0.01) both ADG and G:F by 10%. Differences in feed intake were not observed (P>0.05). In conclusion, inclusion of green lentil should not exceed 225 g/kg in diets for nursery pigs to maintain similar performance as pigs fed a diet with soybean meal as the main supplemental protein feedstuff.
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 06/2012; 174(s 1–2):108–112. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Yellow-seeded Brassica juncea is a novel canola species targeted to grow in the southern Canadian prairies where thermotolerance, disease resistance, and adaptation to dry agronomic conditions are required. The support of its cultivation needs nutritional evaluation of its coproduct. The B. juncea canola meal (CM) contains less fiber than conventional, dark-seeded Brassica napus CM but also slightly less Lys. In a 6 × 6 Latin square, 6 distal ileum cannulated pigs (47 kg BW) were fed 6 diets to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, AID and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, and VFA content in digesta and feces. Pigs were fed 6 diets: basal [46% wheat (Triticum aestivum) and corn (Zea mays) starch], 4 diets with 46% wheat and either B. juncea or B. napus CM at 25 or 50%, and a N-free diet based on corn starch. The B. juncea CM had higher (P < 0.05) ATTD of energy than B. napus CM (68.6 vs. 60.3%) likely due to its lower fiber content. Ileal total VFA was lower (P < 0.001) in pigs fed B. juncea than B. napus CM diets. In pigs fed B. juncea CM, the molar ratio in digesta was lower (P < 0.001) for acetate and butyrate whereas the propionate ratio was lower (P < 0.001) in feces than in pigs fed B. napus CM diets. The CM species did not affect the AID of energy, SID of AA, and feces VFA content. The DE value was higher (P < 0.05) and content of SID Lys was lower (P < 0.05) for B. juncea than B. napus CM. In conclusion, availability of B. juncea CM, a coproduct of a canola species grown in Canadian prairie land, will increase flexibility in swine feed formulation.
    Journal of Animal Science 01/2012; 90(Supplement 4):218-220. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of feeding increasing levels of solvent-extracted canola meal in substitution for soybean meal as an energy and amino acid source were evaluated in 220 weaned pigs with an initial body weight of 8.1±1.8kg. Five pelleted wheat-based diets containing 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200gcanolameal/kg were formulated to contain 9.74MJnetenergy(NE)/kg and 1.21gstandardisedilealdigestible(SID)lysine/MJ NE and were fed for 4wk starting 1wk after weaning at 19 days of age. Canola meal was added at the expense of soybean meal and the diets were balanced for NE using canola oil and for amino acids using crystalline lysine, threonine and tryptophan. Increasing inclusion of canola meal reduced linearly (P
    Fuel and Energy Abstracts 11/2011; 170(1):136-140.