[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study attempted to empirically narrow down the net energy (NE) value of reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains and solubles (RO-cDDGS) by evaluating the response in pig growth performance, live backfat and loin depth, carcass traits, and primal pork cuts tissue composition to feeding diets formulated increasing the assumed NE value of RO-cDDGS, expecting a brisk change in slope of the response at the point at which the NE value of RO-cDDGS would be identified. In total, 1,056 cross-bred pigs (31.7 kg) housed in 48 pens by gender were fed dietary regimens including 30% RO-cDDGS (6.7% ether extract) with assumed NE values of 1.7, 1.85, 2.0, 2.15, 2.3, or 2.45 Mcal kg-1 over five growth periods (Grower 1: day 0-21, Grower 2: day 22-42, Grower 3: day 43-63, Finisher 1: day 64-76, Finisher 2: day 77-market weight). Pig body weights (BW) were measured and feed disappearance (ADFI) was calculated by pen on d 0, 21, 42, 63, 76 and weekly thereafter until target slaughter weight (120 kg). For the entire trial (day 0–76), increasing the assumed NE value of RO-cDDGS linearly increased (P<0.01) ADFI and total lysine intake, did not affect NE intake and daily weight gain (ADG), quadratically decreased (P<0.05) feed efficiency, linearly decreased (P<0.05) live backfat depth and backfat:loin depth ratio, and did not affect carcass characteristics or pork primal cuts tissue composition. Segmented regression only identified a change in slope for carcass ADG and lean ADG at 1.85 Mcal kg-1. These results indicate that the experimental approach taken was not reliable in narrowing down the NE value of RO-cDDGS because the decrease in dietary NE was too small (0.03 Mcal kg-1 d), which limited the spread in dietary Lys:NE ratio with increasing assumed NE value of RO-cDDGS. The approach resulted in progressive, but small changes in slope rather than a clearly identifiable point where one could conclude that the incremental dietary energy contribution from RO-cDDGS changed the response in a given variable.
Canadian Journal of Animal Science 03/2015; 95(2):150310113016002. DOI:10.4141/CJAS-2014-106 · 0.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a farrow-to-finish operation, more than 80% of feed is consumed by growing-finishing pigs. It was eye-opening to see how hogs responded fed decreased net energy levels. Firstly, we realized hogs can indeed be fed lower energy diets than equivalent corn-SBM, so no need to be as high as US in feed energy. It also means that we can feed lower cost diets without supplemental dietary fat. Pigs increased feed intake instead of reducing gain. Carcass backfat, loin depth, lean yield, index, and carcass lean gain were not affected by NE regimen. Although reducing NE decreased feed efficiency, it improved caloric and lysinic efficiency for lean gain. Secondly, we can achieve lower feed energy by incorporating lower cost cereal grains like oats, and food- and bio-industrial co-products like canola meal, DDGS, or wheat millrun highlighting the ability of the omnivorous pig to convert co-products into human food protein. However, by including these, there is a penalty on dressing % that requires increasing live ship weight by 1-2 kg to sustain target carcass weight. This heavier ship weight may extend barn utilization by some days, but lower feed cost per hog likely makes up for it. Lastly, feeding small cereal Prairie grains results in whiter and firmer pork fat than feeding corn grain and corn DDGS giving Prairie producers a consumer pork preference advantage in export markets.
These two experiments were not conducted in summer time when feeding denser, low energy diets may mitigate drops in feed intake in part related to heat increment of feeding. We also did not evaluate the effect of health status, stocking density or feeder space availability. Feeding fibrous diets to hogs likely increases manure production. Feed commodity and pork prices vary and profitability shown may not be consistently repeatable. The reader is thus cautioned to consider health, housing, environmental and economic factors to guide decisions regarding feeding lower feed energy levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Energy and nutrient digestibility of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) is limited in pigs by its relatively high fiber content. The seed hull, which greatly contributes to the fiber content of CM, is denser than the oil-free cotyledon. By utilizing streams of air, air classification partially separates these seed components on the basis of their different sizes and densities to produce a low-fiber, light-particle fraction and a high-fiber, heavy-particle fraction. Compared with parent CM, ADF and NDF were reduced by 31.9% and 29.5% in the light-particle fraction and were enriched by 16.5% and 9.0% in the heavy-particle fraction (DM basis), respectively. Particle size was 638, 18.9, and 76.1 µm for the parent CM and light- and heavy-particle fractions, respectively. To determine the nutrient digestibility of CM and their air-classified fractions, Brassica napus and B. juncea CM and their 2 air-classified fractions were evaluated in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement together with a basal diet and an N-free diet. The experiment was conducted as an 8 × 8 Latin square in which diets contained 40% B. napus or B. juncea CM or their air-classified fractions and 60% basal diet. Digesta data from pigs fed the N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses. Eight ileal-cannulated barrows (32 kg initial BW) were fed the 8 diets at 2.7 times maintenance DE for eight 11-d periods. At the end of each period, feces were collected for 48 h, and ileal digesta were collected for two 12-h periods. The DE and calculated NE values and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE were 6.3%, 10.0%, and 7.8% greater (P < 0.001) for B. juncea CM than for B. napus CM; 6.1%, 10.8%, and 5.3% greater (P < 0.001) for the light-particle fraction than for parent CM; and 5.4%, 7.2%, and 3.8% lower (P < 0.001) for the heavy-particle fraction than for parent CM, respectively. The standardized ileal digestibilities (SID) of His, Ile, Val, Asp, and Tyr were greater (P < 0.05) for B. juncea CM than for B. napus CM. The SID of CP and AA were greater (P < 0.01) in the light-particle fraction than in the heavy-particle fraction. The SID of Trp, Glu, Pro, and Tyr were greater (P < 0.05) in the light-particle fraction than in parent CM. In conclusion, B. juncea CM had greater energy and AA digestibility than B. napus CM because of reduced fiber content. Air classification of CM increased its energy and AA digestibility in the light-particle fraction for pigs because of the reduced dietary fiber content and decreased particle size.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel Brassica (B.) juncea has a thinner seed coat and therefore lower fibre content than conventional B. napus canola meal (CM) and could potentially be fed at greater dietary inclusions to pigs. In a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, 528 barrows and 528 gilts [33.6 kg body weight] housed in 48 pens (22 barrows or gilts) were fed either B. juncea or B. napus CM at 100, 200 or 300 g/kg of diet with up to 200 g/kg wheat DDGS to slaughter weight (120 kg). Compared with B. napus, B. juncea CM had 32 g/kg greater CP, 12 g/kg lower crude fat, 86 g/kg lower ADF, and 91 g/kg lower NDF content. However, aliphatic glucosinolate content was 2.7 times greater in B. juncea (11.76 μmol/g) than B. napus CM (4.34 μmol/g). For the entire trial (d 0-72), daily weight gain (ADG) was not affected by canola species, but feed disappearance (ADFI) was 45 g/d lower (P = 0.06) and feed efficiency 7 g/g greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed B. juncea than B. napus CM. Carcass traits were not affected by canola species except dressing, which was 1% lower (P < 0.05) for pigs fed B. juncea than B. napus CM. For the entire trial, increasing CM inclusion from 100 to 300 g/kg of diet decreased ADFI (P < 0.001) by 184 g/d, decreased ADG by 32 g/d (P < 0.05), but increased feed efficiency (P < 0.001) by 14 g/g. Dietary CM inclusion level did not affect farm ship live weight to slaughter, carcass backfat thickness, lean yield, or index. Nonetheless, carcass weight was 0.9 kg lower (P < 0.05), dressing was 1% lower (P < 0.001), loin depth was 1.3 mm lower (P < 0.01), and days to slaughter was 2.3 days greater for pigs fed 300 compared with those fed 100 g CM/kg diet. In conclusion, growing-finishing pigs can be fed diets including B. juncea CM the same as conventional B. napus CM without decreasing growth performance or carcass traits. Feeding growing-finishing pigs a diet with 300 vs. 200 or 100 g/kg CM with up to 200 g/kg of wheat DDGS resulted in decreased weight gain and a minor decrease in carcass weight, dressing and loin depth, but increased feed efficiency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study tested the ability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to estimate the fatty acid (FA) composition and iodine value (IV) of backfat from carcasses of pigs fed reduced-oil corn dried distillers grains with solubles. NIRS was suitable for screening purposes for the proportions of total saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, n − 3 and n − 6 FAs and some individual FAs such as C16:0, C18:1, C18:2n − 6 and C18:3n − 3 (R2 = 0.80–0.89; RMSECVs, root mean square errors of cross-validation = 0.21–1.37% total FA) in both cold and warm intact backfat samples. This technology also met the requirements for a quick screening for the backfat IV in both cold and warm intact samples (R2 = 0.90 and 0.87; RMSECVs = 1.66 and 1.80% total FA, respectively), which would help provide differential feed-back to pig producers and the feed industry and may provide the opportunity for breeding pigs for a desirable fat quality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 400 g field pea/kg replaced 300 g soybean meal/kg in diets for weaned pigs.•Increasing inclusion of field pea did not affect feed intake and growth over 35 days starting 1 week after weaning.•Increasing inclusion of field pea reduced dietary crude protein digestibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Fractionation processing is an efficient technology which is capable to redesign/redevelop a new food or feed product with a specified chemical and nutrient profile. This processing technique is able to produce four different fractions (called “A”, “B”, “C”, “D” fractions/treatments) with different nutrient profile form a co-product from bioethanol processing [wheat dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS)]. To date, there is no study on the effect of fractionation processing on inherent molecular structure of different fractions and how the processing-induced structural change affect the metabolic characteristics of protein and nutrient availability.
Objective and Methods
The objectives of this experiment were to: (1) investigate the effect of fractionation processing on changes of protein functional groups (amide I, amide II, and their ratio) and molecular structure (modeled α-helix, β-sheet, and their ratio), and (2) study the relationship between the fractionation processing-induced changes of protein molecular structure and nutrients availability as well as the metabolic characteristics of protein. The hypothesis of this study was that the fractionation processing changes the molecular structure and such changes affect the metabolic characteristics of protein. The protein molecular structure spectral profile of the fractions A, B, C and D were identified by Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy).
Results and Conclusions
The results showed that the fractionation processing significantly affected the protein molecular spectral profiles. The differences in amide I to amide II peak area and height ratios were strongly significant (P <0.01) among the treatment fractions, ranging from 4.98 to 6.33 and 3.28 to 4.00, respectively. The difference in the modeled protein α-helix and β-sheet ratio was also strongly significant (P < 0.01) among the treatment fractions. Multivariate molecular spectral analysis with cluster (CLA) and principal component analyses (PCA) showed that there are no clear distinguished clusters and ellipses among the fractions (A, B, C and D) in the protein amide I and II region ca. 1726-1485cm-1. The correlation study showed that the modeled α-helix to β-sheet ratio tended to have a negative correlation with truly absorbed rumen undegraded protein (ARUPDVE: r= -0.944, P =0.056<0.10) and total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine (DVE: r= -0.946, P =0.054<0.10), but there was no correlation between the α-helix to β-sheet ratio and the degraded protein balance (DPBOEB: P =0.267<0.10). In conclusion, the fractionation processing changed the molecular structural spectral profiles in terms of amide I to II ratio and α-helix to β-sheet ratio. These changes negatively affected the metabolic characteristics of protein and true protein supply. These results indicate that spectral features of different fractions could be used as a potential tool to predict true protein nutritive value.
Joint ISNH/ISRP International Conference 2014: Harnessing the Ecology and Physiology of Herbivores, National Convention Centre, Canberra, Australia; 09/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Text:
Canola co-products serve as source of dietary AA and energy to pigs. However, fermentation characteristics of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) in the pig intestine are unknown. Thus, we determined in vitro degradation and fermentation characteristics of Brassica juncea CM (JCM) and Brassica napus CM (NCM) in comparison to soybean meal (SBM). Samples were first hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin. Subsequently, residues were incubated in a buffer with fresh pig feces as inocula in a randomized complete block design providing 12 replicates per feedstuff per run for 2 runs. Accumulated gas production was measured for 72 h and modeled to estimate kinetics of gas production. Concentration of VFA per unit weight of feedstuff was measured in fermented solutions. In previous studies, ileal and hindgut GE digestibility values for feedstuffs were obtained (by difference method) from ileal-cannulated barrows (~50 kg BW) fed cornstarch-based diets containing 50% feedstuffs for 5 d. On DM basis, SBM, JCM, and NCM contained 50.6, 44.0, and 38.1% CP; and 8.5, 22.3, and 30.6% NDF, respectively. The in vitro DM digestibility for SBM (82.3%) was greater (P < 0.05) than the in vitro DM digestibility for JCM (68.5%), which was greater (P < 0.05) than that of NCM (63.4%). Ileal GE digestibility was greatest (P < 0.05) for SBM followed by JCM and then NCM. Total gas production for SBM was greater (P < 0.05) than that of JCM, which was greater (P < 0.05) than that for NCM. Total VFA production was lower (P < 0.05) for SBM (0.73 mmol/g DM) than for NCM (1.05 mmol/g DM), which was lower (P < 0.05) than that of JCM (1.37 mmol/g DM). A similar trend was observed for hindgut GE digestibility (as percentage) for feedstuffs; 15, 21.4, and 24.4% for SBM, NCM, and JCM, respectively. In conclusion, in vitro fermentation characteristics of SBM, and canola meals simulated their digestion in the pig hindgut (r2 = 0.979). The NCM or JCM can contribute more energy to the pig via hindgut fermentation than the SBM, whereas JCM can contribute more energy to the pig via hindgut fermentation than the NCM.
canola meal, in vitro fermentation, pig
Journal of Animal Science 07/2014; 92(E-Suppl.2):233-234. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Text: Cereal grains vary considerably in price and quality. Barley is usually priced 10-20% lower than wheat in Western Canada. Wheat contains more NE than barley and is preferred during the energy-dependent phase of growth. We investigated if feeding of low quality barley (LB) will reduce growth performance and diet apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in weaned pigs compared to high quality barley (HB) or hard red spring wheat. Diets contained 20% soybean meal and 62% cereal grain varying in NE (Mcal/kg) content (2.33, 2.23 and 2.44 for HB, LB, and wheat, respectively). Grain constituents used to predict the NE value were predicted by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy. Starting 1 wk after weaning at 28 d of age, 280 weaned pigs (initial BW 8.7 ± 0.9 kg) were fed diets for 3 wk (d 1 to 21). Five pelleted diets were formulated as (Mcal NE/kg using canola oil; g standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys/Mcal NE using synthetic AA): A) wheat (2.39, 4.47); B) HB (2.39, 4.46); C) LB (2.33, 4.57); D) LB, corrected for NE (2.39, 4.45); and E) LB, low NE (2.25, 4.68). Feed intake and BW were measured weekly to calculate pen ADFI, ADG, and G:F. Feces were collected to calculate diet ATTD of DM, GE, and CP and diet DE and NE value. Compared with diet A and B, pigs fed diet D had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI (542, 596 vs. 652 g/d), ADG (365, 403 vs. 443 g/d) and G:F (0.646, 0.662 vs. 0.681); while differences were not observed among diets C, D, and E. Pigs fed diet A had ADFI and ADG lower (P < 0.05) than pigs fed other 4 diets. The ATTD of CP, GE, and DM of diet E (77.0, 77.3, 76.9%) was greater (P < 0.05) than of diet B (72.4, 74.3, 74.0%) and C (74.9, 75.3, 74.7%) and similar to diet D (75.9, 76.4, 75.8%), respectively. Pigs fed diet A had ATTD of GE greater (P < 0.05) than pigs fed other 4 diets. The DE value (Mcal/kg) of diet D (3.62) and E (3.55) were greater (P< 0.05) than of diet B (3.46) and lower than of diet A (3.71). In conclusion, feeding LB instead of HB and wheat did not reduce growth performance. Feeding barley instead of wheat is economical and achieved greater growth performance even though diet energy digestibility was lower.
Keywords: barley, pig, digestibility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Text:
Co-products from crops processed for the food, biofuel, or bio-industry are attractive feed ingredients to manage feed costs per unit of gain in pigs. Compared with crops from which they are derived, alternative feed ingredients may contain more anti-nutritional factors such as phytate, fiber, and indigestible proteins that may limit nutrient digestibility. Together with feed processing technologies and advanced feed quality evaluation techniques, supplemental feed enzymes are important parts of a strategy to mitigate the risks associated with high dietary inclusion of co-products and reduce feed cost per unit of gain. Supplementation of feed enzymes to cereal-based diets has been studied. Recently, feed enzyme technology has been applied to co-products. Among feed enzymes, phytase inclusion has one of the most consistent effects on increased nutrient digestibility, especially for P. For fiber-degrading enzymes (carbohydrases) and proteases, some important considerations are: a) the substrate for the enzyme must be the main limitation for digestibility of the nutrient of interest, b) processing technology may affect the content and functional characteristics of fiber in the co-product, and c) age and thus gut development may affect responses to enzyme supplementation. Generally, carbohydrases increase energy digestibility, but their effects on AA and P digestibility are variable depending on trial conditions. Protease enzymes appear to have less consistent effects on nutrient digestibility in grower pigs. Due to the alterations made in nutrient flow through the intestinal tract, supplemental enzymes may also alter nutrient availability to intestinal microbes, and hence alter microbial populations. Thus apart from opportunities, a major challenge for using carbohydrases and proteases is to obtain effects as consistent as observed for phytase. If solved, application of enzyme technology combined with modern feed processing and feed quality evaluation technologies may then provide the pig with additional energy, AA, and P resulting in cost-effective, predictable growth performance and carcass quality.
enzyme, feed ingredient, pig
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immature green canola seed (full-fat green canola seed; FFGC) is rejected by canola crushing plants due to chlorophyll staining of oil destined for human consumption. With > 35% oil, FFGC can contribute energy to pig diets. The nutritive value of FFGC for growing-finishing pigs was determined in 2 studies. In Exp. 1, 6 ileal-cannulated barrows (46.5 kg BW) were fed 3 diets as a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square to determine standardized ileal digestible (SID) coefficients of AA, and calculate DE and NE values for FFGC. A diet including 40% FFGC replaced wheat in a basal diet, and a cornstarch-based N-free diet were fed to determine energy and nutrient digestibility by difference and to estimate basal endogenous AA losses to calculate SID of AA. In Exp. 2, 1,100 pigs (32.9 kg BW), housed in 50 pens of 22 barrows or gilts per pen, were fed 5 diets including 0, 5, 10, and 15% constant or declining amounts (15, 10, 5, 0, and 0%, respectively) of FFGC over 5 phases to determine effects of feeding FFGC on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Phase diets were formulated to provide 4.00, 3.60, 3.25, 2.90, and 2.65 g SID Lys/Mcal NE for d 0 to 21, d 22 to 42, d 43 to 62, d 63 to 74, and d 75 to 123 kg market weight. Carcass characteristics were measured using the Destron grading system. On DM basis, FFGC contained 43% ether extract, 25% CP, 22% NDF, 10 μmol/g glucosinolates, 1.35% Lys, 0.5% Met, 0.9% Thr, and 0.27% Trp. In FFGC, SID coefficients of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were 86.9, 87.3, 76.9, and 84.3%, respectively, and calculated DE and NE values were 4.92 and 3.50 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. Overall, increasing dietary FFGC inclusion from 0 to 15% linearly decreased (P < 0.05) G:F, carcass weight, and dressing percentage (0.392 to 0.381 kg/kg, 96.7 to 95.7 kg, and 78.4 to 77.8%, respectively) and tended to decrease (P = 0.078) ADG. Pigs fed decreasing amounts of FFGC by growth phase compared with controls (0% FFGC) had lower (P = 0.011) overall G:F (0.392 vs. 0.372 kg/kg). Increasing dietary FFGC inclusion did not affect carcass backfat thickness and loin depth. The FFGC was a good source of dietary energy and AA. However, increasing dietary FFGC inclusion for pigs reduced G:F and dressing percentage likely because of the increased dietary fiber content, resulting from increasing FFGC and barley and reducing wheat, soybean meal, and tallow in diets. Inclusion of FFGC in swine diets should, thus, be based on targeted G:F and relative cost to other feedstuffs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nutrient digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited by constraints such as particle size and fiber. Wheat DDGS contains more fiber than corn DDGS that may reduce its nutritional value in swine feeds. Dry fractionation may create DDGS fractions with low and high fiber content; thus, wheat DDGS was processed sequentially using a vibratory sifter and gravity table. Sufficient material was obtained from 3 wheat DDGS fractions that differed in particle size from fine to coarse (FA, FC, and FD). Five cornstarch-based diets were mixed that contained either 40% wheat DDGS, 30% FA, 30% FC plus 10% soybean meal (SBM), 30% FD plus 15% SBM, or 35% SBM. A sixth, N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses and as control for energy digestibility calculations. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (29 kg BW) were fed 6 diets at 2.8 × maintenance for DE in six 9-d periods as a 6 × 6 Latin square. Feces and ileal digesta were collected sequentially for 2 d each. Wheat DDGS fractions FA, FC, and FD were 258, 530, and 723 μm in mean particle size and contained 44.8, 39.3, and 33.8% CP, and 29.1, 35.1, and 37.5% in NDF, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS, greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, and did not differ between FC, FD, and wheat DDGS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ between SBM and wheat DDGS (P > 0.05) for most AA. The SID of Arg, Lys, Trp, and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS, but was similar for FA, FC, and wheat DDGS, and was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than SBM. The DE and NE value was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM, FA, and FC than wheat DDGS and did not differ between FD and wheat DDGS. The SID content of indispensable AA and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS. The SID content of Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, and Val was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, but did not differ for indispensable AA between FC and wheat DDGS. The SID content of His, Ile, Leu, Met, and Phe was lower (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS. In conclusion, dry fractionation creates DDGS fractions with a differing chemical composition. Fine particle fractions contain less fiber and more CP than coarse particle fractions, but their AA digestibility was lower, likely due to most of the solubles being fine particles that are more susceptible to AA damage than protein entrapped in particles of larger size.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The energy value of canola meal is considered low because of its relatively higher fibre and depleted oil content. Brassica juncea is a novel canola species with thinner seed coat and reduced fibre, but twice the glucosinolate content of B. napus. Remaining oil in canola cake provides greater dietary energy compared with solvent-extracted meal. Extrusion prior to expeller pressing may increase fat and protein digestibility and decrease the antinutritive effects of glucosinolates. A total of 880 pigs (38 kg), housed in 40 pens by sex, were fed 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% extruded B. juncea expeller-pressed cake (EPC) to slaughter weight (120 kg) to evaluate the effects on growth performance, dressing, carcass traits, and jowl fatty acids. Diets provided 9.6 MJ net energy (NE) and 1.0, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, and 0.7 g standardized ileal digestible Lys:MJ NE over five growth phases (days 0-14, 15-35, 36-56, 57-74, day 75 to slaughter weight). Each 5% EPC inclusion linearly decreased (P < 0.05) feed disappearance (ADFI) by 46 g and weight gain (ADG) by 8 g, but did not affect gain:feed. Each 5% EPC inclusion linearly decreased (P < 0.01) carcass weight by 440 g, loin depth by 0.6 mm, and increased days on test by 0.43, but did not affect dressing, backfat thickness, lean yield, or carcass index. Each 5% EPC inclusion linearly increased (P < 0.001) mono-and polyunsaturated fatty acid content and iodine value by 0.8, 1.0 and 1.4 g 100 g(-1) of jowl fat, respectively. In conclusion, increasing dietary EPC inclusions decreased ADFI, ADG, carcass weight, and loin depth, and increased jowl fat unsaturation. We attributed much of the decrease in feed intake to greater 3-butenyl (9.7 mu mol g(-1)) content in extruded B. juncea canola expeller-pressed cake, a glucosinolate more bitter than others in conventional canola.
Canadian Journal of Animal Science 06/2014; 94(2):331-342. DOI:10.4141/cjas2013-198 · 0.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expellers contain more dietary energy than meals to support growth performance of young pigs. The feeding value of extruded Brassica (B.) juncea canola expeller was evaluated feeding 240 weaned pigs (initial body weight 7.6 kg), starting 1 week after weaning at 19 days of age. The extruded B. juncea expeller contained (as is) 344 g crude protein, 15.7 g chemically-available lysine (Lys), 169 g ether extract, 127 g acid detergent fibre, 195 g neutral detergent fibre/kg and 11 μmol/g total glucosinolates. Pigs were fed 5 pelleted wheat-based diets for two growth phases: Phase 1, days 0-14; and Phase 2, days 15-35. Diets including 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 g extruded B. juncea expeller/kg were formulated to provide 10.0 and 9.7 MJ net energy (NE)/kg and 1.17 and 1.06 standardised ileal digestible (SID) Lys/MJ NE for Phase 1 and 2 diets, respectively. The extruded B. juncea expeller substituted soybean meal. Diets were balanced for NE by decreasing canola oil inclusion from 55 to 29 and 26 to 0 g/kg for Phase 1 and 2, respectively; and for amino acids by increasing crystalline amino acids. Increasing dietary inclusion of extruded B. juncea expeller linearly reduced (P < 0.001) apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, gross energy and crude protein and decreased diet digestible energy values in both phases. For day 0-35, increasing inclusion of extruded B. juncea expeller did not affect feed efficiency, but quadratically increased average daily feed intake (ADFI; P < 0.001) and average daily gain (ADG, P < 0.01), which corresponded with a quadratic increase (P < 0.01) in intake of NE and SID Lys. On day 35, pigs fed 60, 120, 180 and 240 g extruded B. juncea expeller/kg were 1.1, 1.5, 1.5 and 1.1 kg heavier (P < 0.05), respectively, than control pigs. Feed energy values may explain the achieved performance. For diet formulation, we used 22.46 MJ NE/kg for canola oil ( NRC, 1998) instead of the more recent 31.63 MJ NE/kg ( NRC, 2012). Using the revised NE value, calculated diet NE values (as fed) decreased from 10.55 to 10.30 in Phase 1 and from 9.92 to 9.71 MJ NE/kg in Phase 2 diets for pigs fed 0 to 240 g extruded B. juncea expeller/kg. In conclusion, reduced diet NE value coincided with increased NE and SID Lys intake that consequently increased ADG. The linear increase of ADFI and ADG may have been curved at 240 g extruded B. juncea expeller/kg by increased dietary glucosinolates intake that prevented further increases in ADFI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of feeding increasing inclusions of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) in diets including a relatively high content (150 g/kg) of co-fermented wheat and corn (70:30) distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on diet nutrient digestibility, growth performance, dressing and carcass traits of pigs was evaluated in a commercial-scale study. In total, 550 barrows and 550 gilts [29.9 ± 0.2 kg body weight] housed in 50 pens (22 barrows or gilts) were fed one of 5 dietary regimens over 5 growth phases (3 grower and 2 finisher). Canola meal (0, 60, 120, 180 or 240 g/kg) replaced barley, soybean meal and field pea in diets formulated to equal net energy (NE; 9.7, 9.7, 9.6, 9.4 and 9.4 MJ/kg) and standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine content (10.9, 9.9, 7.6, 6.7 and 6.2 g/kg). Considering all 5 growth phases, dietary crude protein (CP), crude fibre, acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre increased 13.7, 3.4, 8.2 and 5.8 g/kg, respectively, per each 60 g/kg increase in CM inclusion. Increasing dietary CM inclusion by 60 g/kg decreased (P > 0.05) the apparent total tract digestibility coefficient of gross energy, CP, dry matter, organic matter and ash by 0.01, 0.004, 0.02, 0.01 and 0.04, respectively. For the entire trial (d 0 to 90), increasing dietary CM inclusion by 60 g/kg linearly reduced (P < 0.05) feed intake (ADFI) by 19 g/d and weight gain (ADG) by 7.4 g/d. Increasing dietary CM inclusion resulted in a quadratic response on G:F (ADG/ADFI; P < 0.05). Pigs fed 240 g/kg attained slaughter weight (120 kg) 3 days after pigs fed 60 g/kg CM (linear; P < 0.05). Increasing dietary CM inclusion in diets including 150 g/kg DDGS did not affect carcass weight, dressing, backfat thickness, loin depth, estimated lean yield, or index. In conclusion, increasing dietary CM inclusion from 0 to 240 g/kg in grower-finisher diets including 150 g/kg DDGS had only a minor effect on overall growth performance and did not affect carcass traits of barrows and gilts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sustained price increases for traditional cereal grain and protein meal feed commodities have forced the pork industry to consider the dietary inclusion of alternative feedstuffs. Crop seed may serve as feedstuffs but their demand as feedstock for human food, bio-fuel, and bio-industrial products has increased. Together with these products, co-products such as distillers dried grains with solubles, wheat millrun, and canola meal are produced. As omnivores, pigs are ideally suited to convert these non-human edible co-products into high quality food animal protein. Thus, co-products and other low cost alternative feedstuffs such as pulses and oilseeds can be included in pig diets to reduce feed cost per metric ton of feed. However, inclusion of alternative feedstuffs in pig diets does not necessarily reduce feed cost per kg of gain. Therefore, the use of novel and existing feedstuffs in pig diets must be optimized following their characterization for energy and AA profile. Alternative feedstuffs generally have a high content of at least 1 of the following anti-nutritional factors (ANF): fiber, tannins, glucosinolates, and heat-labile trypsin inhibitors. Several methods can optimize nutrient use of pigs fed alternative feedstuffs by reducing effects of their ANF. These methods include: 1) particle size reduction to increase nutrient digestibility; 2) dehulling or scarification to reduce tannin and fiber content of pulses and oilseeds; 3) air classification to create fractions that have a greater content of nutrients and lower content of ANF than the feedstock; 4) heat treatments such as extrusion, toasting, roasting, and micronization to reduce heat labile ANF; 5) dietary supplementation with fiber-degrading enzymes, or pre-digestion of fibrous feedstuffs or diets with fiber-degrading enzymes to increase dietary nutrient availability; and 6) formulation of diets based on bioavailable AA coefficients. In conclusion, the feeding of alternative ingredients may reduce feed cost per unit of pork produced provided that their price per unit NE or digestible lysine is less than that of the traditional feedstuffs and that negative effects of their ANF are controlled.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Residual oil content that increases the dietary energy value makes expeller-pressed canola meal (EPCM) and cold-pressed canola cake (CPCC) attractive feedstuffs for swine. The energy and amino acid (AA) digestibility of EPCM and CPCC were evaluated feeding six crossbred Hypor barrows (initial weight of 65.7 ± 1.7 kg) surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs were fed twice daily at 2.8 times the estimated maintenance requirement of digestible energy (DE). Diets containing 500 g/kg of either EPCM or CPCC and an N-free diet were tested in a replicated 3×3 Latin square. The oil content of EPCM was half that of CPCC (105 vs. 202 g/kg). Total glucosinolate content of EPCM was double that of CPCC (11.9 vs. 5.6 μmol/g). The apparent total tract digestibility coefficient and apparent ileal digestibility coefficient (CAID) of energy were lower (P<0.05) in EPCM than CPCC. The DE (P<0.05) and calculated net energy (NE) content were lower (P<0.001) in EPCM than CPCC (14.3 vs. 16.5 and 9.0 vs. 11.5 MJ NE/kg as fed, respectively). The CAID of lysine and cysteine was lower (P<0.05) in EPCM than CPCC. The standardized ileal digestibility coefficient (CSID) of alanine, cysteine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine and valine was lower (P<0.05) in EPCM than CPCC. However, the standardized ileal digestible content of all AA was greater (P<0.05) in EPCM than CPCC. In conclusion, lower residual oil and greater content of antinutritional factors (glucosinolates and fibre) in EPCM compared with CPCC were important factors that lowered energy digestibility and DE and NE values in EPCM compared to CPCC and likely lowered CSID of some indispensable AA in EPCM vs. CPCC, including lysine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fractionation processing is an efficient technology which is capable to redesign/redevelop a new food or feed product with a specified chemical and nutrient profile. This processing technique was able to produce four different fractions (called "A", "B", "C", "D" fractions/treatments) with different nutrient profile form a co-product of bioethanol processing [wheat dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS)]. To date, there is no study on the effect of fractionation processing on inherent molecular structure of different fractions and how the processing-induced structural change affect the metabolic characteristics of protein and nutrient availability. The objectives of this experiment were to: (1) investigate the effect of fractionation processing on changes of protein functional groups (amide I, amide II, and their ratio) and molecular structure (modeled α-helix, β-sheet, and their ratio), and (2) study the relationship between the fractionation processing-induced changes of protein molecular structure and nutrients availability as well as the metabolic characteristics of protein. The hypothesis of this study was that the fractionation processing changes the molecular structure and such changes affect the metabolic characteristics of protein. The protein molecular structure spectral profile of the fractions A, B, C and D were identified by Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FT/IR-ATR). The results showed that the fractionation processing significantly affected the protein molecular spectral profiles. The differences in amide I to amide II peak area and height ratios were strongly significant (P<0.01) among the treatment fractions, ranging from 4.98 to 6.33 and 3.28 to 4.00, respectively. The difference in the modeled protein α-helix to β-sheet ratio was also strongly significant (P<0.01) among the treatment fractions. Multivariate molecular spectral analysis with cluster (CLA) and principal component analyses (PCA) showed that there are no clear distinguished clusters and ellipses among the fractions (A, B, C and D) in the protein amide I and II region ca. 1726-1485cm(-1). The correlation study showed that the modeled α-helix to β-sheet ratio tended to have a negative correlation with truly absorbed rumen undegraded protein (ARUP(DVE): r=-0.944, P=0.056<0.10) and total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine (DVE: r=-0.946, P=0.054<0.10), but there was no correlation between the α-helix to β-sheet ratio and the degraded protein balance (DPB(OEB): P=0.267<0.10). In conclusion, the fractionation processing changed the molecular structural spectral profiles in terms of amide I to II ratio and α-helix to β-sheet ratio. These changes negatively affected the metabolic characteristics of protein and true protein supply. These results indicated that spectral features of different fractions could be used as a potential tool to predict true protein nutritive value.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 11/2013; 122C:591-597. DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2013.11.081 · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA and calculate the NE value for regular-oligosaccharide, micronized full-fat soybean (R-MFFSB), low-oligosaccharide, micronized full-fat soybean (LO-MFFSB), lentil, and enzymatically hydrolyzed casein (EHC) for growing pigs. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (31.4 kg BW) were fed 6 diets in a 6 × 6 Latin square. Five diets were cornstarch-based, containing either soybean meal (SBM), R-MFFSB, LO-MFFSB, or EHC as sole protein source, or N-free. The sixth diet contained lentil as sole protein and energy source. The SID of AA for diets was calculated using the N-free diet. Digestibility of AA in feedstuffs was determined by the direct method. Energy digestibility in SBM, R-MFFSB, and LO-MFFSB was determined by difference from the N-free diet, whereas energy digestibility in lentil was determined by the direct method. On DM basis, SBM, R-MFFSB, LO-MFFSB, and lentil contained 52, 43, 43, and 27% CP; 8, 12, 14, and 16% NDF; and 1.8, 19, 21, and 1.6% ether extract, respectively. The SID of Lys for SBM was greater (P < 0.05) than that for R-MFFSB or LO-MFFSB (76 vs. 79 and 79%). The SID of other indispensable AA (except Trp) for SBM was also greater (P < 0.05) than that for R-MFFSB or LO-MFFSB. The R-MFFSB and LO-MFFSB were similar in SID of AA. The SID of Lys for lentil (81%) was lower (P < 0.05) than that for SBM with a similar trend for SID of other indispensable AA except for Met and Thr whose SID was similar to SBM. The SID of AA for EHC ranged from 98 to 112%. The SBM had a lower (P < 0.05) NE value than R-MFFSB or LO-MFFSB (2.63 vs. 2.95 and 3.00 Mcal/kg DM). Lentil and SBM were similar in NE value (2.60 vs. 2.63 Mcal/kg DM). In conclusion, R-MFFSB and LO-MFFSB were similar in energy and AA value for pigs. Lentil had lower SID of AA than SBM. However, lentil and SBM were similar in NE value; thus, lentil can serve as alternative pulse feedstuff for pigs. The AA in EHC were mostly completely digested indicating that EHC can be fed to estimate ileal endogenous AA losses.