[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P = 4.5×10(-8)-1.2×10(-43)). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N = 4,232 African Americans, N = 1,776 Asians, and N = 29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3×10(-4)). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p = 4.3×10(-3), n = 22,044), increased triglycerides (p = 2.6×10(-14), n = 93,440), increased waist-to-hip ratio (p = 1.8×10(-5), n = 77,167), increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p = 4.4×10(-3), n = 15,234), increased fasting insulin (p = 0.015, n = 48,238), but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p = 4.5×10(-13), n = 96,748) and decreased BMI (p = 1.4×10(-4), n = 121,335). These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and are targets for therapeutic intervention. We screened the genome for common variants associated with plasma lipids in >100,000 individuals of European ancestry. Here we report 95 significantly associated loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)), with 59 showing genome-wide significant association with lipid traits for the first time. The newly reported associations include single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near known lipid regulators (for example, CYP7A1, NPC1L1 and SCARB1) as well as in scores of loci not previously implicated in lipoprotein metabolism. The 95 loci contribute not only to normal variation in lipid traits but also to extreme lipid phenotypes and have an impact on lipid traits in three non-European populations (East Asians, South Asians and African Americans). Our results identify several novel loci associated with plasma lipids that are also associated with CAD. Finally, we validated three of the novel genes-GALNT2, PPP1R3B and TTC39B-with experiments in mouse models. Taken together, our findings provide the foundation to develop a broader biological understanding of lipoprotein metabolism and to identify new therapeutic opportunities for the prevention of CAD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing HDL levels is a potential strategy for the treatment of atherosclerosis.
ITX5061, a molecule initially characterized as a p38 MAPK inhibitor, increased HDL-C levels by 20% in a human population of hypertriglyceridemic subjects with low HDL levels. ITX5061 also moderately increased apoA-I but did not affect VLDL/LDL cholesterol or plasma triglyceride concentrations. ITX5061 increased HDL-C in WT and human apoA-I transgenic mice, and kinetic experiments showed that ITX5061 decreased the fractional catabolic rate of HDL-CE and reduced its hepatic uptake. In transfected cells, ITX5061 inhibited SR-BI-dependent uptake of HDL-CE. Moreover, ITX5061 failed to increase HDL-C levels in SR-BI(-/-) mice. To assess effects on atherosclerosis, ITX5061 was given to atherogenic diet-fed Ldlr(+/-) mice with or without CETP expression for 18 weeks. In both the control and CETP-expressing groups, ITX5061-treated mice displayed reductions of early atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic arch -40%, P<0.05), and a nonsignificant trend to reduced lesion area in the proximal aorta.
Our data indicate that ITX5061 increases HDL-C levels by inhibition of SR-BI activity. This suggests that pharmacological inhibition of SR-BI has the potential to raise HDL-C and apoA-I levels without adverse effects on VLDL/LDL cholesterol levels in humans.