[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: S100 proteins are a family of small, EF-hand containing calcium-binding signaling proteins that are implicated in many cancers. While the majority of human S100 proteins share 25-65% sequence similarity, S100A7 and its recently identified paralog, S100A15, display 93% sequence identity. Intriguingly, however, S100A7 and S100A15 serve distinct roles in inflammatory skin disease; S100A7 signals through the receptor for advanced glycation products (RAGE) in a zinc-dependent manner, while S100A15 signals through a yet unidentified G-protein coupled receptor in a zinc-independent manner. Of the seven divergent residues that differentiate S100A7 and S100A15, four cluster in a zinc-binding region and the remaining three localize to a predicted receptor-binding surface.
To investigate the structural and functional consequences of these divergent clusters, we report the X-ray crystal structures of S100A15 and S100A7D24G, a hybrid variant where the zinc ligand Asp24 of S100A7 has been substituted with the glycine of S100A15, to 1.7 Å and 1.6 Å resolution, respectively. Remarkably, despite replacement of the Asp ligand, zinc binding is retained at the S100A15 dimer interface with distorted tetrahedral geometry and a chloride ion serving as an exogenous fourth ligand. Zinc binding was confirmed using anomalous difference maps and solution binding studies that revealed similar affinities of zinc for S100A15 and S100A7. Additionally, the predicted receptor-binding surface on S100A7 is substantially more basic in S100A15 without incurring structural rearrangement.
Here we demonstrate that S100A15 retains the ability to coordinate zinc through incorporation of an exogenous ligand resulting in a unique zinc-binding site among S100 proteins. The altered surface chemistry between S100A7 and S100A15 that localizes to the predicted receptor binding site is likely responsible for the differential recognition of distinct protein targets. Collectively, these data provide novel insight into the structural and functional consequences of the divergent surfaces between S100A7 and S100A15 that may be exploited for targeted therapies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactones are a class of structurally diverse molecules that serve essential roles in biological processes ranging from quorum sensing to the aerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds. Not surprisingly, enzymes involved in the bioprocessing of lactones are often targeted for protein engineering studies with the potential, for example, of optimized bioremediation of aromatic pollutants. The enol-lactone hydrolase (ELH) represents one such class of targeted enzymes and catalyzes the conversion of 3-oxoadipate-enol-lactone into the linear β-ketoadipate. To define the structural details that govern ELH catalysis and assess the impact of divergent features predicted by sequence analysis, we report the first structural characterization of an ELH (PcaD) from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 in complex with the product analog levulinic acid. The overall dimeric structure of PcaD reveals an α-helical cap domain positioned atop a core α/β-hydrolase domain. Despite the localization of the conserved catalytic triad to the core domain, levulinic acid is bound largely within the region of the active site defined by the cap domain, suggesting a key role for this divergent substructure in mediating product release. Furthermore, the architecture of the cap domain results in an unusually deep active-site pocket with topological features to restrict binding to small or kinked substrates. The evolutionary basis for this substrate selectivity is discussed with respect to the homologous dienelactone hydrolase. Overall, the PcaD costructure provides a detailed insight into the intimate role of the cap domain in influencing all aspects of substrate binding, turnover, and product release.
Journal of Molecular Biology 03/2011; 406(5):649-58. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: S100A7 (psoriasin) is a member of the S100 family of signaling proteins. It is implicated in and considered a therapeutic target for inflammation and cancer, yet no small molecule ligands for S100A7 have been identified. To begin the development of specific small molecule inhibitors of S100A7 function, we have used a series of surface binding fluorescent dyes to probe the surface hydrophobic sites. Two naphthalene-based dyes (2,6-ANS and 1,8-ANS) were found to bind S100A7 in a distinct cleft. We characterized the binding interaction by determining both the structure of S100A7 bound to 2,6-ANS and the structure of S100A7 bound to 1,8-ANS to 1.6 A. In both cases, two molecules of dye were docked such that the naphthalene groups were positioned in two symmetry-related grooves that are formed by the N-terminal helices of each monomer. We observed that Met12 acts as a gatekeeper to the binding cleft, adopting an "open" conformation for the more elongated 2,6-ANS while remaining in a "closed" conformation for the more compact 1,8-ANS. Steady-state fluorescence experiments revealed that S100A7 binds two copies of 2,6-ANS, each with a K(d) of 125 muM. Time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements indicated that the two molecules of 2,6-ANS bind in two independent binding sites with different fluorescence lifetimes, suggesting that the S100A7 homodimer is not perfectly symmetric in solution. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies demonstrate that S100A7 has a higher affinity for 2,6-ANS than 1,8-ANS. Yeast two-hybrid studies were also used to probe contributions of individual residues of an S100A7 triple mutant with respect to Jab1 binding. Mutation of Leu78, which forms part of the Met12 cleft occupied by 2,6-ANS, reduced the level of Jab1 binding, suggesting a potentially important role for the Met12 hydrophobic pocket in defining a Jab1 interface. Additional Y2H studies also delineate contributions of Gln88 and in particular Asp56 that shows the most significant abrogated binding to Jab1. Collectively, these data suggest a complex interaction between S100A7 and the much larger Jab1. These studies form the basis for the development of small molecule reporters and modifiers of S100A7 form and function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: S100A7 (psoriasin) is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein implicated in breast cancer. We have shown previously that S100A7 enhances survival mechanisms in breast cells through an interaction with c-jun activation domain binding protein 1 (Jab1), and an engineered S100A7 triple mutant (Asp(56)Gly, Leu(78)Met, and Gln(88)Lys-S100A7(3)) ablates Jab1 binding. We extend these results to include defined breast cancer cell lines and demonstrate a disrupted S100A7(3)/Jab1 phenotype is maintained. To establish the basis for the abrogated Jab1 binding, we have recombinantly produced S100A7(3), demonstrated that it retains the ability to form an exceptionally thermostable dimer, and solved the three dimensional crystal structure to 1.6 A. Despite being positioned at the dimer interface, the Leu(78)Met mutation is easily accommodated and contributes to a methionine-rich pocket formed by Met(12), Met(15), and Met(34). In addition to altering the surface charge, the Gln(88)Lys mutation results in a nearby rotameric shift in Tyr(85), leading to a substantially reorganized surface cavity and may influence zinc binding. The final mutation of Asp(56) to Gly results in the largest structural perturbation shortening helix IV by one full turn. It is noteworthy that position 56 lies in one of two divergent clusters between S100A7 and the functionally distinct yet highly homologous S100A15. The structure of S100A7(3) provides a unique perspective from which to characterize the S100A7-Jab1 interaction and better understand the distinct functions between S100A7, and it is closely related paralog S100A15.
Protein Science 10/2009; 18(12):2615-23. · 2.74 Impact Factor