[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor virotherapy has been and continues to be used in clinical trials. One barrier to effective viral oncolysis, consisting of the interferon (IFN) response induced by viral infection, is inhibited by valproic acid (VPA) and other histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). Innate immune cell recruitment and activation have been shown to be deleterious to the efficacy of oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) infection, and in this report we demonstrate that VPA limits this deleterious response. VPA, administered prior to oHSV inoculation in an orthotopic glioblastoma mouse model, resulted in a decline in NK and macrophage recruitment into tumor-bearing brains at 6 and 24 h post-oHSV infection. Interestingly, there was a robust rebound of recruitment of these cells at 72 h post-oHSV infection. The observed initial decline in immune cell recruitment was accompanied by a reduction in their activation status. VPA was also found to have a profound immunosuppressive effect on human NK cells in vitro. NK cytotoxicity was abrogated following exposure to VPA, consistent with downmodulation of cytotoxic gene expression of granzyme B and perforin at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, suppression of gamma IFN (IFN-γ) production by VPA was associated with decreased STAT5 phosphorylation and dampened T-BET expression. Despite VPA-mediated immune suppression, mice were not at significantly increased risk for HSV encephalitis. These findings indicate that one of the avenues by which VPA enhances oHSV efficacy is through initial suppression of immune cell recruitment and inhibition of inflammatory cell pathways within NK cells.
Journal of Virology 02/2012; 86(8):4566-77. DOI:10.1128/JVI.05545-11 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding of heterogeneous NK subsets is important for the study of NK cell biology and development, and for the application of NK cell-based therapies in the treatment of disease. Here we demonstrate that the surface expression of CD94 can distinctively divide mouse NK cells into two approximately even CD94(low) and CD94(high) subsets in all tested organs and tissues. The CD94(high) NK subset has significantly greater capacity to proliferate, produce IFN-gamma, and lyse target cells than does the CD94(low) subset. The CD94(high) subset has exclusive expression of NKG2A/C/E, higher expression of CD117 and CD69, and lower expression of Ly49D (activating) and Ly49G2 (inhibitory). In vivo, purified mouse CD94(low) NK cells become CD94(high) NK cells, but not vice versa. Collectively, our data suggest that CD94 is an Ag that can be used to identify functionally distinct NK cell subsets in mice and could also be relevant to late-stage mouse NK cell development.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2009; 183(8):4968-74. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.0900907 · 4.92 Impact Factor