Catherine A Marco

Medical University of Ohio at Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, United States

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Publications (69)161.21 Total impact

  • The American journal of emergency medicine 10/2013; · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • Hemangini C Bhakta, Catherine A Marco
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    ABSTRACT: Patient satisfaction with emergency care is associated with timeliness of care, empathy, technical competence, and information delivery. Previous studies have demonstrated inconsistent findings regarding the association between pain management and patient satisfaction. This study was undertaken to determine the association between pain management and patient satisfaction among Emergency Department (ED) patients presenting with acute painful conditions. In this survey study, a standardized interview was conducted at the Emergency Department at the University of Toledo Medical Center in May-July 2011. Participants were asked to answer 18 questions pertaining to patient satisfaction. Additional data collected included demographic information, pain scores, and clinical management. Among 328 eligible participants, 289 (88%) participated. The mean triage pain score on the verbal numeric rating scale was 8.2 and the mean discharge score was 6.0. The majority of patients (52%) experienced a reduction in pain of 2 or more points. Participants received one pain medication dose (44%), two medication doses (14%), three medication doses (5%), or four medication doses (2%). Reduction in pain scores of 2 or more points was associated with a higher number of medications administered. Reduction in pain scores was associated with higher satisfaction as scored on questions of patient perceptions of adequate assessment and response to pain, and treatment of pain. There was a significant association between patient satisfaction and a reduction in pain of 2 or more points and number of medications administered. Effective pain management is associated with improved patient satisfaction among ED patients with painful conditions.
    Journal of Emergency Medicine 07/2013; · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine is the basis for the content specifications of all American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) examinations. This study describes the frequency with which ABEM diplomates diagnose and manage the conditions and components listed in the Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency with which ABEM diplomates diagnose and manage the conditions and components described in the Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine. METHODS: The listing of conditions and components of the Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine were sent to 16,230 randomly selected ABEM diplomates. One of five surveys was sent to each diplomate. Each condition and component was assessed by participants for the frequency that emergency physicians diagnose (D) and manage (M) that condition, as seen in their practice of Emergency Medicine. RESULTS: Of the 16,230 surveys sent, 5006 were returned (30.8% response rate). The genders of the respondents were 75% male and 24% female. The ages of the respondents were primarily in the age 40-49 years, and 30-39 years age groups. All categories of the listing of conditions and components of the Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine were encountered frequently in the practice of Emergency Medicine, as indicated by study participants. CONCLUSIONS: A survey of practicing ABEM diplomates was useful in defining the frequency with which specific conditions and components are diagnosed and managed in the practice of Emergency Medicine.
    Journal of Emergency Medicine 03/2013; 44(6):1153-1166. · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • Catherine A Marco, Terry Kowalenko
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The American Board of Emergency Medicine conducts an annual survey of residents in Emergency Medicine, the Longitudinal Study of Residents in Emergency Medicine survey. Objective: This study was undertaken to describe self-reported competence and challenges facing Emergency Medicine (EM) residents. METHODS: In this descriptive, observational analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Residents in Emergency Medicine survey, survey data from 1996-2008 were compared for 70 survey items. Responses were analyzed with means and 95% confidence intervals by post-graduate year (PGY) and over time. RESULTS: A total of 496 residents were included in this study. Most participated for 3 years, for a total of 1320 total responses. The most serious day-to-day challenges reported by residents (overall median scores of 3 or more) included knowing enough, keeping up with the medical literature, having enough time for personal life, ancillary support, and having enough time for family. Current level of competence in areas deemed weakest by residents included grant writing, contract negotiation, academic writing, disaster planning, research, and financial management. Residents reported improved competence in most (15 out of 16) areas from PGY-1 to PGY-3 year of training. Resident reports of competence did not change significantly over time from 1998-2008 (15 out of 16 items). CONCLUSIONS: Emergency Medicine residents identified several important day-to-day problems, including knowing enough, keeping up with the medical literature, and having enough time for a personal life. PGY-3 residents reported improved competence in almost all aspects of EM work and clinical EM as compared to PGY-1 residents. Knowledge of perceived competence and problems among EM residents is crucial to the development of improved educational approaches to address these issues.
    Journal of Emergency Medicine 08/2012; · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • Catherine A Marco, William Kanitz, Matthew Jolly
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Treatment for pain and pain-related conditions has been identified as the most common reason for Emergency Department (ED) visits. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to characterize the distribution of self-reported pain scores for common ED diagnoses. METHODS: In this retrospective exploratory chart review, eligible participants included all adult ED patients age 18 years and over, with a self-reported triage pain score of 1 or higher during January-June 2011. Data were collected from ED electronic medical records. RESULTS: Among 1229 patients, the mean age was 44 years; 56% of patients were female, and 59% were white. The mean triage pain score for all patients was 7.1 (interquartile range 6-9). The most common reported diagnoses included: minor injuries (10%), abdominal pain (8%), and respiratory infections (8%). The diagnoses with the highest mean pain scores were: sickle cell crisis (mean pain score 8.7), back/neck/shoulder pain (8.5), and headache/migraine (8.3). Higher pain scores were significantly correlated with younger age (p<0.001) and number of ED visits (p<0.001). Demographic factors including female gender, African American race, and Medicaid insurance reported significantly higher pain scores (p<0.001). Patients with multiple ED visits in the recent 12 months reported significantly higher pain scores (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: ED patients report a wide variety of pain scores. Factors associated with higher pain scores included younger age, female gender, African American race, Medicaid insurance status, multiple ED visits in the past year, and ED diagnoses of sickle cell crisis, back/neck/shoulder pain, and headache.
    Journal of Emergency Medicine 07/2012; · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) gathers extensive background information on emergency medicine residency training programs and the residents in those programs. We present the 2012 annual report on the status of US emergency medicine training programs.
    Annals of emergency medicine 05/2012; 59(5):416-24. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recent enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010, and the ongoing debate over reform of the U.S. health care system, raise numerous important ethical issues. This article reviews basic provisions of the ACA; examines underlying moral and policy issues in the U.S. health care reform debate; and addresses health care reform's likely effects on access to care, emergency department (ED) crowding, and end-of-life care. The article concludes with several suggested actions that emergency physicians (EPs) should take to contribute to the success of health care reform in America.
    Academic Emergency Medicine 04/2012; 19(4):461-8. · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • Catherine A Marco, Lindsay R Wetzel
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    ABSTRACT: Communication with survivors of severe motor vehicle crashes is challenging for emergency physicians. The appropriate timing of death notification to survivors of severe motor vehicle crashes is unknown. To determine communication preferences among survivors of motor vehicle crashes. In this cross-sectional survey study, eligible participants included adult survivors of motor vehicle crashes in which there was a death, between 2005 and 2009. Participants were interviewed and responses to 30 questions about communication were recorded verbatim. Responses were coded and grouped for statistical analysis. Among 26 eligible participants, 21 consented to participate (81% participation rate). Survivors' relationship to the deceased included spouse/significant other (33%), friend (24%), child (5%) and no relationship (38%). Survivors had been notified of the death in the prehospital setting (14%), in the emergency department (43%), or later in the inpatient setting (43%). Survivors were notified of the death by family members (43%), indirect communication (14%), police (10%), prehospital provider (10%), or friend (10%). Most participants (88%) had to ask directly to obtain information about the status of others in the crash. Participants demonstrated variable opinions about the ideal time of death notification: some recommended immediately (24%), in the emergency department (24%), in the inpatient setting (29%), or it depends on the circumstances (24%). Survivors of motor vehicles crashes are notified of fatalities most commonly by family members, most commonly in the hospital setting. Recommendations from survivors about the appropriate timing and setting for death notification varied significantly.
    Emergency Medicine Journal 08/2011; 29(8):626-9. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pain is a common presenting complaint among emergency department (ED) patients. The verbal numeric pain scale is commonly used in the ED to assess self-reported pain. This study was undertaken to describe and compare pain scores in a variety of painful conditions and identify factors associated with self-reported pain scores. The study was a prospective, observational, descriptive survey study conducted at an urban university hospital ED. Eligible participants included consenting adults 18 years and older, with an acute painful condition, who spoke English, and were not in severe distress. Through a structured interview, collected data included pain score; diagnosis; medical history; previous painful experiences; and demographic information including age, insurance status, and highest level of education completed. Among 268 eligible participants, 263 (98%) consented and completed the study protocol. Seventy-one percent of participants were 50 years old or younger; 55%, women; and 68%, white. Fifty-four percent had private insurance, and 81%, high school education or higher. The most common chief complaints were soft tissue injury (33%), abdominal pain (18%), and chest pain (13%). The median self-reported pain score was 7/10 (mean, 6.7; interquartile range, 6-9; range, 0-10). The most common previous painful experiences were childbirth (21%), major trauma (18%), and surgery (14%). Participants cited reasons for self-reported pain scores, including current feeling of pain (62%), comparison to previous pain (31%), and comparison to hypothetical pain (12%). The number of previous ED visits was positively correlated with current pain score (Spearman correlation R = 0.28; P < .001). The chief complaints associated with the highest pain scores included dental pain (mean pain score, 8.5) and back pain (mean pain score, 7.6). Chief complaints associated with the lowest pain scores included chest pain (mean pain score, 5.2) and other medical conditions (mean pain score, 5.3). Factors associated with higher pain scores included younger age (P < .001, Kruskal-Wallis), Medicaid insurance (P = .02), and lower educational status (P = .01). There was not a statistically significant association between current pain score and sex, race, previous painful experiences, or number of hospital admissions. Emergency department patients with acute painful conditions report a wide range of self-reported pain scores. Participants rated pain based on current feeling of pain or comparison to previous or hypothetical pain. Chief complaints with highest pain scores included dental pain and back pain. Factors associated with higher pain scores included younger age, Medicaid insurance, lower educational status, and higher number of previous ED visits.
    The American journal of emergency medicine 02/2011; 30(2):331-7. · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • Annals of Emergency Medicine - ANN EMERG MED. 01/2011; 58(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The number of annual patient visits to US emergency departments (ED) has been increasing since 1995, whereas the number of ED is decreasing. Previous studies have identified many reasons why patients seek care in ED, including lack of access to care elsewhere, lack of insurance, inability to see their doctor in a timely manner and lower levels of social support. This study identifies factors that influence patients' decisions to seek care in ED and assesses their access to primary care. A prospective study, conducted by standardised verbal interview with adult ED patients, was performed in the XXX ED during June-July 2009. Non-English speaking patients, the mentally incapacitated and those under severe distress were excluded. Consenting patients were asked a series of questions on access to primary care, factors that influenced their decision to attend the ED, health insurance status and demographic information. Among 292 study participants (89% response rate), the majority were over 40 years (52%), Caucasian (69%) and unemployed (58%). Among employed participants, 66% (N=88/133) of employers offered health insurance. Most participants had a primary care physician (PCP; 73%; N=214), but a minority had called their PCP about the current problem (31%; N=78/253). Most participants came to the ED because of convenience/location (41%) or preference for this institution (23%). Participants came to the ED, rather than their regular doctor, because they had no PCP (27%), an emergency condition (19%), or communication challenges (17%). Convenience, location, institutional preference and access to other physicians are common factors that influence patients' decisions to seek care in ED.
    Emergency Medicine Journal 12/2010; 29(1):28-31. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ethics education is an essential component of graduate medical education in emergency medicine. A sound understanding of principles of bioethics and a rational approach to ethical decision-making are imperative. This article addresses ethics curriculum content, educational approaches, educational resources, and resident feedback and evaluation. Ethics curriculum content should include elements suggested by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, and the Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine. Essential ethics content includes ethical principles, the physician-patient relationship, patient autonomy, clinical issues, end-of-life decisions, justice, education in emergency medicine, research ethics, and professionalism. The appropriate curriculum in ethics education in emergency medicine should include some of the content and educational approaches outlined in this article, although the optimal methods for meeting these educational goals may vary by institution.
    Journal of Emergency Medicine 09/2010; 40(5):550-6. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ohio recently instituted an online prescription monitoring program, the Ohio Automated Rx Reporting System (OARRS), to monitor controlled substance prescriptions within Ohio. This study is undertaken to identify the influence of OARRS data on clinical management of emergency department (ED) patients with painful conditions. This prospective quasiexperimental study was conducted at the University of Toledo Medical Center Emergency Department during June to July 2008. Eligible participants included ED patients with painful conditions. Patients with acute injuries were excluded. After clinical evaluation, and again after presentation of OARRS data, providers answered a set of questions about anticipated pain prescription for the patient. Outcome measures included changes in opioid prescription and other potential factors that influenced opioid prescription. Among 179 participants, OARRS data revealed high numbers of narcotics prescriptions filled in the most recent 12 months (median 7; range 0 to 128). Numerous providers prescribed narcotics for patients (median 3 per patient; range 0 to 40). Patients had filled narcotics prescriptions at different pharmacies (mean [SD] 3.5 [4.4]). Eighteen providers are represented in the study. Four providers treated 63% (N=114) of the patients in the study. After review of the OARRS data, providers changed the clinical management in 41% (N=74) of cases. In cases of altered management, the majority (61%; N=45) resulted in fewer or no opioid medications prescribed than originally planned, whereas 39% (N=29) resulted in more opioid medication than previously planned. The use of data from a statewide narcotic registry frequently altered prescribing behavior for management of ED patients with complaints of nontraumatic pain.
    Annals of emergency medicine 07/2010; 56(1):19-23.e1-3. · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • Catherine A Marco, Constance Shriner
    Medical Education 05/2010; 44(5):502. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate understanding of end-of-life terminology is essential to communications regarding end-of-life treatment preferences. This study was undertaken to assess the level of understanding of commonly used end-of-life medical terms among emergency department (ED) patients and visitors. In this prospective survey study, an oral structured interview was conducted in a university emergency department in 2008. Participants were asked to define 10 terms. Free text responses were scored by three investigators, using a health literacy 3-point scale (correct, partially correct, or incorrect). Among 303 participants (82% participation rate), 7.3% correctly defined 7 or more of 10 end-of-life terms. Terms most commonly understood included do not resuscitate (DNR) (56.3% correctly defined), ICU (51.8%), and durable power of attorney for health care (39.8%). Terms least correctly defined included resuscitation (15.3% correctly defined), physician-assisted suicide (9.4%), and euthanasia (7.4%). Factors associated with differences in accuracy in defining terms included age (age group 51–65 years had the highest accuracy), ethnicity (Caucasians had the highest accuracy), education (more education correlated with higher accuracy), and gender (females had higher accuracy). Income and personal advance directives were not associated with accuracy. A minority of participants (31%, n = 95) had previously completed an advance directive for themselves. In conclusion, ED patients and visitors demonstrated low levels of understanding of commonly used end-of-life medical terms. A minority of ED patients and visitors have completed advance directives. Completion of a personal advance directive does not correlate with an increase in knowledge of end-of-life terminology.
    AJOB Primary Research. 01/2010; 1(1):22-27.
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    ABSTRACT: Although many residency programs mandate at least one rotation in emergency medicine (EM), to the best of our knowledge, a standardized curriculum for emergency department (ED) rotations for "off-service" residents has not been developed. As a result, the experiences of these residents in the ED tend to vary during their rotations. To design an off-service EM curriculum, we adopted Kern's six-step approach to curriculum development as a conceptual framework. The resulting program encompasses clinical experience and didactic sessions through which residents are trained in core topics and skills. This knowledge will be applicable in the clinical settings in which residents will continue to train and ultimately practice their specialty. It is flexible enough to be applicable and implementable without being limited by resource availability or faculty strengths.
    Academic Emergency Medicine 12/2009; 16(12):1325-30. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A panel of physicians from the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Graduate Medical Education (GME), Ethics, and Industry Relations Committees were asked by the SAEM Board of Directors to write a position paper on the relationship of emergency medicine (EM) GME with industry. Using multiple sources as references, the team derived a set of guidelines that all EM GME training programs can use when interacting with industry representatives. In addition, the team used a question-answer format to provide educators and residents with a practical approach to these interactions. The SAEM Board of Directors endorsed the guidelines in June 2009.
    Academic Emergency Medicine 10/2009; 16(10):1025-30. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to describe the current status of the emergency medicine workforce in the United States. Surveys were distributed in 2008 to 2619 emergency department (ED) medical directors and nurse managers in hospitals in the 2006 American Hospital Association database. Among ED medical directors, 713 responded, for a 27.2% response rate. Currently, 65% of practicing emergency physicians are board certified by the American Board of Emergency Medicine or the American Osteopathic Board of Emergency Medicine. Among those leaving the practice, the most common reasons cited for departure include geographic relocation (46%) and better pay (29%). Approximately 12% of the ED physician workforce is expected to retire in the next 5 years. Among nurse managers, 548 responded, for a 21% response rate. Many nurses (46%) have an associate degree as their highest level of education, 28% have a BSN, and 3% have a graduate degree (MSN or higher). Geographic relocation (44%) is the leading reason for changing employment. Emergency department annual volumes have increased by 49% since 1997, with a mean ED volume of 32 281 in 2007. The average reported ED length of stay is 158 minutes from registration to discharge and 208 minutes from registration to admission. Emergency department spent an average of 49 hours per month in ambulance diversion in 2007. Boarding is common practice, with an average of 318 hours of patient boarding per month. In the past 10 years, the number of practicing emergency physicians has grown to more than 42 000. The number of board-certified emergency physicians has increased. The number of annual ED visits has risen significantly.
    The American journal of emergency medicine 07/2009; 27(6):691-700. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    Eric A Savory, Catherine A Marco
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    ABSTRACT: The challenges of end-of-life care require emergency physicians to utilize a multifaceted and dynamic skill set. Such skills include medical therapies to relieve pain and other symptoms near the end-of-life. Physicians must also demonstrate aptitude in comfort care, communication, cultural competency, and ethical principles. It is imperative that emergency physicians demonstrate a fundamental understanding of end-of-life issues in order to employ the versatile, multidisciplinary approach required to provide the highest quality end-of-life care for patients and their families.
    Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 05/2009; 17:21. · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • Catherine A Marco, Edward S Bessman, Gabor D Kelen
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives were to determine current practice among emergency physicians (EPs) regarding the initiation and termination of cardiopulmonary resuscitative (CPR) efforts and to compare responses to those from a similar study performed in 1996. This anonymous self-administered survey was mailed to 4,991 randomly selected EPs. Main outcome measures included responses regarding current practices related to advance directives and initiation and termination of resuscitative attempts. Results from 1995 and 2007 surveys were compared, using 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the difference between groups. Among 928 respondents (18% response rate), most (86%) honor legal advance directives, an increase over 78% reported in 1996 (8% increase, 95% CI = 5% to 11%). Few honor unofficial documents (7%) or verbal reports (12%) of advance directives. Many (58%) make decisions regarding resuscitation because of fear of litigation or criticism. Most respondents (62%) attempt resuscitation in 10% or more of cases of cardiac arrest. A majority (56%) have attempted more than 10 resuscitations in the past 3 years, despite expectations that such efforts would be futile. Factors reported to be "very important" in making resuscitation decisions were advance directives (78%), witnessed arrest (77%), downtime (73%), family wishes (40%), presenting rhythm (38%), age (28%), and prearrest state of health (25%). A significant majority of respondents (80%) indicated that ideally, legal concerns should not influence physician practices regarding resuscitation, but that in the current environment, legal concerns do influence practice (92%). Other than the increase in respondents who honor legal advance directives, these results do not differ substantially from responses in 1996. Most EPs attempt to resuscitate patients in cardiopulmonary arrest regardless of poor outcomes, except in cases where a legal advance directive is available. Many EPs' decisions regarding resuscitation are based on concerns of litigation and criticism, rather than professional judgment of medical benefit. Most results did not differ significantly from the previous study of 1995, although more physicians honor legal advance directives than previously noted.
    Academic Emergency Medicine 02/2009; 16(3):270-3. · 1.76 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

451 Citations
161.21 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2013
    • Medical University of Ohio at Toledo
      Toledo, Ohio, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • University of Toledo
      • Department of Surgery
      Toledo, Ohio, United States
  • 2011
    • Northside Hospital
      St. Petersburg, Florida, United States
  • 2003–2009
    • Emory University
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 1999–2008
    • Mercy St. Vincent Medical Center
      Toledo, Ohio, United States
  • 2005
    • East Carolina University
      • The Bioethics Center
      Greenville, NC, United States