[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) of the amblyopic and fellow eye in amblyopia due to anisometropia.
We recorded mfVEP in both eyes of 15 anisometropic amblyopic patients and 15 normal control subjects. The responses from the central 7.0 degrees arc of the visual field were measured, and changes in latency and amplitude were compared between the amblyopic, fellow, and normal control eyes.
There was a significant difference in the latency and amplitude of mfVEP between the amblyopic and fellow eyes. The responses in the central region of the visual field (rings 1 and 2) had a longer latency and smaller amplitude in the amblyopic eye. In contrast, there was no difference in mfVEP latency or amplitude between the fellow eye and normal control eyes.
These results suggest that mfVEP may be used as an alternative objective method for diagnosis and monitoring of anisometropic amblyopia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the diagnostic value and to establish threshold criteria for the ice pack test as an office preliminary test in the differential diagnosis of myasthenic diplopia in comparison with blepharoptosis.
Prospective, comparative cohort study.
Eighty-nine patients with a recent onset of diplopia, blepharoptosis, or both were evaluated with orbital cooling in a prospective manner. Forty-eight patients presented with diplopia, 25 patients with both blepharoptosis and ophthalmoplegia and 16 patients with blepharoptosis.
All patients had the ice pack applied for 5 minutes on both eyelids at the initial orthoptic evaluation. Increasing the duration of cooling to 10 minutes was investigated in 36 diplopic patients. A complete diagnostic work-up was ordered and patients were followed up for a minimum of 6 months before diagnosis of myasthenia gravis was ascertained.
Difference in cover test measurements in primary position or marginal reflex distance before and after the application of the ice pack, specific cause for diplopia and blepharoptosis.
Fifteen patients were diagnosed as myasthenic. The optimal cutoff point for a positive response to the ice pack test proved to be a reduction in ocular deviation in primary position by 50% or by 10 prism diopters (PD) or more for presenting deviations larger than 20 PD. By this criterion, sensitivity for the detection of myasthenic diplopia was 76.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.06%-92.50%) for the 5-minute application, compared with 92.3% (95% CI, 63.5%-98.9%) sensitivity demonstrated for blepharoptosis. Increasing the time of application to 10 minutes did not improve the diagnostic value of the test. Specificity was high (98.3%; 95% CI, 90.3%-99.9%) and was demonstrated even in patients with coexisting myasthenic and dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. Patients with oculomotor nerve paresis and Horner syndrome invariably were nonresponsive to the test.
The ice pack test demonstrated high specificity and an acceptable sensitivity in the differential diagnosis of myasthenic diplopia. Data from this series suggest that a partial rather than a complete response to the ice pack test may be expected for myasthenic diplopia. Standardization of the method of application of the ice pack is critical for the interpretation of its effect.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Detailed description of the morphology of rubeola keratitis lesions is missing from textbooks and published reports. We performed a detailed analysis of rubeola keratitis lesions by using a photographic slit lamp and ophthalmic dyes.
Thirty-four eyes of 17 male young adult patients with rubeola keratitis were examined. Patients were examined at 3.6 days after the development of rash. Ocular symptoms were recorded, and patients underwent complete ocular examination including photography of corneal lesions, with and without instillation of ophthalmic dyes (rose Bengal and fluorescein).
Patients complained of foreign-body sensation (88%), photophobia (65%), tearing (65%), and burning sensation (47%). Visual acuity was unaffected (26%) or mildly affected (71%). Conjunctivitis was observed in 74% and keratitis in 100% of eyes. Corneal photographs were studied, and 4 types of corneal lesions were identified: small, punctate epithelial lesions staining only with rose Bengal (100%); small, round, or larger and irregular when they coalesced epithelial defects (100%); large or tiny filaments (39%); and target lesions (100%). Target lesions appeared when both dyes were instilled. The outline of target lesions stained with rose Bengal, and they consisted of a pattern of alternating concentric zones of staining with rose Bengal and fluorescein. Keratitis was strictly confined to the epithelium and resolved gradually in all patients without the appearance of complications.
Rubeola keratitis in healthy young adults runs a benign course. Recognition of the specific to rubeola keratitis corneal target lesions could aid in the differential diagnosis and prevent the transmission of the disease.