Blythe Thomson

Epizyme, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (16)83.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: FLT3/ITD is associated with poor outcomes in adult and pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can improve cure rates, however relapse is still common. Recent studies demonstrate the activity of FLT3 inhibitors, including sorafenib, in targeting the underlying mutation. We conducted a retrospective study of 15 pediatric patients with FLT3/ITD+ AML treated with sorafenib within 18 months after receiving HSCT. Sorafenib was administered either as prophylaxis in patients considered at very high risk for relapse (n = 6) or at the time of disease recurrence (n = 9). Sorafenib was initiated at a median of 100 days post HSCT. Overall, 11/15 (73%) of patients experienced medically significant toxicities. Among patients who experienced toxicity, 6/11 (55%) received treatment at doses above what was later determined to be the maximum tolerated dose of sorafenib for pediatric leukemia. Importantly, sorafenib did not appear to exacerbate graft versus host disease. Our findings suggest that sorafenib may be of particular efficacy in patients with minimal residual disease (MRD); all patients who received sorafenib for MRD immediately prior to transplant or with emergence post-HSCT are alive and remain in complete remission at a median of 48 months post HSCT. Our case series suggests that sorafenib administration is feasible and tolerable in pediatric FLT3/ITD+ AML patients early post HSCT. Ongoing prospective controlled studies are needed to further define the dosing of sorafenib in the post-HSCT period and to determine the optimal context for this treatment approach. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 02/2015; 62(6). DOI:10.1002/pbc.25437 · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • Rebecca A Gardner · Blythe Thomson · Douglas S Hawkins ·
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    ABSTRACT: No abstract is available for this article.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 02/2013; 60(2). DOI:10.1002/pbc.24325 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The outcomes in children with refractory/relapsed (R/R) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are dismal. The efficacy and safety of intravenous clofarabine 40 mg/m(2) per day, cyclophosphamide 440 mg/m(2) per day, and etoposide 100 mg/m(2) per day for 5 consecutive days in pediatric patients with R/R ALL was evaluated in this phase 2 study. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (complete remission [CR] plus CR without platelet recovery [CRp]). Among the 25 patients (median age, 14 years; pre-B cell ALL, 84%; ≥ 2 prior regimens: 84%; refractory to previous regimen: 60%), the overall response rate was 44% (7 CR, 4 CRp) with a 67.3-week median duration or remission censored at last follow-up. Most patients proceeded to alternative therapy, and 10 patients (40%) received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Six patients (24%) died because of treatment-related adverse events associated with infection, hepatotoxicity, and/or multiorgan failure. The study protocol was amended to exclude patients with prior hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after 4 of the first 8 patients developed severe hepatotoxicity suggestive of veno-occlusive disease. No additional cases of veno-occlusive disease occurred. The regimen offered encouraging response rates and sustained remission in R/R patients. Future investigation should include exploration of patient selection, dosing, and supportive care. This trial was registered at as #NCT00315705.
    Blood 10/2011; 118(23):6043-9. DOI:10.1182/blood-2011-08-374710 · 10.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies to evaluate minimal disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after treatment have relied on the diagnostic specimen to develop patient-specific analytical probes. The diagnostic specimen is often not available in a tertiary setting; therefore, we evaluated the use of flow cytometry (FCM) using a "difference from normal" approach to detect residual disease prior to myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Among 116 pediatric patients with ALL who were in morphological remission at time of transplant, we found that those patients who had detectable residual disease by FCM prior to HCT experienced significantly inferior outcome.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 07/2011; 57(1):163-5. DOI:10.1002/pbc.23079 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children's Cancer Group-1991 selected 2 components from the Children's Cancer Group studies shown to be effective in high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia and examined them in children with National Cancer Institute standard-risk acute B-precursor lymphoblastic leukemia. These were (1) vincristine and escalating IV methotrexate (MTX) without leucovorin rescue during the interim maintenance (IM) phases and (2) addition of a second delayed intensification (DI) phase. Eligible patients (n = 2078) were randomly assigned to regimens containing either oral (PO) MTX, PO mercaptopurine, dexamethasone, and vincristine or IV MTX during IM phases, and regimens with either single DI or double DI. Five-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival for patients on the PO MTX arms were 88.7% ± 1.4% and 96% ± 0.9% versus 92.6% ± 1.2% and 96.5% ± 0.8% for those on the IV MTX arms (P = .009, P = .66). Five-year EFS and overall survival for patients who received single DI were 90.9% ± 1.3% and 97.1% ± 0.8% versus 90.5% ± 1.3% and 95.4% ± 3.8% for those who received double DI (P = .71, P = .12). No advantage was found for a second DI; however, replacement of PO MTX, PO mercaptopurine, vincristine, and dexamethasone during IM with vincristine and escalating IV MTX improved EFS.
    Blood 05/2011; 118(2):243-51. DOI:10.1182/blood-2010-12-322909 · 10.45 Impact Factor
  • Carl Koschmann · Blythe Thomson · Douglas S Hawkins ·
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether clinical trial enrollment by itself is associated with improved outcome. Retrospective cohort study. Seattle Children's Hospital from 1997 to 2005. Data were drawn from 322 patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Main Exposure Enrollment in a Children's Oncology Group or Children's Cancer Group clinical trial. (1) Demographic variables associated with trial participation. (2) Event-free survival, which was defined as the time from initial diagnosis to either leukemia recurrence or death from any cause. No outcome advantage was found for participants in a clinical trial compared with nonparticipants. Additionally, there were not demographic factors associated with increased clinical trial participation. Clinical trial participation does not, by itself, lead to improved outcome for pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the current era. Discussions about participation in a clinical trial should focus on improvement of future therapy, not the direct benefit of the research participant.
    JAMA Pediatrics 03/2010; 164(3):214-7. DOI:10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.282 · 5.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This Phase I study of clofarabine with etoposide and cyclophosphamide for children with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities and the recommended phase 2 doses (RP2Ds). All three drugs were administered for five consecutive days in induction and four consecutive days in consolidation, for a maximum of eight cycles. A total of 25 patients (20 ALL and 5 AML) were enrolled in five cohorts. An MTD was not reached. The RP2Ds of clofarabine, cyclophosphamide and etoposide were 40, 440 and 100 mg/m(2)/day, respectively. Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 10 patients (ALL: nine; AML: one), and CR without platelet recovery in six patients (ALL: two; AML: four) for an overall response rate of 64% (ALL: 55%; AML: 100%). Of the 16 responders, 9 patients proceeded to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In conclusion, the combination of clofarabine, etoposide and cyclophosphamide was well tolerated and effective in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory leukemia. Of note, the phase II portion of the trial was amended after the occurrence of unexpected hepatotoxicity. The ongoing phase II study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of this regimen in ALL patients.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 10/2009; 23(12):2259-64. DOI:10.1038/leu.2009.185 · 10.43 Impact Factor
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    Timothy P Cripe · Blythe Thomson · Thomas F Boat · David A Williams ·
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    ABSTRACT: The translation of hypothesis-driven research laboratory findings about basic disease mechanisms into clinically useful tests or therapies, particularly in pediatric diseases, is time-consuming, expensive, and not well supported by traditional research grant mechanisms. Accordingly, the development of new drugs and clinical assays has typically been largely the domain of the pharmaceutical industry. Aside from partnering with for-profit companies, academic health centers are challenged to find ways to actively engage in biomedical research to bridge the gap between basic and clinical research. The Translational Research Initiative (TRI) at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center was launched in 2001 with the mission to build an institutional infrastructure for promoting and facilitating the clinical implementation of investigator-initiated basic research. The TRI's goals are to provide grant support for proposals that are translational in nature and that address serious diagnostic or therapeutic deficiencies in pediatric illnesses; to create and support specialized research cores and a specialized office that provides support for research protocol development and regulatory affairs; and to organize educational opportunities focused on bridging communication between basic and clinical scientists and encouraging multidisciplinary interactions. The authors describe the program structure and provide an interim outcome report as measured by extramural funding obtained, Investigational New Drug applications filed, manuscripts published, clinical trials launched, and educational initiatives created. The broad success of this program suggests that it might serve as a model for other academic health centers in promoting and conducting translational research.
    Academic Medicine 12/2005; 80(11):1012-8. DOI:10.1097/00001888-200511000-00008 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 25% of children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) will eventually experience leukemic relapse, with bone marrow being the most common site of recurrence. The ability to achieve a durable second remission is complicated by toxicity and resistant disease. We report a novel combination of chemotherapy for relapsed pediatric ALL. Thirty pediatric patients with relapsed medullary (n = 18) and extra-medullary (n = 12) ALL were enrolled at three pediatric institutions. Following receipt of induction and the first Block A and Block B of intensification, each patient was evaluated for toxicity, efficacy in achieving remission, and long-term survival. Additionally, minimal residual disease (MRD) detection by multidimensional flow cytometry (MDF) was performed. During induction, the major non-hematopoeitic toxicities were mucositis (30% of patients) and bacteremia (50% of patients). Two patients (7%) died of toxicity during induction. Toxicity during intensification Block 1A and 1B was markedly reduced. Eight-nine percent of patients with marrow disease achieved a remission following induction and intensification. The event-free survival (EFS) for all patients at 2 and 4 years were 60% (95% CI: 42-78%) and 49% (95% CI: 30-68%), respectively. This regimen for patients with relapsed ALL was successful in achieving a second remission for the majority of patients with acceptable toxicity.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 10/2004; 43(5):571-9. DOI:10.1002/pbc.20128 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asparaginase therapy is an important component in the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated asparaginase (PEG-ASNase) has significant pharmacological advantages over native Escherichia coli asparaginase. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of PEG-ASNase, presence of antibodies to PEG-ASNase, and concentrations of asparagine in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in combination chemotherapy for relapsed pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Twenty-eight pediatric patients with relapsed medullary (n = 16) and extramedullary (n = 11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia were enrolled at three pediatric institutions and had at least two serum and CSF samples obtained for analysis. Patients received induction therapy (including PEG-ASNase 2500 IU/m2 intramuscularly weekly on days 2, 9, 16, and 23) and intensification therapy (including PEG-ASNase 2500 IU/m2 intramuscularly once on day 7). Serum samples were obtained weekly during induction and intensification. CSF samples were obtained during therapeutic lumbar punctures during induction and intensification. Weekly PEG-ASNase therapy resulted in PEG-ASNase activity of >0.1 IU/ml in 91-100% of patients throughout induction. During intensification, PEG-ASNase on day 7 resulted in PEG-ASNase activity >0.1 IU/ml in 94% and 80% of patients on days 14 and 21, respectively. Serum and CSF asparagine depletion was observed and maintained during induction and intensification in the majority of samples. PEG-ASNase antibody was observed in only 3 patients. Intensive PEG-ASNase therapy in the treatment of relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia reliably results in high-level serum PEG-ASNase activity, and asparagine depletion in serum and CSF is usually achieved. Incorporation of intensive PEG-ASNase in future trials for recurrent acute lymphoblastic leukemia is warranted.
    Clinical Cancer Research 08/2004; 10(16):5335-41. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0222 · 8.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-5 is a cytokine critically involved in regulating several aspects of eosinophils including their production, activation, and tissue recruitment. As such, IL-5 may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypereosinophilic syndromes, a group of poorly treated diverse disorders characterized by sustained peripheral blood and/or tissue eosinophilia. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of a humanized blocking monoclonal antibody against IL-5 (mepolizumab) in patients with several forms of hyper-eosinophilic syndromes. We performed an open-label trial of anti-IL-5 in which 3 intravenous doses (10 mg/kg, maximum 750 mg) were administered at 4-week intervals to 4 patients with hypereosinophilic syndromes (defined by peripheral blood and/or tissue eosinophilia). The effects of treatment on safety, eosinophil levels (in peripheral blood and/or diseased tissue), pulmonary function, and quality of life were measured over a 28-week period. Anti-IL-5 was well tolerated in all patients and lowered peripheral blood eosinophil counts despite ongoing systemic glucocorticoid therapy. The decline in circulating eosinophil counts was sustained for at least 12 weeks after the last dose of anti-IL-5. In addition, anti-IL-5 improved clinical and quality of life measurements. In one patient with striking tissue eosinophilia (eosinophilic esophagitis), anti-IL-5 resulted in a 10-fold reduction in tissue eosinophil levels. These results suggest that anti-IL-5 is safe, effective in lowering eosinophil levels, and has potential glucocorticoid-sparing effects in patients with a variety of hyper-eosinophilic syndromes. As such, anti-IL-5 may have significant therapeutic potential for hypereosinophilic syndromes.
    Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 02/2004; 113(1):115-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2003.10.049 · 11.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To increase the dose intensity (DI) of chemotherapy for pediatric patients with metastatic sarcomas, including the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the authors tested the feasibility of an intensive regimen supported by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). Twenty-three children and adolescents with metastatic sarcomas received vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, sodium mercaptoethanesulfonate (mensa), and etoposide (VACIME) chemotherapy, consisting of 8 courses of vincristine 2 mg/m(2) on Day 0, doxorubicin 37.5 mg/m(2) per day on Days 0-1, cyclophosphamide 360 mg/m(2) per day on Days 0-4, ifosfamide 1800 mg/m(2) per day on Days 0-4, mesna 2400 mg/m(2) per day, and etoposide 100 mg/m(2) per day on Days 0-4. Doxorubicin was omitted in Courses 7 and 8. G-CSF was given after each course of therapy. Courses of therapy were repeated every 21 days or as soon as hematopoietic recovery permitted. PBSC were collected twice: first, after Course 2 (infused after Courses 3 and 4) and, second, after Course 4 (infused after Courses 5 and 6). Surgical resection followed Course 6, and radiotherapy followed Course 8. PBSC collections were adequate in 91% of all harvests. The mean DI was 82% (standard deviation, 14%) of the intended DI, which was greater than historic data without PBSC support. Seventeen patients (74%) achieved a complete response (CR), 12 patients with chemotherapy alone and 5 more patients after undergoing surgical resection. Fifteen patients developed progressive disease, with a 2-year event free survival (EFS) rate of 39% (95% confidence interval, 19-59%). Hematopoietic toxicity was severe and cumulative, although it was less than that seen previously without PBSC support. PBSC-supported multicycle chemotherapy is a feasible method to increase chemotherapy DI for pediatric patients with metastatic sarcomas. Although the CR rate compared favorably with previously reported response rates, the 2-year EFS rate was similar to that achieved with other intensive regimens.
    Cancer 09/2002; 95(6):1354-65. DOI:10.1002/cncr.10801 · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared multidimensional flow cytometry (MDF) with morphology in evaluating early marrow response to induction chemotherapy in pediatric ALL. Chemotherapy response was determined by standard morphology or by MDF assessed by residual leukemic cell percentage remaining in the marrow on days 7, 14, and 28 of induction. Bone marrow response was classified as M3 (>25% leukemic blasts) or M1/M2 (< or = 25% leukemic blasts). Multidimensional flow cytometry evaluation was compared with that of standard morphology. Available day-7 and day-14 marrow slides were also reevaluated by a single pathologist without patients' clinical information. Of 46 day-7 specimens, eight (17%) had discordant MDF and morphologic results (P < 0.001), including six classified as M3 by morphology but were M1/M2 by MDF, and two were classified as M3 by MDF but were M1/M2 by morphology. Of 24 day-14 bone marrow specimens, five (20.5%) were discordant (P < 0.001), including two classified as M3 by morphology but were M1/M2 by MDF, and three were classified as M3 by MDF but were M1/M2 by morphology. Reevaluation of the blinded day-7 and day-14 marrow slides yielded discordance between repeated pathology readings of 11% (P < 0.001) and 6% (P = 0.04), respectively. Our data show significant discordance between the morphologic and MDF evaluation of early marrow response. Early response to therapy is a significant prognostic indicator in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and is used to alter subsequent treatment; thus, precise assessment of response is important. A larger comparison of MDF with morphology for the evaluation of early response, including correlation with clinical outcome, is warranted.
    Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 01/2002; 23(9):585-90. DOI:10.1097/00043426-200112000-00007 · 0.90 Impact Factor
  • Blythe Thomson · Renee Tritt · Mary Davis · Mark R. Kelley ·
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    ABSTRACT: DNA repair enzymes have a critical role in cellular maintenance and survival. The enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor 1 (APE/ref1), a key protein in the base excision repair pathway, displays both repair and redox control. We examined the role of APE/ref1 in pediatric embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (ARMS). Using an immunohistochemical method, fixed tissue from 31 newly diagnosed pediatric rhabdomyosarcomas were evaluated for expression of APE/ref1. Tissue was obtained from Indiana University and the Cooperative Human Tissue Network. We demonstrated high levels of expression within the localized and metastatic embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas. This contrasted with both localized and metastatic ARMS, which had low levels of APE/ref1 expression. This histology-specific difference proved to be significant (P = 0.003). Furthermore, the expression within all tumors examined was localized to the nucleus and did not differ between localized and metastatic tumors. We propose several hypotheses to explain this histology-specific expression of APE/ref1 in pediatric rhabdomyosarcomas. Because the majority of ARMS expressed either the PAX3/FKHR or PAX7/FKHR fusion transcript, the low level of expression may be related to the redox activity of APE/ref1. The low levels may also be related to the bioreductive activity of APE/ref 1.
    Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 06/2001; 23(4):234-9. DOI:10.1097/00043426-200105000-00011 · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    B Thomson · D Hawkins · J Felgenhauer · J P Radich ·
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral blood stem cell support allows dose intensification of multiple cycle chemotherapy for metastatic tumors, including pediatric sarcomas. The VACIME protocol (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, mesna and etoposide) utilizes peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) collected following the treatment cycle as support for subsequent dose- and time-intensive chemotherapy. A critical assumption is that PBSC collected in this manner will be purged of residual tumor cells in vivo. We tested this assumption using sensitive reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to assess the presence of the characteristic translocations of the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), t(11;22), and t(2;13), respectively. We used RT-PCR to evaluate 122 samples of peripheral blood (PB), bone marrow (BM) and PBSC collected from 12 pediatric patients with metastatic ESFT and ARMS. The samples included pre-therapy BM and PB, as well as BM, PB, and PBSC collections at various times in the VACIME treatment course. Molecular evidence of tumor contamination was detected in 1/40 PBSC collections from 12 patients. In all patients, we documented clearance of disease by RT-PCR in peripheral blood and bone marrow by week 9 of the VACIME protocol. In vivo purging in combination with the intensive VACIME regime appears to be effective in removing tumor cells from PBSC, bone marrow, and peripheral blood as detected by RT-PCR.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 10/1999; 24(5):527-33. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1701939 · 3.57 Impact Factor
  • Jerry Radich · Blythe Thomson ·
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    ABSTRACT: The study of minimal residual disease (MRD) is an attempt to detect and define the significance of leukemia invisible to normal morphologic examination. In many circumstances the clinical significance of MRD detection is unclear, because the technical ability to detect and quantify it has outpaced studies demonstrating its clinical significance. The detection of minimal residual disease most consistently has been associated with relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, t(15;17) acute myeloid leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia post-transplant, especially after T-cell depletion. But, in many types of leukemia, including acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, MRD can be detected in long-term remission patients without subsequent relapse. The study of MRD is evolving from detecting residual disease and predicting relapse to the study of the mechanisms that explain how minimum residual disease can coexist in a "cured" patient.
    Current Opinion in Hematology 08/1997; 4(4):242-7. DOI:10.1097/00062752-199704040-00004 · 3.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

596 Citations
83.98 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Epizyme, Inc.
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009-2013
    • Seattle Children's Hospital
      • Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2002-2004
    • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States