[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT:
Nineteen nicotine-deprived cigarette smokers received monetary rewards for each minute they chose not to initiate smoking in 2-h laboratory sessions followed by a 30-min period of enforced abstinence from smoking. Reinforcer amounts were delivered according to one of three schedules: increasing, decreasing, and constant. Relapse time (time until first cigarette) was shortest in the decreasing condition, longest in the increasing condition, and intermediate in the constant condition. All differences were significant except in the constant-decreasing comparison. The relationships between a battery of baseline assessments and relapse times were examined. Relapse times were predicted by delay-discounting coefficients (k) for $10 and $1000 in money and for $1000 of cigarettes. Relapse times were also predicted by the number of cigarettes smoked daily and a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test score. Performance on the Stroop Task and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence differentiated participants dichotomized into those who relapsed 'earlier' in sessions versus those who first smoked 'later'. The variability in some scores from smoking-urges and affect questionnaires administered after smoking-room sessions was explained by measures related to in-session nicotine intake. Results are discussed as they relate to contingency-management procedures, predictors of relapse, and the competing neurobehavioral decision systems theory of addiction.