Dazhi Liu

University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States

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Publications (23)116.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Defining the RNA transcriptome in Alzheimer Disease (AD) will help understand the disease mechanisms and provide biomarkers. Though the AD blood transcriptome has been studied, effects of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were not considered. This study investigated the AD blood transcriptome and accounted for WMH. RNA from whole blood was processed on whole-genome microarrays. A total of 293 probe sets were differentially expressed in AD versus controls, 5 of which were significant for WMH status. The 288 AD-specific probe sets classified subjects with 87.5% sensitivity and 90.5% specificity. They represented 188 genes of which 29 have been reported in prior AD blood and 89 in AD brain studies. Regulated blood genes included MMP9, MME (Neprilysin), TGFβ1, CA4, OCLN, ATM, TGM3, IGFR2, NOV, RNF213, BMX, LRRN1, CAMK2G, INSR, CTSD, SORCS1, SORL1, and TANC2. RNA expression is altered in AD blood irrespective of WMH status. Some genes are shared with AD brain.
    Alzheimer disease and associated disorders 04/2014; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often associated with intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage. Thrombin is a neurotoxin generated at bleeding sites following TBI, and can lead to cell death and subsequent cognitive dysfunction via activation of Src family kinases (SFKs). We hypothesize that inhibiting SFKs can protect hippocampal neurons and improve cognitive memory function following TBI. To test these hypotheses we show that moderate lateral fluid percussion (LFP) TBI in adult rats produces bleeding into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in both lateral ventricles, which elevates oxyhemoglobin and thrombin levels in CSF, activates the SFK family member Fyn, and increases Rho-kinase 1(ROCK1) expression. Systemic administration of the SFK inhibitor, PP2, immediately following moderate TBI blocks ROCK1 expression, protects hippocampal CA2-3 neurons, and improves spatial memory function. These data suggest the possibility that inhibiting SFKs following TBI might improve clinical outcomes.
    Journal of neurotrauma 01/2014; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: microRNA (miRNA) are important regulators of gene expression. In patients with ischemic stroke we have previously shown that differences in immune cell gene expression are present. In this study we sought to determine the miRNA that are differentially expressed in peripheral blood cells of patients with acute ischemic stroke and thus may regulate immune cell gene expression.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99283. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest that sex has a role in the pathogenesis of cardioembolic stroke. Since stroke is a vascular disease, identifying sexually dimorphic gene expression changes in blood leukocytes can inform on sex-specific risk factors, response and outcome biology. We aimed to examine the sexually dimorphic immune response following cardioembolic stroke by studying the differential gene expression in peripheral white blood cells.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(7):e102550. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a common complication of ischemic stroke that is exacerbated by thrombolytic therapy. Methods to better prevent, predict, and treat HT are needed. In this review, we summarize studies of HT in both animals and humans. We propose that early HT (<18 to 24 hours after stroke onset) relates to leukocyte-derived matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and brain-derived MMP-2 that damage the neurovascular unit and promote blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. This contrasts to delayed HT (>18 to 24 hours after stroke) that relates to ischemia activation of brain proteases (MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and endogenous tissue plasminogen activator), neuroinflammation, and factors that promote vascular remodeling (vascular endothelial growth factor and high-moblity-group-box-1). Processes that mediate BBB repair and reduce HT risk are discussed, including transforming growth factor beta signaling in monocytes, Src kinase signaling, MMP inhibitors, and inhibitors of reactive oxygen species. Finally, clinical features associated with HT in patients with stroke are reviewed, including approaches to predict HT by clinical factors, brain imaging, and blood biomarkers. Though remarkable advances in our understanding of HT have been made, additional efforts are needed to translate these discoveries to the clinic and reduce the impact of HT on patients with ischemic stroke.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 27 November 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.203.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 11/2013; · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a major complication of ischemic stroke that worsens outcomes and increases mortality. Disruption of the blood brain barrier is a central feature to HT pathogenesis, and leukocytes may contribute to this process. We sought to determine whether ischemic strokes that develop HT have differences in RNA expression in blood within 3 hours of stroke onset prior to treatment with thrombolytic therapy. METHODS: Stroke patient blood samples were obtained prior to treatment with thrombolysis, and leukocyte RNA assessed by microarray analysis. Strokes that developed HT (n=11) were compared to strokes without HT (n=33) and controls (n=14). Genes were identified (corrected p-value <0.05, fold change ≥|1.2|) and functional analysis performed. RNA prediction of HT in stroke was evaluated using cross-validation, and in a second stroke cohort (n=52). RESULTS: Ischemic strokes that developed HT had differential expression of 29 genes in circulating leukocytes prior to treatment with thrombolytic therapy. A panel of 6 genes could predict strokes that later developed HT with 80% sensitivity and 70.2% specificity. Key pathways involved in HT of human stroke are described, including amphiregulin, a growth factor that regulates matrix metalloproteinase-9; a shift in transforming growth factor-beta signaling involving SMAD4, INPP5D and IRAK3; and a disruption of coagulation factors V and VIII. INTERPRETATION: Identified genes correspond to differences in inflammation and coagulation that may predispose to HT in ischemic stroke. Given the adverse impact of HT on stroke outcomes, further evaluation of the identified genes and pathways is warranted to determine their potential as therapeutic targets to reduce HT and as markers of HT risk. ANN NEUROL 2010.
    Annals of Neurology 03/2013; · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cause of ischemic stroke remains unclear, or cryptogenic, in as many as 35% of patients with stroke. Not knowing the cause of stroke restricts optimal implementation of prevention therapy and limits stroke research. We demonstrate how gene expression profiles in blood can be used in conjunction with a measure of infarct location on neuroimaging to predict a probable cause in cryptogenic stroke. The cause of cryptogenic stroke was predicted using previously described profiles of differentially expressed genes characteristic of patients with cardioembolic, arterial, and lacunar stroke. RNA was isolated from peripheral blood of 131 cryptogenic strokes and compared with profiles derived from 149 strokes of known cause. Each sample was run on Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Cause of cryptogenic stroke was predicted using gene expression in blood and infarct location. Cryptogenic strokes were predicted to be 58% cardioembolic, 18% arterial, 12% lacunar, and 12% unclear etiology. Cryptogenic stroke of predicted cardioembolic etiology had more prior myocardial infarction and higher CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores compared with stroke of predicted arterial etiology. Predicted lacunar strokes had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures and lower National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale compared with predicted arterial and cardioembolic strokes. Cryptogenic strokes of unclear predicted etiology were less likely to have a prior transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke. Gene expression in conjunction with a measure of infarct location can predict a probable cause in cryptogenic strokes. Predicted groups require further evaluation to determine whether relevant clinical, imaging, or therapeutic differences exist for each group.
    Stroke 05/2012; 43(8):2036-41. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sex is suggested to be an important determinant of ischemic stroke risk factors, etiology, and outcome. However, the basis for this remains unclear. The Y chromosome is unique in males. Genes expressed in males on the Y chromosome that are associated with stroke may be important genetic contributors to the unique features of males with ischemic stroke, which would be helpful for explaining sex differences observed between men and women. We compared Y chromosome gene expression in males with ischemic stroke and male controls. Blood samples were obtained from 40 male patients ≤3, 5, and 24 hours after ischemic stroke and from 41 male controls (July 2003-April 2007). RNA was isolated from blood and was processed using Affymetrix Human U133 Plus 2.0 expression arrays (Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, California). Y chromosome genes differentially expressed between male patients with stroke and male control subjects were identified using an ANCOVA adjusted for age and batch. A P < 0.05 and a fold change >1.2 were considered significant. Seven genes on the Y chromosome were differentially expressed in males with ischemic stroke compared with controls. Five of these genes (VAMP7, CSF2RA, SPRY3, DHRSX, and PLCXD1) are located on pseudoautosomal regions of the human Y chromosome. The other 2 genes (EIF1AY and DDX3Y) are located on the nonrecombining region of the human Y chromosome. The identified genes were associated with immunology, RNA metabolism, vesicle fusion, and angiogenesis. Specific genes on the Y chromosome are differentially expressed in blood after ischemic stroke. These genes provide insight into potential molecular contributors to sex differences in ischemic stroke.
    Gender Medicine 02/2012; 9(2):68-75.e3. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deciphering whether a transient neurological event (TNE) is of ischemic or nonischemic etiology can be challenging. Ischemia of cerebral tissue elicits an immune response in stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). This response, as detected by RNA expressed in immune cells, could potentially distinguish ischemic from nonischemic TNE. Analysis of 208 TIAs, ischemic strokes, controls, and TNE was performed. RNA from blood was processed on microarrays. TIAs (n=26) and ischemic strokes (n=94) were compared with controls (n=44) to identify differentially expressed genes (false discovery rate <0.05, fold change ≥1.2). Genes common to TIA and stroke were used predict ischemia in TIA diffusion-weighted imaging-positive/minor stroke (n=17), nonischemic TNE (n=13), and TNE of unclear etiology (n=14). Seventy-four genes expressed in TIA were common to those in ischemic stroke. Functional pathways common to TIA and stroke related to activation of innate and adaptive immune systems, involving granulocytes and B cells. A prediction model using 26 of the 74 ischemia genes distinguished TIA and stroke subjects from control subjects with 89% sensitivity and specificity. In the validation cohort, 17 of 17 TIA diffusion-weighted imaging-positive/minor strokes were predicted to be ischemic, and 10 of 13 nonischemic TNE were predicted to be nonischemic. In TNE of unclear etiology, 71% were predicted to be ischemic. These subjects had higher ABCD(2) scores. A common molecular response to ischemia in TIA and stroke was identified, relating to activation of innate and adaptive immune systems. TNE of ischemic etiology was identified based on gene profiles that may be of clinical use once validated.
    Stroke 02/2012; 43(4):1006-12. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of gender on RNA expression after ischemic stroke (IS). RNA obtained from blood of IS patients (n=51; 153 samples at < or =3, 5, and 24 hours) and from matched controls (n=52) were processed on Affymetrix microarrays. Analyses of covariance for stroke versus control samples were performed separately for both genders and the regulated genes for females compared with males. In all, 242, 227, and 338 male-specific genes were regulated at < or =3, 5, and 24 hours after IS, respectively, of which 59 were regulated at all time points. Overall, 774, 3,437, and 571 female-specific stroke genes were regulated at < or =3, 5, and 24 hours, respectively, of which 152 were regulated at all time points. Male-specific stroke genes were associated with integrin, integrin-liked kinase, actin, tight junction, Wnt/β-catenin, RhoA, fibroblast growth factors (FGF), granzyme, and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)2 signaling. Female-specific stroke genes were associated with p53, high-mobility group box-1, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)1α, interleukin (IL)1, IL6, IL12, IL18, acute-phase response, T-helper, macrophage, and estrogen signaling. Cell death signaling was overrepresented in both genders, although the molecules and pathways differed. Gender affects gene expression in the blood of IS patients, which likely implies gender differences in immune, inflammatory, and cell death responses to stroke.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 12/2011; 32(5):780-91. · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Differences in ischemic stroke between men and women have been mainly attributed to hormonal effects. However, sex differences in immune response to ischemia may exist. We hypothesized that differential expression of X-chromosome genes in blood immune cells contribute to differences between men and women with ischemic stroke. RNA levels of 683 X-chromosome genes were measured on Affymetrix U133 Plus2.0 microarrays. Blood samples from patients with ischemic stroke were obtained at ≤ 3 hours, 5 hours, and 24 hours (n=61; 183 samples) after onset and compared with control subjects without symptomatic vascular diseases (n=109). Sex difference in X-chromosome gene expression was determined using analysis of covariance (false discovery rate ≤ 0.05, fold change ≥ 1.2). At ≤ 3, 5, and 24 hours after stroke, there were 37, 140, and 61 X-chromosome genes, respectively, that changed in women; and 23, 18, and 31 X-chromosome genes that changed in men. Female-specific genes were associated with post-translational modification, small-molecule biochemistry, and cell-cell signaling. Male-specific genes were associated with cellular movement, development, cell-trafficking, and cell death. Altered sex specific X-chromosome gene expression occurred in 2 genes known to be associated with human stroke, including galactosidase A and IDS, mutations of which result in Fabry disease and Hunter syndrome, respectively. There are differences in X-chromosome gene expression between men and women with ischemic stroke. Future studies are needed to decipher whether these differences are associated with sexually dimorphic immune response, repair or other mechanisms after stroke, or whether some of them represent risk determinants.
    Stroke 11/2011; 43(2):326-34. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whole genome expression microarrays can be used to study gene expression in blood, which comes in part from leukocytes, immature platelets, and red blood cells. Since these cells are important in the pathogenesis of stroke, RNA provides an index of these cellular responses to stroke. Our studies in rats have shown specific gene expression changes 24 hours after ischemic stroke, hemorrhage, status epilepticus, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, global ischemia, and following brief focal ischemia that simulated transient ischemic attacks in humans. Human studies show gene expression changes following ischemic stroke. These gene profiles predict a second cohort with >90% sensitivity and specificity. Gene profiles for ischemic stroke caused by large-vessel atherosclerosis and cardioembolism have been described that predict a second cohort with >85% sensitivity and specificity. Atherosclerotic genes were associated with clotting, platelets, and monocytes, and cardioembolic genes were associated with inflammation, infection, and neutrophils. These gene profiles predicted the cause of stroke in 58% of cryptogenic patients. These studies will provide diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic markers, and will advance our understanding of stroke in humans. New techniques to measure all coding and noncoding RNAs along with alternatively spliced transcripts will markedly advance molecular studies of human stroke.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 07/2011; 31(7):1513-31. · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Determining which small deep infarcts (SDIs) are of lacunar, arterial, or cardioembolic etiology is challenging, but important in delivering optimal stroke prevention therapy. We sought to distinguish lacunar from nonlacunar causes of SDIs using a gene expression profile. A total of 184 ischemic strokes were analyzed. Lacunar stroke was defined as a lacunar syndrome with infarction <15mm in a region supplied by penetrating arteries. RNA from blood was processed on whole genome microarrays. Genes differentially expressed between lacunar (n = 30) and nonlacunar strokes (n = 86) were identified (false discovery rate ≤ 0.05, fold change >|1.5|) and used to develop a prediction model. The model was evaluated by cross-validation and in a second test cohort (n = 36). The etiology of SDIs of unclear cause (SDIs ≥ 15mm or SDIs with potential embolic source) (n = 32) was predicted using the derived model. A 41-gene profile discriminated lacunar from nonlacunar stroke with >90% sensitivity and specificity. Of the 32 SDIs of unclear cause, 15 were predicted to be lacunar, and 17 were predicted to be nonlacunar. The identified profile represents differences in immune response between lacunar and nonlacunar stroke. Profiles of differentially expressed genes can distinguish lacunar from nonlacunar stroke. SDIs of unclear cause were frequently predicted to be of nonlacunar etiology, suggesting that comprehensive workup of SDIs is important to identify potential cardioembolic and arterial causes. Further study is required to evaluate the gene profile in an independent cohort and determine the clinical and treatment implications of SDIs of predicted nonlacunar etiology.
    Annals of Neurology 06/2011; 70(3):477-85. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A blood test to detect stroke and its causes would be particularly useful in babies, young children, and patients in intensive care units and for emergencies when imaging is difficult to obtain or is unavailable. Whole genome microarrays were used to show specific gene expression profiles in rats 24 hours after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, hypoxia, and hypoglycemia. These proof-of-principle studies revealed that groups of genes (called gene profiles) can distinguish ischemic stroke patients from controls within 3 to 24 hours after the strokes. In addition, gene expression profiles have been developed that distinguish stroke due to large-vessel atherosclerosis from cardioembolic stroke. These profiles will be useful for predicting the causes of cryptogenic stroke. The results in adults suggest that similar diagnostic tools could be developed for children.
    Journal of child neurology 06/2011; 26(9):1131-6. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a complex childhood neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics. Recently, altered numbers of GABAergic-parvalbumin (PV) and cholinergic interneurons were observed in the basal ganglia of individuals with TS. Thus, we postulated that gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)- and acetylcholine (ACh)-related genes might be associated with the pathophysiology of TS. Total RNA isolated from whole blood of 26 un-medicated TS subjects and 23 healthy controls (HC) was processed on Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST arrays. Data were analyzed to identify genes whose expression correlated with tic severity in TS, and to identify genes differentially spliced in TS compared to HC subjects. Many genes (3627) correlated with tic severity in TS (p < 0.05) among which GABA- (p = 2.1 × 10⁻³) and ACh- (p = 4.25 × 10⁻⁸) related genes were significantly over-represented. Moreover, several GABA and ACh-related genes were predicted to be alternatively spliced in TS compared to HC including GABA receptors GABRA4 and GABRG1, the nicotinic ACh receptor CHRNA4 and cholinergic differentiation factor (CDF). This pilot study suggests that at least some of these GABA- and ACh-related genes observed in blood that correlate with tics or are alternatively spliced are involved in the pathophysiology of TS and tics.
    Brain research 01/2011; 1381:228-36. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tourette Syndrome (TS) is diagnosed based upon clinical criteria including motor and vocal tics. We hypothesized that differences in exon expression and splicing might be useful for pathophysiology and diagnosis. To demonstrate exon expression and alternatively spliced gene differences in blood of individuals with TS compared to healthy controls (HC), RNA was isolated from the blood of 26 un-medicated TS subjects and 23 HC. Each sample was run on Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST (HuExon) arrays and on 3' biased U133 Plus 2.0 (HuU133) arrays. To investigate the differentially expressed exons and transcripts, analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed, controlling for age, gender, and batch. Differential alternative splicing patterns between TS and HC were identified using analyses of variance (ANOVA) models in Partek. Three hundred and seventy-six exon probe sets were differentially expressed between TS and HC (raw P < 0.005, fold change >|1.2|) that separated TS and HC subjects using hierarchical clustering and Principal Components Analysis. The probe sets predicted TS compared to HC with a >90% sensitivity and specificity using a 10-fold cross-validation. Ninety genes (transcripts) had differential expression of a single exon (raw P < 0.005) and were predicted to be alternatively spliced (raw P < 0.05) in TS compared to HC. These preliminary findings might provide insight into the pathophysiology of TS and potentially provide prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. However, the findings are tempered by the small sample size and multiple comparisons and require confirmation using PCR or deep RNA sequencing and a much larger patient population.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 01/2011; 156B(1):72-8. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cause of stroke remains unknown or cryptogenic in many patients. We sought to determine whether gene expression signatures in blood can distinguish between cardioembolic and large-vessel causes of stroke, and whether these profiles can predict stroke etiology in the cryptogenic group. A total of 194 samples from 76 acute ischemic stroke patients were analyzed. RNA was isolated from blood and run on Affymetrix U133 Plus2.0 microarrays. Genes that distinguish large-vessel from cardioembolic stroke were determined at 3, 5, and 24 hours following stroke onset. Predictors were evaluated using cross-validation and a separate set of patients with known stroke subtype. The cause of cryptogenic stroke was predicted based on a model developed from strokes of known cause and identified predictors. A 40-gene profile differentiated cardioembolic stroke from large-vessel stroke with >95% sensitivity and specificity. A separate 37-gene profile differentiated cardioembolic stroke due to atrial fibrillation from nonatrial fibrillation causes with >90% sensitivity and specificity. The identified genes elucidate differences in inflammation between stroke subtypes. When applied to patients with cryptogenic stroke, 17% are predicted to be large-vessel and 41% to be cardioembolic stroke. Of the cryptogenic strokes predicted to be cardioembolic, 27% were predicted to have atrial fibrillation. Gene expression signatures distinguish cardioembolic from large-vessel causes of ischemic stroke. These gene profiles may add valuable diagnostic information in the management of patients with stroke of unknown etiology though they need to be validated in future independent, large studies.
    Annals of Neurology 11/2010; 68(5):681-92. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are areas of high signal detected by T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences on brain MRI. Although associated with aging, cerebrovascular risk factors, and cognitive impairment, the pathogenesis of WMH remains unclear. Thus, RNA expression was assessed in the blood of individuals with and without extensive WMH to search for evidence of oxidative stress, inflammation, and other abnormalities described in WMH lesions in brain. Subjects included 20 with extensive WMH (WMH+), 45% of whom had Alzheimer disease, and 18 with minimal WMH (WMH-), 44% of whom had Alzheimer disease. All subjects were clinically evaluated and underwent quantitative MRI. Total RNA from whole blood was processed on human whole genome Affymetrix HU133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. RNA expression was analyzed using an analysis of covariance. Two hundred forty-one genes were differentially regulated at ± 1.2-fold difference (P < 0.005) in subjects with WMH+ as compared to WMH-, regardless of cognitive status and 50 genes were differentially regulated with ± 1.5-fold difference (P < 0.005). Cluster and principal components analyses showed that the expression profiles for these genes distinguished WMH+ from WMH- subjects. Function analyses suggested that WMH-specific genes were associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, detoxification, and hormone signaling, and included genes associated with oligodendrocyte proliferation, axon repair, long-term potentiation, and neurotransmission. The unique RNA expression profile in blood associated with WMH is consistent with roles of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as other potential processes in the pathogenesis or consequences of WMH.
    Stroke 10/2010; 41(12):2744-9. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A blood-based biomarker of acute ischemic stroke would be of significant value in clinical practice. This study aimed to (1) replicate in a larger cohort our previous study using gene expression profiling to predict ischemic stroke; and (2) refine prediction of ischemic stroke by including control groups relevant to ischemic stroke. Patients with ischemic stroke (n=70, 199 samples) were compared with control subjects who were healthy (n=38), had vascular risk factors (n=52), and who had myocardial infarction (n=17). Whole blood was drawn ≤3 hours, 5 hours, and 24 hours after stroke onset and from control subjects. RNA was processed on whole genome microarrays. Genes differentially expressed in ischemic stroke were identified and analyzed for predictive ability to discriminate stroke from control subjects. The 29 probe sets previously reported predicted a new set of ischemic strokes with 93.5% sensitivity and 89.5% specificity. Sixty- and 46-probe sets differentiated control groups from 3-hour and 24-hour ischemic stroke samples, respectively. A 97-probe set correctly classified 86% of ischemic strokes (3 hour+24 hour), 84% of healthy subjects, 96% of vascular risk factor subjects, and 75% with myocardial infarction. This study replicated our previously reported gene expression profile in a larger cohort and identified additional genes that discriminate ischemic stroke from relevant control groups. This multigene approach shows potential for a point-of-care test in acute ischemic stroke.
    Stroke 10/2010; 41(10):2171-7. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using whole genome exon microarrays 120 exons were differentially expressed between medication-free multiple sclerosis (MS) subjects in remission and healthy control subjects (HS) (p<0.001, fold change>|1.2|). These exons differentiated MS from HS using cluster analyses, principal components analyses (PCAs) and cross-validation. In addition, 340 genes (transcripts) were predicted to be alternatively spliced in MS compared to HS. These findings may provide insight into the pathophysiology of MS and potentially provide prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. However, given that multiple comparisons were performed on a very small sample, these preliminary findings require confirmation using a much larger independent cohort.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 10/2010; 230(1-2):124-9. · 2.84 Impact Factor