[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may have a suboptimal CD4 increase despite rapid virological suppression. The frequency and the significance for patient care of this discordant response are uncertain. This study was designed to determine the incidence of a discordant response at two time-points, soon after 6 months and at 12 months, and to determine the relationship with clinical outcomes.
Data obtained in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort Study were analysed. A total of 2584 treatment-naïve patients starting HAART with HIV viral load (VL) > 1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL at baseline and < 50 copies/mL within 6 months were included in the analysis. Patients were classified at either 6-10 (midpoint 8) months or 10-14 (midpoint 12) months as having a discordant (CD4 count increase < 100 cells/microL from baseline) or concordant response (CD4 count increase >or= 100 cells/microL).
Discordant responses occurred in 32.1% of patients at 8 months and in 24.2% at 12 months; 35% of those discordant at 8 months were concordant at 12 months. A discordant response was associated with older age, lower baseline VL, and (at 12 months) higher baseline CD4 cell count. In a multivariate analysis it was associated with an increased risk of death, more strongly at 12 months [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 3.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.73-6.47, P < 0.001] than at 8 months (IRR 2.08, 95% CI 1.19-3.64, P = 0.010), but not with new AIDS events.
Discordant responders have a worse outcome, but assessment at 12 months may be preferred, given the number of 'slow' responders. Management strategies to improve outcomes for discordant responders need to be investigated.
HIV Medicine 10/2009; 11(2):152-60. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00755.x · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Little is known about the long term risk of development of HIV-1 drug resistance for patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) with three or four drug regimens in routine clinical practice. Methods: We analysed a large cohort study of patients seen in one of six large HIV clinics in and around London, UK. The focus of this analysis was on patients who started ART with two nucleosides plus either a single protease inhibitor (PI), a PI with ritonavir, abacavir or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Results: 4306 patients were followed; 1436 (33%) started with a single PI, 279 (6%) with a PI plus ritonavir, 156 (4%) with triple nucleosides and 2435 (57%) with an NNRTI. The overall cumulative risk of viral load failure was 38% by 6 years. Risk of >= 1 major IAS-USA mutation was 27% by 6 years; risk of mutations from at least two of the three main drug classes was 20% over the same period. These are lower limit estimates as test results were not available for many with viral load failure. Risk of PI mutations being detected in people who started ART with regimens containing a PI with ritonavir was significantly lower than the risk of NNRTI mutations being detected in those starting with NNRTI-containing regimens (relative hazard, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.15-0.61; p = 0.0008). Conclusion: In routine practice, rates of viral load failure and of resistance detection in patients who started ART with three or four drugs are appreciable. (c) 2005 Lippincott Williams C Wilkins.