James L Howard

Mayo Clinic - Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (6)18.28 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: It is unknown whether the long-term survival of uncemented acetabular components in revision total hip arthroplasty varies according to component type. The purpose of this study was to compare the survivorship of historical and current uncemented acetabular components following revision total hip arthroplasty. The study population included 3236 patients who underwent 3448 revision total hip arthroplasty procedures with an uncemented acetabular component at a large United States medical center between January 1, 1984, and December 31, 2004. Patients were actively followed up at regular intervals to ascertain details of subsequent revision surgical procedures, including cup (metal shell plus liner) and liner revisions. The overall survival and the cause-specific survival of ten different acetabular components were compared with use of Cox proportional-hazards regression models, adjusting for age and sex. A total of 605 repeat revisions, including 386 cup revisions, were performed. The corresponding overall survival rate at fifteen years was 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67% to 72%). Compared with titanium wire mesh designs, cup revision for aseptic loosening was significantly more common with beaded designs (hazard ratio [HR], 2.01; 95% CI, 1.44 to 2.80) but less common with trabecular metal designs (HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.06 to 1.04). There were no liner revisions for wear and/or osteolysis during a median of 5.2 years of follow-up of 534 total hip arthroplasties with cross-linked polyethylene liners, resulting in a significantly lower risk of wear-related revision with cross-linked polyethylene compared with conventional liners. Femoral head size and use of an elevated liner were not associated with the risk of repeat revision. In the setting of revision total hip arthroplasty, cup survival was worse with beaded acetabular designs compared with titanium wire mesh or highly porous designs. Cross-linked polyethylene liners were associated with a reduced risk of wear-related liner revision.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 06/2012; 94(12):e82. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since their initial introduction in the early 1980s, uncemented acetabular components have become the preferred implant type for the majority of hip arthroplasties performed in the United States. The purpose of the present study was to compare differences in the survival of uncemented acetabular components following primary total hip arthroplasty. The study population included 7989 patients who had undergone 9584 primary total hip arthroplasties with twenty different types of uncemented acetabular components at the Mayo Clinic from January 1984 to December 2004. The overall rate of survival as well as the rate of survival free of revision for specific reasons (aseptic loosening, wear, osteolysis) were compared among the different components using age and sex-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. The risk of acetabular cup revision was significantly higher for beaded and hydroxyapatite-coated designs as compared with titanium wire mesh designs. Cross-linked polyethylene performed better than conventional polyethylene, but this finding did not reach significance. Elevated liners were associated with a significantly higher risk of cup revision due to aseptic loosening. There are significant differences in the long-term survival of different types of uncemented acetabular components following total hip arthroplasty. The increased risk of revisions in the second decade after the initial total hip arthroplasty is a concern and is largely due to a steady increase in revisions because of polyethylene wear, osteolysis, and component loosening more than ten years after the time of the index arthroplasty.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 09/2011; 93(17):1597-604. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optimum treatment method for large femoral bone defects during revision knee replacement has not been established. The purpose of the present study was to determine the initial results associated with the use of porous tantalum metaphyseal cones for the treatment of severe femoral bone loss at the time of revision total knee arthroplasty. Porous tantalum metaphyseal cones were implanted during twenty-four revision total knee replacements. The study group included thirteen women and eleven men with a mean age of sixty-four years at the time of the procedure. The indications for the revision procedure included aseptic loosening of the femoral component (eleven patients), second-stage reimplantation for the treatment of deep infection (seven patients), severe osteolysis around a well-fixed femoral component (three patients), periprosthetic femoral fracture (two patients), and severe knee instability (one patient). The patients were followed for an average of thirty-three months (range, twenty-four to fifty months). Overall, the average Knee Society clinical score improved from 55 points preoperatively to 81 points at the time of the latest follow-up. Radiographic evaluation was completed for twenty patients after a mean duration of follow-up of thirty-five months. All femoral cones appeared well fixed radiographically, with no evidence of complications related to the cone. At the time of short-term follow-up, the porous tantalum metaphyseal femoral cones effectively provided structural support for the femoral implants of a revision total knee arthroplasty in this series. The potential for long-term biologic fixation may provide durability for reconstructions. Long-term follow-up and comparison with alternative reconstructive techniques will be required to evaluate the true effectiveness of this implant.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 03/2011; 93(5):478-84. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When surgeons perform total hip arthroplasty for hips with a high dislocation related to developmental dysplasia of the hip, obtaining long-term stable implant fixation and optimizing patient function remain challenges. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the results of cementless arthroplasty with a simultaneous subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy in a group of patients with Crowe type-IV developmental dysplasia of the hip. In a retrospective study, we evaluated the results and complications of twenty-eight consecutive primary cementless total hip arthroplasties in twenty-four patients (twenty women and four men), all of whom had Crowe type-IV developmental dysplasia of the hip. The arthroplasty was performed in combination with a subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy and with placement of the acetabular component at the level of the anatomic hip center. The patients were evaluated at a mean of 4.8 years postoperatively. The mean Harris hip score increased from 43 points preoperatively to 89 points at the time of final follow-up (p < 0.01). Twelve (43%) of the twenty-eight hips had an early or late complication or a reoperation. Two (7%) of the twenty-eight subtrochanteric osteotomies were followed by nonunion. There was one instance of isolated loosening of the femoral stem. One acetabular component loosened, and one acetabular liner disengaged. Four hips dislocated postoperatively. All remaining components were well-fixed at the time of the last radiographic follow-up. No sciatic neurapraxic injuries were identified. Cementless total hip arthroplasty combined with a subtrochanteric femoral shortening osteotomy in patients with a high hip dislocation secondary to developmental dysplasia was associated with high rates of successful fixation of the implants and healing of the osteotomy site and a mean postoperative Harris hip score of 89 points. The complication rate, however, was substantially higher than that associated with primary total hip arthroplasty in patients with degenerative arthritis.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 09/2010; 92 Suppl 1 Pt 2:176-87. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When surgeons perform total hip arthroplasty for hips with a high dislocation related to developmental dysplasia of the hip, obtaining long-term stable implant fixation and optimizing patient function remain challenges. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the results of cementless arthroplasty with a simultaneous subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy in a group of patients with Crowe type-IV developmental dysplasia of the hip. In a retrospective study, we evaluated the results and complications of twenty-eight consecutive primary cementless total hip arthroplasties in twenty-four patients (twenty women and four men), all of whom had Crowe type-IV developmental dysplasia of the hip. The arthroplasty was performed in combination with a subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy and with placement of the acetabular component at the level of the anatomic hip center. The patients were evaluated at a mean of 4.8 years postoperatively. The mean Harris hip score increased from 43 points preoperatively to 89 points at the time of final follow-up (p < 0.01). Twelve (43%) of the twenty-eight hips had an early or late complication or a reoperation. Two (7%) of the twenty-eight subtrochanteric osteotomies were followed by nonunion. There was one instance of isolated loosening of the femoral stem. One acetabular component loosened, and one acetabular liner disengaged. Four hips dislocated postoperatively. All remaining components were well-fixed at the time of the last radiographic follow-up. No sciatic neurapraxic injuries were identified. Cementless total hip arthroplasty combined with a subtrochanteric femoral shortening osteotomy in patients with a high hip dislocation secondary to developmental dysplasia was associated with high rates of successful fixation of the implants and healing of the osteotomy site and a mean postoperative Harris hip score of 89 points. The complication rate, however, was substantially higher than that associated with primary total hip arthroplasty in patients with degenerative arthritis.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 09/2009; 91(9):2213-21. · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • James L Howard, Arlen D Hanssen
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    ABSTRACT: Optimizing the operating room environment is necessary to minimize the prevalence of arthroplasty infection. Reduction of bacterial contamination in the operating room should be a primary focus of all members of the operating room team. However, in recent years, there has been a decline in the emphasis of the basic principles of antisepsis in many operating rooms. The purpose of this review is to highlight important considerations for optimizing the operating room environment. These principles should be actively promoted by orthopedic surgeons in their operating rooms as part of a comprehensive approach to minimizing arthroplasty infection.
    The Journal of Arthroplasty 11/2007; 22(7 Suppl 3):6-11. · 2.11 Impact Factor