[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in a large population of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD).
In a retrospective analysis of aggregated European and Canadian databases a total population of 23 153 patients with CHD was followed up to the age of 16-91 years (mean 36.4 years). Among them, 458 patients (2.0%) had one or more CVA, with an estimated event rate of 0.05% per patient-year. Permanent neurological sequelae were noted in 116 patients (25.3%). The prevalence of CVA in selected diagnostic categories was as follows: open atrial septal defect 93/2351 (4.0%); closed atrial or ventricular septal defect 57/4035 (1.4%); corrected tetralogy of Fallot 52/2196 (2.4%); Eisenmenger physiology 24/467 (5.1%); other cyanotic 50/215 (23.3%); mechanical prostheses (29/882 (3.3%). Associated conditions in patients with CVA were absence of sinus rhythm (25%), transvenous pacemakers (7%), endocarditis (2%), cardiac surgery (11%) and catheter intervention (2%), but with the exception of absent sinus rhythm these were not significantly more prevalent in patients with CVA.
CVA are a major contributor to morbidity in this young population despite absence of classical cardiovascular risk factors. Although the prevalence of CVA in patients with CHD appears low, it is 10-100 times higher than expected in control populations of comparable age. Residua occur in a strong minority of patients. The subjects at highest risk are those patients with CHD with cyanotic lesions, in whom the prevalence is over 10-fold above the average.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to examine the frequency of early postoperative complications and preoperative predictors of prolonged hospitalization in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot undergoing pulmonary valve replacement.
This was a retrospective study of consecutive adult patients undergoing surgical intervention between 1995 and 2006. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify determinants of prolonged hospitalization.
One hundred sixteen patients (mean age, 36 +/- 11 years) underwent 118 pulmonary valve replacements. Most (95%) operations included additional procedures, such as pulmonary artery/outflow tract reconstruction or tricuspid valve annuloplasty. The early postoperative mortality (<30 days) was 2.5%. The majority of the patients (60%) had no postoperative complications. The postoperative adverse events included postoperative arrhythmias (19%), respiratory complications (13%), reoperation during admission (13%), renal dysfunction (13%), and myocardial infarction (3%). Postoperative adverse events were associated with prolonged hospitalization (14 +/- 12 vs 7 +/- 3 days, P = .001). In the multivariate analysis age at reoperation of greater than 45 years (odds ratio, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-23.6; P = .009), the number of previous sternotomies (odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-10; P = .007), and the need for urgent surgical intervention (odds ratio, 5.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-27.8; P = .03) were predictors of prolonged hospitalization.
Pulmonary valve replacement in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot has a low mortality risk. The most common early postoperative complications are arrhythmias and respiratory and renal complications. Although most early postoperative complications do not result in long-term sequelae, they are associated with prolonged hospitalization. Patients undergoing urgent interventions, older patients, and those with multiple previous sternotomies are at the highest risk for prolonged hospitalization.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 09/2009; 138(3):553-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2009.02.042 · 4.17 Impact Factor