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In a stacking study of eight resistance QTLs in lettuce against downy mildew, only three out of ten double combinations showed an increased resistance effect under field conditions. Complete race nonspecific resistance to lettuce downy mildew, as observed for the nonhost wild lettuce species Lactuca saligna, is desired in lettuce cultivation. Genetic dissection of L. saligna's complete resistance has revealed several quantitative loci (QTL) for resistance with field infection reductions of 30-50 %. To test the effect of stacking these QTL, we analyzed interactions between homozygous L. saligna CGN05271 chromosome segments introgressed into the genetic background of L. sativa cv. Olof. Eight different backcross inbred lines (BILs) with single introgressions of 30-70 cM and selected predominately for quantitative resistance in field situations were intercrossed. Ten developed homozygous lines with stacked introgression segments (double combinations) were evaluated for resistance in the field. Seven double combinations showed a similar infection as the individual most resistant parental BIL, revealing epistatic interactions with 'less-than-additive' effects. Three double combinations showed an increased resistance level compared to their parental BILs and their interactions were additive, 'less-than-additive' epistatic and 'more-than-additive' epistatic, respectively. The additive interaction reduced field infection by 73 %. The double combination with a 'more-than-additive' epistatic effect, derived from a combination between a susceptible and a resistant BIL with 0 and 30 % infection reduction, respectively, showed an average field infection reduction of 52 %. For the latter line, an attempt to genetically dissect its underlying epistatic loci by substitution mapping did not result in smaller mapping intervals as none of the 22 substitution lines reached a similar high resistance level. Implications for breeding and the inheritance of L. saligna's complete resistance are discussed.
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Three regions with quantitative resistance to downy mildew of non-host and wild lettuce species, Lactuca saligna , disintegrate into seventeen sub-QTLs with plant-stage-dependent effects, reducing or even promoting the infection. Previous studies on the genetic dissection of the complete resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to downy mildew revealed 15 introgression regions that conferred plant stage dependent quantitative resistances (QTLs). Three backcross inbred lines (BILs), carrying an individual 30-50 cM long introgression segment from L. saligna in a cultivated lettuce, L. sativa, background, reduced infection by 60-70 % at young plant stage and by 30-50 % at adult plant stage in field situations. We studied these three quantitative resistances in order to narrow down their mapping interval and determine their number of loci, either single or multiple. We performed recombinant screenings and developed near isogenic lines (NILs) with smaller overlapping L. saligna introgressions (substitution mapping). In segregating introgression line populations, recombination was suppressed up to 17-fold compared to the original L. saligna × L. sativa F 2 population. Recombination suppression depended on the chromosome region and was stronger suppressed at the smallest introgression lengths. Disease evaluation of the NILs revealed that the resistance of all three BILs was not explained by a single locus but by multiple sub-QTLs. The 17 L. saligna-derived sub-QTLs had a smaller and plant stage dependent resistance effect, some segments reducing; others even promoting downy mildew infection. Implications for lettuce breeding are outlined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breeding lettuce (Lactuca sativa) for resistance to the downy mildew Bremia lactucae is mainly achieved by introgression of dominant Dm resistance genes. New Bremia races quickly render Dm genes ineffective, possibly by mutation of recognized host-translocated effectors or by suppression of effector-triggered immunity. We have previously identified 34 potential RXLR(-like) effector proteins of Bremia that were here tested for specific recognition within a collection of 129 Bremia-resistant Lactuca lines. Two effectors triggered a hypersensitive response; BLG01 in 52 lines, predominantly L. saligna, and BLG03 in two L. sativa lines containing Dm2 resistance. The N-terminal sequences of BLG01 and BLG03, containing the signal peptide and GKLR variant of the RXLR translocation motif, are not required for in planta recognition, but function in effector delivery. The locus responsible for BLG01 recognition maps to the bottom of lettuce chromosome 9, whereas recognition of BLG03 maps in the RGC2 cluster on chromosome 2. Lactuca lines that recognize the BLG effectors are not resistant to Bremia isolate Bl:24 that expresses both BLG genes, suggesting Bl:24 can suppress the triggered immune responses. In contrast, lettuce segregants displaying Dm2-mediated resistance to Bremia isolate Bl:5 are responsive to BLG03, suggesting that BLG03 is a candidate Avr2 protein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some inter- and intraspecific crosses may result in reduced viability or sterility in the offspring, often due to genetic incompatibilities resulting from interactions between two or more loci. Hybrid necrosis is a postzygotic genetic incompatibility that is phenotypically manifested as necrotic lesions on the plant. We observed hybrid necrosis in interspecific lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Lactuca saligna) hybrids that correlated with resistance to downy mildew. Segregation analysis revealed a specific allelic combination at two interacting loci to be responsible. The allelic interaction had two consequences: (1) a quantitative temperature-dependent autoimmunity reaction leading to necrotic lesions, lethality, and quantitative resistance to an otherwise virulent race of Bremia lactucae; and (2) a qualitative temperature-independent race-specific resistance to an avirulent race of B. lactucae. We demonstrated by transient expression and silencing experiments that one of the two interacting genes was Rin4. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RIN4 is known to interact with multiple R gene products, and their interactions result in hypersensitive resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Site-directed mutation studies on the necrosis-eliciting allele of Rin4 in lettuce showed that three residues were critical for hybrid necrosis.
The Plant Cell 10/2009; 21(10):3368-78. DOI:10.1105/tpc.109.070334 · 9.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nonhost resistance of wild lettuce (Lactuca saligna) to downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) is based on at least 15 quantitative trait loci (QTL), each effective at one or more plant developmental stages. We used QTL pyramiding (stacking) to determine how many of these QTL from L. saligna are sufficient to impart complete resistance towards B. lactucae to cultivated lettuce, L. sativa. The alleles of four of the most promising QTL, rbq4, rbq5, rbq6+11, and rbq7 are effective at both the young and adult plant stages. Lines with these four QTL in all possible combinations were generated by crossing the respective backcross inbred lines (BIL). Using the 11 resulting lines (combiBIL), we determined that combinations of three QTL, rbq4, rbq5, and rbq6+11, led to increased levels of resistance; however, one QTL, rbq7, did not add to the resistance level when combined with the other QTL. One line, tripleBIL268, which contains the three QTL rbq4, rbq5, and rbq6+11, was completely resistant to B. lactucae at the young plant stage. This suggests that these three QTL are sufficient to confer the complete resistance of the nonhost L. saligna and any additional QTL in L. saligna are redundant. Histological analysis of B. lactucae infection in L. saligna, the BIL, and the combiBIL 48 h after inoculation revealed different microscopical phenotypes of resistance. The QTL differed with respect to the stage of the infection process with which they interfered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study used the pathosystem of lettuce (Lactuca spp.) and downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) as a model to investigate the inheritance of nonhost resistance, and focused on the contribution of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to nonhost resistance at various developmental stages in the lettuce life cycle. A set of 28 backcross inbred lines (BILs) of L. saligna CGN05271 (nonhost) introgressions in a L. sativa cv. Olof (host) background identified 16 introgressions that contributed to resistance at various plant developmental stages: seedlings, young plants, adult plants in the greenhouse and adult plants in the field. This paper provisionally considered these introgressions to be 16 QTLs. Of these 16 QTLs, seven were identified previously and nine were new. For 15 QTLs (Rbq1, Rbq2, rbq3–7 and Rbq8–15), the resistance alleles were derived from the nonhost L. saligna; the resistance allele of the other QTL (Rbq16) was from the susceptible L. sativa cv. Olof. Of the 15 QTLs in L. saligna, only two, rbq5 and rbq7, were found to be effective at every plant developmental stage; the other 13 QTLs were only effective at certain developmental stages. Experiments with seven B. lactucae races did not provide evidence that any QTL was race-specific. The data suggest that nonhost resistance in L. saligna is the result of cumulative effects of many resistance QTLs operating at various developmental stages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In plants, several population types [F(2), recombinant inbred lines, backcross inbred lines (BILs), etc.] are used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. However, dissection of the trait of interest and subsequent confirmation by introgression of QTLs for breeding purposes has not been as successful as that predicted from theoretical calculations. More practical knowledge of different QTL mapping approaches is needed. In this recent study, we describe the detection and mapping of quantitative resistances to downy mildew in a set of 29 BILs of cultivated lettuce (L. sativa) containing genome segments introgressed from wild lettuce (L. saligna). Introgression regions that are associated with quantitative resistance are considered to harbor a QTL. Furthermore, we compare this with results from an already existing F(2) population derived from the same parents. We identified six QTLs in our BIL approach compared to only three in the F(2) approach, while there were two QTLs in common. We performed a simulation study based on our actual data to help us interpret them. This revealed that two newly detected QTLs in the BILs had gone unnoticed in the F(2), due to a combination of recessiveness of the trait and skewed segregation, causing a deficit of the wild species alleles. This study clearly illustrates the added value of extended genetic studies on two different population types (BILs and F(2)) to dissect complex genetic traits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In plants, several population types [F2, recombinant inbred lines, backcross inbred lines (BILs), etc.] are used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. However, dissection of the trait of interest and subsequent confirmation by introgression of QTLs for breeding purposes has not been as successful as that predicted from theoretical calculations. More practical knowledge of different QTL mapping approaches is needed. In this recent study, we describe the detection and mapping of quantitative resistances to downy mildew in a set of 29 BILs of cultivated lettuce (L. sativa) containing genome segments introgressed from wild lettuce (L. saligna). Introgression regions that are associated with quantitative resistance are considered to harbor a QTL. Furthermore, we compare this with results from an already existing F2 population derived from the same parents. We identified six QTLs in our BIL approach compared to only three in the F2 approach, while there were two QTLs in common. We performed a simulation study based on our actual data to help us interpret them. This revealed that two newly detected QTLs in the BILs had gone unnoticed in the F2, due to a combination of recessiveness of the trait and skewed segregation, causing a deficit of the wild species alleles. This study clearly illustrates the added value of extended genetic studies on two different population types (BILs and F2) to dissect complex genetic traits
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An integrated map for lettuce comprising of 2,744 markers was developed from seven intra- and inter-specific mapping populations. A total of 560 markers that segregated in two or more populations were used to align the individual maps. 2,073 AFLP, 152 RFLP, 130 SSR, and 360 RAPD as well as 29 other markers were assigned to nine chromosomal linkage groups that spanned a total of 1,505 cM and ranged from 136 to 238 cM. The maximum interval between markers in the integrated map is 43 cM and the mean interval is 0.7 cM. The majority of markers segregated close to Mendelian expectations in the intra-specific crosses. In the two L. saligna x L. sativa inter-specific crosses, a total of 155 and 116 markers in 13 regions exhibited significant segregation distortion. Data visualization tools were developed to curate, display and query the data. The integrated map provides a framework for mapping ESTs in one core mapping population relative to phenotypes that segregate in other populations. It also provides large numbers of markers for marker assisted selection, candidate gene identification, and studies of genome evolution in the Compositae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Backcross inbred lines (BILs) were developed in which chromosome segments of Lactuca saligna (wild lettuce) were introgressed into L. sativa (lettuce). These lines were developed by four to five backcrosses and one generation of selfing. The first three generations of backcrossing were random. Marker-assisted selection began in the BC(4) generation and continued until the final set of BILs was reached. A set of 28 lines was selected that together contained 96% of the L. saligna genome. Of these lines, 20 had a single homozygous introgression (BILs), four had two homozygous introgressions (doubleBILs) and four lines had a heterozygous single introgression (preBILs). Segregation ratios in backcross generations were compared to distorted segregation ratios in an F(2) population, and the results indicated that most of the distorted segregations can be explained by genetic effects on pollen- or egg-cell fitness. By means of BIL association mapping we were able to map 12 morphological traits and hundreds of additional amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) markers. The total AFLP map now comprises 757 markers. This set of BILs is very useful for future genetic studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactuca sativa (lettuce) is susceptible to Bremia lactucae (downy mildew). In cultivated and wild Lactuca species, Dm genes have been identified that confer race-specific resistance. However, these genes were soon rendered ineffective by adaptation of the pathogen. Lactuca saligna (wild lettuce) is resistant to all downy mildew races and can be considered as a non-host. Therefore, L. saligna might be an alternative source for a more-durable resistance to downy mildew in lettuce. In order to analyze this resistance, we have developed an F(2) population based on a resistant L. saligna x susceptible L. sativa cross. This F(2) population was fingerprinted with AFLP markers and tested for resistance to two Bremia races NL14 and NL16. The F(2) population showed a wide and continuous range of resistance levels from completely resistant to completely susceptible. By comparison of disease tests, we observed a quantitative resistance against both Bremia races as well as a race-specific resistance to Bremia race NL16 and not to NL14. QTL mapping revealed a qualitative gene ( R39) involved in the race-specific resistance and three QTLs ( RBQ1, RBQ2 and RBQ3) involved in the quantitative resistance. The qualitative gene R39 is a dominant gene that gives nearly complete resistance to race NL16 in L. saligna CGN 5271 and therefore it showed features similar to Dm genes. The three QTLs explained 51% of the quantitative resistance against NL14, which indicated that probably only the major QTLs have been detected in this F(2) population. The perspectives for breeding for durable resistance are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AFLP markers were obtained with 12 EcoRI/ MseI primer combinations on two independent F2 populations of Lactuca sativa �Lactuca saligna. The polymorphism rates of the AFLP products between the two different L. saligna lines was 39%, between the two different L. sativa cultivars 13% and between the L. sativa and L. saligna parents on average 81%. In both F2 populations segregation distortion was found, but only Chromosome 5 showed skewness that was similar for both populations.
Two independent genetic maps of the two F2 populations were constructed that could be integrated due to the high similarity in marker order and map distances of 124
markers common to both populations. The integrated map consisted of 476 AFLP markers and 12 SSRs on nine linkage groups spanning
854 cM. The AFLP markers on the integrated map were randomly distributed with an average spacing between markers of 1.8 cM
and a maximal distance of 16 cM. Furthermore, the AFLP markers did not show severe clustering. This AFLP map provides good
opportunities for use in QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fructans (fructose polymers) derived from plants usually have a very low degree of polymerisation (DP) and this limits the technical application of this versatile carbohydrate polymer. Previously we showed that the expression of bacterial fructosyltransferase genes in transgenic plants results in the accumulation of high molecular weight fructans with a DP of over 25,000. Here we report on our progress in accumulating such high DP fructans in potato plants and tubers. In these plants growth, tuber formation and carbohydrate partitioning were analyzed. Young plants showed no difference in growth between wildtype and fructan-producing (KP) plants. However, at a certain timepoint growth in KP plants is reduced and photosynthate starts to accumulate in source leaves. In these plants no diurnal turnover of starch and sucrose is observed. At harvest, the sink organs (roots, tubers) are reduced in weight. Depending on fructan content the KP tubers display a brown phenotype and yield was reduced. The starch content in the KP tubers is inversely correlated with the fructan level, whereas the sucrose, glucose, fructose and protein levels increase substantially, concomitant with fructan concentration. The cellular location of the fructans was investigated via immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies against levan and this showed the presence of fructan located along the cell rim instead of in the expected vacuolar location. It is concluded that fructan accumulation in these plants dramatically affects growth and carbohydrate partitioning and possible solutions for these problems are discussed.