[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prospective epidemiologic data on vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer are sparse. We studied the association between vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) in the Netherlands Cohort Study. In 1986, 120,852 Dutch men and women aged 55-69 filled out a questionnaire on diet and other cancer risk factors. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 101 ESCC, 144 EAC, 156 GCA, 460 GNCA cases and 4,035 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analysis using Cox proportional hazards models. Multivariable adjusted incidence rate ratios (RRs) were generally below unity. Total vegetable consumption was nonsignificantly inversely associated with EAC and ESCC risk, but not with GCA and GNCA risk. Significant inverse associations were observed for raw vegetables and EAC risk [RR per 25 g/day: 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.98], and Brassica vegetables and GCA risk (RR per 25 g/day: 0.72, 95% CI 0.54-0.95). Total fruit consumption was associated with a nonsignificantly decreased EAC risk. Citrus fruits were inversely associated with EAC and GCA risk (RRs for highest vs. lowest intake: 0.55, 95% CI 0.31-0.98 and 0.38, 95% CI 0.21-0.69, respectively). Specifically for current smokers, vegetables and possibly also fruits intake was inversely associated with ESCC and EAC risk. Consumption of (specific groups of) vegetables and fruits may protect against subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer.
International Journal of Cancer 12/2011; 129(11):2681-93. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individualised, isotoxic, accelerated radiotherapy (INDAR) allows the delivery of high biological radiation doses, but the long-term survival associated with this approach is unknown.
Patients with stage III NSCLC in the Netherlands Cancer Registry/Limburg from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2008 were included.
Patients (1002) with stage III NSCLC were diagnosed, of which 938 had T4 and/or N2-N3 disease. Patients treated with curative intent were staged with FDG-PET scans and a contrast-enhanced CT or an MRI of the brain. There were no shifts over time in the patient or tumour characteristics at diagnosis. The number of stage III NSCLC patients remained stable over time, but the proportion treated with palliative intent decreased from 47% in 2002 to 37% in 2008, and the percentage treated with chemo-radiation (RT) increased from 24.6% in 2002 to 47.8% in 2008 (p<0.001). The proportion of surgical patients remained below 5%. Sequential chemotherapy and conventional RT resulted in a median and a 5-year survival of 17.5 months and 8.4%, respectively, whereas with sequential chemotherapy and INDAR this was 23.6 months and 31%, respectively (p<0.001). Concurrent chemotherapy and INDAR was associated with a median and 2-year survival that was not reached and 66.7%, respectively (p=0.004).
The proportion of patients treated with a curative intention with chemo-RT has increased markedly over time of observation. INDAR is associated with longer survival when compared to standard dose RT alone given with or without chemotherapy.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 11/2011; 102(2):228-33. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is little data on the survival of elderly patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Patients with stage III NSCLC in the Netherlands Cancer Registry/Limburg from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2008 were included.
One thousand and two patients with stage III were diagnosed, of which 237 were 75 years or older. From 228 patients, co-morbidity scores were available. Only 33/237 patients (14.5%) had no co-morbidities, 195 (85.5%) had one or more important co-morbidities, 60 (26.3%) two or more co-morbidities, 18 (7.9%) three or more co-morbidities and 2 patients (0.9%) suffered from four co-morbidities. Forty-eight percent were treated with curative intent. No significant difference in Charlson co-morbidity, age or gender was found between patients receiving curative or palliative intent treatment. Treatment with curative intent was associated with increased overall survival (OS) compared to palliative treatment: median OS 14.2 months (9.6-18.7) versus 5.2 months (4.3-6.0), 2-year OS 35.5% versus 12.1%, for curative versus palliative treatment.
Patients who received only radiotherapy with curative intent had a median OS of 11.1 months (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 6.4-15.8) and a 5-year OS of 20.3%; for sequential chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the median OS was 18.0 months (95% CI 12.2-23.7), with a 5-year OS of 14.9%. Only four patients received concurrent chemo-radiation.
In this prospective series treating elderly patients with stage III NSCLC with curative intent was associated with significant 5-year survival rates.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 07/2011; 47(18):2691-7. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Barrett's esophagus (BE) increases risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma, but it is not clear how it affects risk for other cancers or overall mortality. We analyzed data from a population-based cohort of subjects with BE.
The Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated in 1986 and included 120,852 participants (55-69 years old at baseline). Until December 2002, 626 incident cases of BE (excluding nonintestinal metaplasia) were identified by record linkage with the nationwide Pathology Registry. This cohort was followed for a median period of 5.7 years; data on cancer and mortality were obtained from record linkage to the Netherlands Cancer Registry and Statistics Netherlands. The expected number of cases was calculated using national cancer incidence and mortality data.
In the BE cohort, 13 individuals developed esophageal cancer and 5 developed gastric cancer. The ratio of observed:expected (O:E) incidence of esophageal and gastric cancer was 10.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3-17.1) and 1.8 (95% CI, 0.6-4.2), respectively. Total cancer incidence (excluding esophageal and gastric cancer) increased in the BE cohort, although not by a statistically significant amount (O:E, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6). Of cancer subtypes, incidences of small intestinal and pancreatic cancer increased in subjects with BE, but not by a statistically significant amount, after exclusion of data from the first 6 months of follow-up. During the follow-up period, 225 individuals with BE died. Mortality from all causes (excluding esophageal and gastric cancer) was not increased among subjects with BE (O:E, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.9-1.2), nor was mortality from specific causes of death.
The incidence of esophageal cancer was increased in a population-based cohort of subjects with BE. However, when esophageal and gastric cancers were excluded, total cancer incidence and overall mortality were not increased among subjects with BE.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 04/2011; 9(9):754-61. · 5.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Besides gastroesophageal reflux, possible risk factors for BE include overweight, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. Our objective was to study these associations by using prospective data.
The prospective Netherlands Cohort Study, initiated in 1986, consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55 to 69 years at baseline. At baseline, all subjects completed a questionnaire on dietary habits and lifestyle. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 370 BE cases with specialized intestinal metaplasia and 3,866 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analysis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% CIs.
Body mass index (BMI) at baseline was associated with risk of BE in women [multivariable adjusted RR per 1 kg/m(2), 1.07 (1.03-1.11)] but not in men [RR per 1 kg/m(2), 0.99 (0.93-1.05)]. The association in women was not specifically due to abdominal overweight. Former cigarette smokers were at increased risk of BE (RR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.00-1.77), but current smokers were not. Smoking duration showed a positive association with BE risk (P(trend) = 0.03). For alcohol consumption, the RR per 10 g ethanol/d was 0.95 (0.87-1.03).
Increased BMI was a risk factor for BE in women but not in men. Several aspects of cigarette smoking were positively associated with BE risk. Alcohol consumption was not associated with an increased risk of BE.
Future research should focus on risk factors both for development and for progression of BE to esophageal adenocarcinoma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between selenium and the risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE), the precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Data from the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study were used. This cohort study was initiated in 1986, when 120,852 subjects aged 55-69 years completed a questionnaire on dietary habits and lifestyle, and provided toenail clippings for the determination of baseline selenium status. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 253 BE cases (identified through linkage with the nationwide Dutch pathology registry) and 2,039 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analysis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (RR).
The multivariable-adjusted RR for the highest versus the lowest quartile of toenail selenium was 1.06 (95% CI 0.71-1.57). No dose-response trend was seen (p trend = 0.99). No association was found in subgroups defined by sex, smoking status, body mass index (BMI), or intake of antioxidants. For BE cases that later progressed to high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma, the RR for a selenium level above the median vs. below the median was 0.64 (95% CI 0.24-1.76).
In this large prospective cohort study, we found no evidence of an association between selenium and risk of BE.
Cancer Causes and Control 10/2010; 21(12):2259-68. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium may protect against the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA). Only in very few studies have the associations with ESCC and GCA been investigated, and no epidemiologic studies exist on EAC.
We studied the association between selenium and risk of ESCC, EAC, and GCA within the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study, conducted among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years at baseline. In September 1986, the cohort members completed a questionnaire on risk factors for cancer and provided toenail clippings for determination of baseline selenium status. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 64 ESCC, 112 EAC, and 114 GCA cases and 2072 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analysis. Incidence rate ratios (RR) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models.
In multivariable analyses of selenium status, we found an inverse association with ESCC (RR(per standard unit increment), 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67-0.96) and a borderline significant inverse association with GCA (RR, 0.91; 95% CI: 0.80-1.02). No overall association was observed for EAC (RR, 1.05; 95% CI: 0.95-1.15), but, for women and never smokers, significant inverse associations were found (RR(per standard unit increment), 0.72; 95% CI: 0.61-0.84 and RR(per standard unit increment), 0.74; 95% CI: 0.64-0.86, respectively).
This prospective study supports an inverse association between toenail selenium and risk of ESCC and GCA and suggests an inverse association with risk of EAC in subgroups (women, never smokers, and low antioxidant consumers). These associations need confirmation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking may be differentially associated with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA). However, because this was based on retrospective studies, these hypotheses were examined in a prospective cohort.
The prospective Netherlands Cohort Study consists of 120 852 participants who completed a baseline questionnaire on diet and other cancer risk factors in 1986. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 107 OSCC, 145 OAC, 164 GCA and 491 GNCA cases were available for analysis using Cox proportional hazards models and the case-cohort approach.
The multivariable adjusted incidence rate ratio (RR) for OSCC was 4.61 (95% CI 2.24 to 9.50) for > or = 30 g ethanol/day compared with abstainers (p trend <0.001), while no associations with alcohol were found for OAC, GCA or GNCA. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had RRs varying from 1.60 for GCA to 2.63 for OSCC, and were statistically significant or borderline statistically significant. Frequency, duration and pack-years of smoking were independently associated with risk of all four cancers. A positive interaction was found between alcohol consumption and smoking status regarding OSCC risk. The RR for current smokers who consumed >15 g/day of ethanol was 8.05 (95% CI 3.89 to 16.60; p interaction = 0.65), when compared with never smokers who consumed <5 g/day of ethanol.
This prospective study found alcohol consumption to be associated with increased risk of only OSCC. Cigarette smoking was associated with risk of all four cancers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Time trend studies in the USA have shown that the incidences of adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus and gastric cardia have risen strongly since the 1970s, whereas the incidence of squamous cell carcinomas of the oesophagus has declined. Earlier, we found that the incidence of these adenocarcinomas also rose in some European countries until the early 1990s. The main goal of this study was to investigate more recent trends in the incidence of oesophageal and stomach cancer subtypes in the European countries.
Eurocim cancer incidence data of 23 cancer registries from 13 European countries were used to investigate the incidence trends in oesophageal and stomach cancer subtypes during the 1983-1997 period. We calculated estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) in European age-standardized incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals.
The incidence of adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus and gastric cardia rose in most, but not all, registration areas (EAPCs were usually 1-7%), the strongest in the UK and Ireland. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma incidence rose mostly in Northern European and Slovakian men (EAPCs: 1-5%) and in women from all regions (EAPCs: 1-8%), but declined mostly in Southern and Western European men (EAPCs: -1 to -5%).
Our results are partly in line with earlier findings on adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus and gastric cardia. There was, however, substantial heterogeneity in trends of subtypes of these cancers within Europe. There may be different risk factors for these cancers, and the prevalence of these risk factors may differ among countries.
European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 06/2009; 22(6):669-78. · 1.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a cohort study, ovarian cancer (280 cases) showed no significant association with tea or coffee, the multivariable rate ratios being 0.94 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89, 1.00) and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.12) per cup per day, respectively. A meta-analysis also produced no significant findings overall, though the cohort studies showed a significant inverse association for tea.
British Journal of Cancer 12/2007; 97(9):1291-4. · 5.08 Impact Factor