[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Security documents like certificates, land revenue documents, etc., have only the individual's name, address, and in some cases a photo as means of personal identification. This makes criminal impersonation an easy task. This paper proposes a method for creating a unique ID based on the core point of the fingerprint of an individual. The minutia features of the fingerprint are extracted with the core point as the reference. The numerical value thus generated is used to create the unique ID in the form of a QR code and this is printed in the security documents. There are current technologies to convert a fingerprint to barcode but the method proposed in this paper is more suitable for use in security documents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tantalum doped indium oxide films are prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique and the films are annealed in air at 300 °C. The effect of Ta doping on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the annealed films are studied using techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), EDX analysis, micro-Raman, UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy and electrical measurements. The XRD patterns present a cubic bixbyite structure for all the films with preferred orientation along the (222) plane. The lattice constant estimation presents a reduction in lattice size with Ta doping. The W-H plot shows a tensile strain for all the films and also indicates the presence of strain induced broadening of the XRD peaks. The Raman spectra present all the characteristic modes of In2O3 cubic bixbyite phase. FESEM and AFM images show the uniform and dense distribution of smaller grains in the films. All the films show high transmittance (above 85%) in the 400-900 nm region. Electrical measurement shows a systematic increase of carrier concentration and electrical conductivity with increase in Ta doping concentration. Band gap energy increases with increase in Ta doping concentration. All the films show intense PL emission in the UV region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patterned nano crystalline ZnFe2O4 thin film was fabricated on quartz substrate by pulse laser deposition. XRD and Raman spectroscopic techniques were employed for structural characterization of the film. Silencing of a small number of prominent ferrite XRD peaks in thin film signify mild textured film growth. The observed XRD peak position swing with respect to the target material in thin film indicates formation of lateral strain in opposite directions during film growth. The thin film XRD peak position shift with target material data as reference is explained by suggesting an appropriate film growth model. Designated ferrite Raman emission peaks originated from film surface authenticates the stoichiometric and structural stability of ferrite material. AFM images indicate specific pattern formation with nanogranular morphology. Magnetic property measurements of the thin film revealed enhanced properties which are explained on the basis of texture, lattice strain, and surface features that are originated from patterned thin film growth.
Materials Research Bulletin 01/2015; 61:475-480. DOI:10.1016/j.materresbull.2014.10.061 · 2.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles of Mn0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4 were chemically synthesized by co-precipitating the metal ions in aqueous solutions in a suitable alkaline medium. The identified XRD peaks confirm single phase spinal formation. The nanoparticle size authentication is carried out from XRD data using Debye Scherrer equation. Thin film fabricated from this nanomaterial by pulse laser deposition technique on quartz substrate was characterized using XRD and Raman spectroscopic techniques. XRD results revealed the formation of high degree of texture in the film. AFM analysis confirms nanogranular morphology and preferred directional growth. A high deposition pressure and the use of a laser plume confined to a small area for transportation of the target species created certain level of porosity in the deposited thin film. Magnetic property measurement of this highly textured nanocrystalline Mn–Zn ferrite thin film revealed enhancement in properties, which are explained on the basis of texture and surface features originated from film growth mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MoO3 nanostructures have been grown in thin film form on five different substrates by RF magnetron sputtering and subsequent annealing; non-aligned nanorods, aligned nanorods, bundled nanowires, vertical nanorods and nanoslabs are formed respectively on the glass, quartz, wafer, alumina and sapphire substrates. The nanostructures formed on these substrates are characterized by AFM, SEM, GIXRD, XPS, micro-Raman, diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A detailed growth model for morphology alteration with respect to substrates has been discussed by considering various aspects such as surface roughness, lattice parameters and the thermal expansion coefficient, of both substrates and MoO3. The present study developed a strategy for the choice of substrates to materialize different types MoO3 nanostructures for future thin film applications. The gas sensing tests point towards using these MoO3 nanostructures as principal detection elements in gas sensors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zinc oxide is a wide, direct band gap II-VI oxide semiconductor. Pure and Eu-doped ZnO films are prepared by RF Magnetron sputtering at different doping concentrations (0.5, 1, 3 and 5 wt %). The films are annealed at 500 0C in air for two hours. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the films are characterized using XRD, micro-Raman, AFM, UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The thickness of the films is measured using stylus profilometer. XRD analysis shows that all the films are highly c-axis oriented exhibiting a single peak corresponding to (002) lattice reflection plane of hexagonal wurtzite crystal phase of ZnO. The micro-Raman spectra analysis reveals the presence of E2 high mode in all the samples which is the intrinsic characteristic of hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. The appearance of LO modes indicates the formation of defects such as oxygen vacancies in the films. AFM micrographs show uniform distribution of densely packed grains of size with well defined grain boundaries. All the films exhibit very high transmittance (above 80%) in the visible region with a sharp fundamental absorption edge around 380 nm corresponding to the intrinsic band edge of ZnO. All the films show PL emission in the UV and visible region.
IOP Conference Series Materials Science and Engineering 08/2014; 64(1):012027. DOI:10.1088/1757-899X/64/1/012027
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single crystals of para amino hippuric acid (PAHA) were grown by slow evaporation technique. The spectral and its structural properties of the crystals were studied by FT-IR, micro-Raman and factor group analysis. The optical transparency in the UV-Visible regions was found to be good for non-linear optics (NLO) applications. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) showed that the compound decomposes beyond 300°C. The dielectric behavior of the compound predicts low dielectric loss at high frequency applied whereas in the case of mechanical behavior of the specimen hardness increases with increasing applied load. After certain weight increase, hardness gets saturated in the region of ⩾110. Relative second harmonic efficiency of the compound is found to be 1.8 times greater than that of potassium di-phosphate reference.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 05/2014; 132C:263-270. DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2014.04.150 · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study on the optical characteristics of aerosol is carried out using the dual polarization lidar observations from the tropical inland station Gadanki (13.5A degrees N, 79.2A degrees E) for the period of observation during the year 2010. The summer and monsoon observation days show high scattering ratio at the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and at the lower stratosphere region. The depolarization ratio is also high at this altitude due to the transport of particulates to the TTL layer by the active convection prevailing at the period. The study reveals more dependable values of scattering ratio that are seasonal and range-dependent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanostructured molybdenum oxide (MoO3) gas sensitive layers were prepared via RF magnetron sputtering and controlled post deposition annealing on Au and Pt inter-digitated electrodes (IDE), which are integrated onto alumina substrates. Sensitivity test measurements towards hydrogen and ethanol vapour at different concentrations in synthetic air under non-humid and humid ambience at isothermal (200 degrees C and 300 degrees C) conditions are presented. Extremely different response behaviour to the analytes depending on morphology of the sensing layer, operating temperature, background humidity and electrode material was observed. The humid ambience does not significantly change the sensitivity to H-2, however, it drastically diminishes the sensitivity to ethanol. At higher temperature (300 degrees C), influence of electrode material (catalytic effect of Pt from the Pt-IDE) on the gas sensing performance of MoO3 layer is identified. Non-dissociative and dissociative adsorption of analytes on the sensing layer, reaction of the adsorbed analyte species with lattice oxygen and diffusion effects due to different layer morphologies were taken into account in order to account the diverse sensing behaviour.
Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 10/2013; 187:611-621. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2013.05.092 · 4.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ZnO thin films are grown on quartz substrates at various substrate temperatures (ranging from 573 to 973K) under an oxygen ambience of 0.02mbar by using pulsed laser ablation. Influence of substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the ZnO thin films are investigated. The XRD and micro-Raman spectra reveal the presence of hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO with preferred orientation (002). The particle size is calculated using Debye-Scherer equation and the average size of the crystallites are found to be in the range 17-29nm. The AFM study reveals that the surface morphology of the film depends strongly on the substrate temperature. UV-Visible transmittance spectra show highly transparent nature of the films in visible region. The calculated optical band gap energy is found to be decrease with increase in substrate temperatures. The complex dielectric constant, the loss factor and the distribution of the volume and surface energy loss of the ZnO thin films prepared at different substrate temperatures are calculated. All the films are found to be highly porous in nature. The PL spectra show very strong emission in the blue region for all the films. The dc electrical resistivity of the film decreases with increase in substrate temperature. The temperature dependent electrical measurements done on the film prepared at substrate temperature 573K reveals that the electric conduction is thermally activated and the activation energy is found to be 0.03911eV which is less than the reported values for ZnO films.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 09/2013; 118C:724-732. DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2013.08.090 · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ytterbium (Yb) and Praseodymium Oxide (Pr2O3) doped Si nanorings with diameter varying from 40 to 90 nm and average width of 17 nm are grown by pulsed laser deposition. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) reveals several interesting self-assembled forms of polycrystalline
as well as amorphous type of silicon nanorings. It is observed that the structure, average diameter and width of the rings strongly depend on the nature of dopants. The strong resputtering due to the high laser fluence could be the reason for the formation of ring like structures. As observed
in the log α versus log hν plot, the band gap values of doped silicon nanorings varies with the nature of dopants. For Yb doped Si film, the slope of log α versus log hν plot is found to be 1.65 indicating a direct—forbidden transition in
this film. The various dopants in the deposited thin films results in different crystal lattice mismatch which will cause different values of strain and stress in the films. Due to the inner stress, the lattice plane spacing decreases and the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) peaks shift to higher 2
values. Present study shows evidence for the strong quantum confinement effect along the width of ring like quantum states. Z scan studies shows that excited state absorption (ESA) and saturation absorption (SA) behavior of the films which again depends on the nature of dopants and
for Pr doped Si nanorings, the observed Im χ(3) is 2.996 × 10–8 esu.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel ZnO incorporated MoO3 nanostructured thin film system exhibiting high sensitivity and selectivity to ethanol has been developed. The MoO3:ZnO nanostructures exhibit enhanced ethanol sensing performance in non-humid and humid (75% r.H. at 21 °C) atmospheres compared to the pure MoO3 layer; with increase in ZnO concentrations, the sensitivity and stability increased, and the response/recovery time decreased. The response (Gethanol/Gair) of the 25% MoO3:ZnO sensor at an operating temperature of 300 °C against 500 ppm ethanol is up to 171 under non-humid and 117 under humid (75% r.H.) conditions. By comparing the response of the 25% ZnO added MoO3 sensor toward various gases (H2, CO, C3H6, CH4 and C2H5OH), distinctive selectivity to ethanol is observed. The ethanol sensitivity action over MoO3 nanostructures can be ascribed to the catalytic oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, and the enhancement of gas sensing response of the MoO3:ZnO system can be attributed to more active centers that are obtained from the enhanced oxygen vacancy defects induced by ZnO. The presence of a humid atmosphere has a dramatic influence on the sensor performance towards ethanol; the sensitivity diminishes drastically due to the partial site precluding nature of the adsorbed hydroxyl groups to the analyte. The ZnO incorporated MoO3 nanostructure based sensing layers in the present work show significantly superior ethanol sensing performance to the works previously reported for various metal oxide systems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tin oxide (SnO2)-doped Si nanorings of diameter in the range of 100 nm to 170 nm with an average width of 25 nm are synthesized by off-axis laser ablation (PLD) and are characterized by different techniques. The AFM observations show that the surface morphological features of films depend on the tin oxide concentration. The bandgap energies of undoped quantum dots are found to be 2.29 eV, while it decreases to 2.15 eV and 1.5 eV for 3 wt.% and 0.1 wt.% SnO2-doped samples, respectively. The increase in the value of bandgap energy can be attributed to size reduction of particles. The Raman spectra of SnO2-doped films are characterized by a broad Raman band with intensity maximum around 478 cm-1. Raman spectrum shows frequency shift which may be due to changes in the Si–O bond length or Si–O–Si bond angle. The activation energy at higher temperature is found to be 16.99 meV for 3SnSi209, 21 meV for 0.1SnSi209 and 18.1 meV for undoped silicon which shows that defect levels are present in all the samples, the conduction is due to the presence of holes. The synthesized films exhibit PL peak in the visible region. The PL emission peak and PL intensity depend on dopants and it is concluded that luminescence does not originate from localized states in gap but from extended states. The size and shape of nanostructures depend on the SnO2 concentration and the doping effects can be used as a significant guideline for tuning the electronic and optical properties of Si.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new method for Discrete Gyrator Transform (DGT) based image encryption and decryption using Double Random Phase Mask (RPM) is proposed. In the present work encryption and decryption has been done using Gyrator Transform (GT) a kind of discrete algorithm using convolution operation. The proposed method uses DGT to reduce the computational load. The robustness of the proposed algorithm to blind decryption in terms of different key values has been calculated. Numerical simulations and some analysis for security have been presented to verify its validity and efficiency.
Fiber Optics in Access Network (FOAN), 2013 4th International Workshop on; 01/2013