[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity is associated with the Gly671Val (G671V; rs45511401) variant of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1). Doxorubicin redox cycling causes lipid peroxidation and generation of the reactive electrophile, 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE). Glutathione forms conjugates with HNE, yielding an MRP1 substrate, GS-HNE, whose intracellular accumulation can cause toxicity.
We established stable HEK293 cell lines overexpressing wild-type MRP1 (HEKMRP1), G671V (HEKG671V), and R433S (HEKR433S), a variant not associated with doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and investigated the sensitivity of HEKG671V cells to doxorubicin and transport capacity of G671V toward GS-HNE.
In ATP-dependent transport studies using plasma membrane-derived vesicles, the Vmax (pmol/min/mg) for GS-HNE transport was the lowest for G671V (69±4) and the highest for R433S (972±213) compared with wild-type MRP1 (416±22), whereas the Km values were 2.8±0.4, 6.0 or more, and 1.7±0.2 µmol/l, respectively. In cells, the doxorubicin IC50 (48 h) was not different in HEKMRP1 (463 nmol/l) versus HEKR433S (645 nmol/l), but this parameter was significantly lower in HEKG671V (181 nmol/l). HEKG671V retained significantly (approximately 20%) more, whereas HEKR433S retained significantly less intracellular doxorubicin than HEKMRP1. Similarly, HEKG671V cells treated with 1.5 µmol/l of doxorubicin for 24 h retained significantly more GS-HNE. In cells treated with 0.5 µmol/l of doxorubicin for 48 , glutathione and glutathione disulfide levels and the glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio were significantly decreased in HEKG671V versus HEKMRP1; these values were similar in HEKR433S versus HEKMRP1.
These data suggest that decreased MRP1-dependent GS-HNE efflux contributes to increased doxorubicin toxicity in HEKG671V and potentially in individuals carrying the G671V variant.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 01/2012; 22(4):273-84. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2; ABCC2) mediates the biliary excretion of glutathione, glucuronide, and sulfate conjugates of endobiotics and xenobiotics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MRP2 contribute to interindividual variability in drug disposition and ultimately in drug response.
To characterize the transport function of human wild-type (WT) MRP2 and four SNP variants, S789F, A1450T, V417I, and T1477M.
The four SNP variants were expressed in Sf9 cells using recombinant baculovirus infection. The kinetic parameters [Km, (μmol/l); V(max), (pmol/mg/min); the Hill coefficient] of ATP-dependent transport of leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)), estradiol-3-glucuronide (E(2)3G), estradiol-17β-glucuronide (E(2)17G), and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDC) were determined in Sf9-derived plasma membrane vesicles. Transport activity was normalized for expression level.
The V(max) for transport activity was decreased for all substrates for S789F, and for all substrates except E(2)17G for A1450T. V417I showed decreased apparent affinity for LTC(4), E(2)3G, and E(2)17G, whereas transport was similar between wild-type (WT) and T1477M, except for a modest increase in TUDC transport. Examination of substrate-stimulated MRP2-dependent ATPase activity of S789F and A1450T, SNPs located in MRP2 nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), demonstrated significantly decreased ATPase activity and only modestly decreased affinity for ATP compared with WT.
SNPs in the NBDs (S789F in the D-loop of NBD1, or A1450T near the ABC signature motif of NBD2) variably decreased the transport of all substrates. V417I in membrane spanning domain 1 selectively decreased the apparent affinity for the glutathione and glucuronide conjugated substrates, whereas the T1477M SNP in the carboxyl terminus altered only TUDC transport.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 06/2011; 21(8):506-15. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls.
A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In addition, decreased levels of mRNA associated with T-cell signaling were found in the jejunum and ileum. Several members of the Solute Carrier (SLC) and Adenosine Triphosphate Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamilies of membrane transporters were found to be differentially expressed; these genes may play a role in differences in nutrient and xenobiotic absorption and disposition. mRNA expression of SLC39a4_predicted, a zinc transporter, was increased in all tissues, suggesting that it is involved in increased zinc uptake during lactation. Microarray data are available through GEO under GSE19175.
We detected differential expression of mRNA from several pathways in lactating dams, including upregulation of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in liver and intestine, consistent with Srebp activation. Differential T-Cell signaling in the two most distal regions of the small intestine (ileum and jejunum) was also noted, as well as differential expression of transporters that likely play a key role in nutrient uptake.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MRP2 (ABCC2), a member of the ATP binding cassette superfamily of efflux transporters that mediates the apical efflux of organic anions from hepatocytes, enterocytes, and renal epithelial cells, is postulated to undergo post-transcriptional regulation. The MRP2 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) contains seven upstream start codons and six upstream open reading frames (uORFs). Ribonuclease protection assays in human liver, placenta, kidney, small intestine, and HepG2 cells identified multiple MRP2 transcription initiation sites. We investigated MRP2 5'UTRs [-247 (-247 to -1), -204 (-204 to -1), or -99 (-99 to -1)] for their effects on regulation of gene expression with the use of transient gene expression in HepG2 cells and in vitro translation assays. In HepG2 cells transfected with SV40-MRP2-5'UTR-Luciferase cassettes, luciferase activities of constructs -247 and -204 were significantly lower than that of -99. Disruption of the uORFs at -105 and -74 nucleotides by mutation of ATGs to AAG enhanced luciferase activity significantly without affecting luciferase mRNA expression. The translation efficiencies of T7-5'UTR-Luciferase cassettes determined in vitro were consistent with transfected HepG2 cells and showed that inhibition of translation by the -105 uORF occurred only in the cis configuration and not in the trans configuration and that inhibition of translation by the -105 uORF was independent of the encoded peptide sequence. Characterization of an MRP2 polymorphism, -24C>T, in the MRP2 5'UTR, demonstrated no effect on mRNA expression or downstream ORF translation. These data indicate for the first time that the 5'UTR of MRP2 mRNA transcripts and the uORF at -105 markedly influence MRP2 translation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) and the bile acid pool size are increased 2 to 3-fold in lactating postpartum rats. We investigated the interaction of nuclear receptors with the Cyp7a1 proximal promoter and the expression of regulatory signaling pathways in postpartum rats at day 10 (PPd10) versus female controls to identify the mechanisms of increased expression of Cyp7a1, which is maximal at 16 hours. Liver X receptor (LXRalpha) and RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) recruitment to Cyp7a1 chromatin were increased 1.5- and 2.5-fold, respectively, at 16 hours on PPd10. Expression of nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR), LXRalpha, liver receptor homolog (LRH-1), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha), and short heterodimer partner (SHP) messenger RNA (mRNA) and coactivator peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) mRNA was unchanged in PPd10 versus controls at 16 hours, whereas chicken ovalbumin upstream transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) was decreased 40% at 16 hours. Investigation of a repressive signaling pathway, the c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in PPd10 versus controls, showed decreased mRNA expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF; decreased 60% at 16 hours) and tyrosine kinase receptor c-Met (decreased 44%-50% at 16 hours), but these were not accompanied by decreased expression of phosphorylated c-Jun. Importantly, expression of fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) mRNA in the ileum was decreased 70% in PPd10 versus controls, whereas phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) protein expression in liver was decreased 88% at 16 hours. CONCLUSION: The increased recruitment of LXRalpha, a Cyp7a1 stimulatory pathway, and decreased expression of FGF15 and phosphorylated Erk1/2, a Cyp7a1 repressive pathway, combined to increase Cyp7a1 expression during lactation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurons are targets of toxicity induced by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protein Tat (transactivator of transcription). Exposure to Tat increases [Ca(2+)](i) in striatal neurons and activates multiple cell death pathways. In earlier studies the authors showed that Tat activated both caspase-3 and endonuclease-G, a caspase-independent effector of apoptosis, and that Tat-induced neurotoxicity was not attenuated by a caspase-3 inhibitor. Because Tat activates multiple, parallel death pathways, the authors attempted to reduce Tat-induced neurotoxicity by manipulating signaling pathways upstream of mitochondrial apoptotic events. PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10), a negative regulator of Akt/PKB (protein kinase B) phosphorylation, was chosen as a target for silencing. Akt/PKB activity directs multiple downstream pathways mediated by GSK3beta, BAD, forkhead transcription factors, nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB), and others, in a manner that promotes proliferation and survival. Striatal neurons were nucleofected with short interfering RNA (siRNA) vectors targeting PTEN, or a negative-control siRNA. Although Tat(1-86) significantly increased the death of neurons transfected with control construct by 72 h, PTEN-silenced neurons were completely protected. These findings indicate that Akt is a critical intermediary in the direct neurotoxicity induced by HIV-1 Tat, and identify Akt regulation as a possible therapeutic strategy for Tat-induced neurotoxicity in HIV encephalitis (HIVE).
Journal of NeuroVirology 05/2007; 13(2):97-106. · 2.85 Impact Factor