[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article reviews the outcome of pancreas transplantations in diabetic recipients according to risk factors, surgical techniques, and immunosuppression management that evolved over the course of a decade at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center. A randomized trial of alemtuzumab versus rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG) induction in simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation (SKPT) at our institution demonstrated lower rates of acute rejection and infection in the alemtuzumab group. Consequently, alemtuzumab induction has been used exclusively in all pancreas transplantations since February 2009. Early steroid elimination has been feasible in the majority of patients. Extensive experience with surveillance pancreas biopsies in solitary pancreas transplantation (SPT) is described. Surveillance pancreas biopsy-directed immunosuppression has contributed to equivalent long-term pancreas graft survival rates in SKPT and SPT recipients at our center, in contrast to recent registry reports of persistently higher rates of immunologic pancreas graft loss in SPT. Furthermore, the impact of donor and recipient selection on outcomes is explored. Excellent results have been achieved with older (extended) donors and recipients, in recipients of organs from donation after cardiac death donors managed with extracorporeal support, and in African-American patients. Type 2 diabetics with detectable C-peptide levels have been transplanted successfully with outcomes comparable to those of insulinopenic diabetics. Our experiences are discussed in the light of findings reported in the literature.
The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2011; 8(1):17-27.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Alemtuzumab and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) are commonly used for induction of immunsuppression for kidney and pancreas transplantation, but the two agents have not been compared directly.
Methods. We conducted a prospective randomized single-center trial comparing alemtuzumab and rATG induction in adult kidney and pancreas transplantation in patients treated with similar maintenance immunosuppression.
Results. Between February 1, 2005, and September 1, 2007, 222 patients randomly received either alemtuzumab (n=113) or rATG (n=109) induction; 180 (81%) underwent kidney alone, 38 (17%) simultaneous pancreas-kidney, and 4 (2%) pancreas after kidney transplants. Of 180 kidney-alone transplants, 152 (84%) were from deceased donors, including 61 (34%) from expanded criteria donors. Retransplantation, human leukocyte antigen match, antibody titer, expanded criteria donors, race, cytomegalovirus status, delayed graft function, and immunologic risks were similar between the two induction groups. With a median follow-up of 2 years (minimum 1 year), overall patient, kidney, and pancreas graft survival rates were 96%, 89%, and 90%, respectively. Survival, initial length of stay, and maintenance immunosuppression (including early steroid elimination) were similar between alemtuzumab and rATG groups, but biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) episodes occurred in 16 (14%) alemtuzumab patients compared with 28 (26%) rATG patients (P=0.02). Late BPAR (>12 months after transplant) occurred in 1 (8%) alemtuzumab patient and 3 (11%) rATG patients (P=NS). Infections and malignancy were similar between the two induction arms.
Conclusion. Alemtuzumab and rATG induction therapies were equally safe, but alemtuzumab was associated with less BPAR.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to review the incidence, risk factors, and impact of bacteremia after pancreas transplantation (PTX).
We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantations (SKPTs) and solitary PTXs from January 2002 through April 2007. Positive blood cultures were correlated with other coexisting infections and parameters.
One hundred ten PTXs with enteric drainage included 80 SKPTs and 30 solitary PTXs. Mean follow-up was 32 months. Bacteremia occurred in 29 (26%) patients with 5 (17%) being recurrent; it was seen during the first month after transplantation in 13 (12%), between 1 and 3 months in 12 (11%), between 3 and 12 months in 3 (3%), and after the first year in 3 cases (3%). Typical organisms were as follows: MRSE, MSSE, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and Acinetobacteri. Bacteremia was associated with coexisting site infection in 20 cases (69%): deep abdominal wound (31%); line (31%); urinary tract (34%); and pulmonary (7%). Similar bacterial species in blood and a coexisting site occurred in 15 cases (52%). No correlation was seen with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. In the first year, bacteremia was associated with more acute rejection episodes (32% vs 17%; P = .09), surgical complications (54% vs 42%; P = .267), mortality (11% vs 4%; P = .15), and death-censored pancreatic (14% vs 9%; P = .39) and kidney (4% vs 0; P = .08) graft loss. Fewer patients with bacteremia received alemtuzumab compared with rATG induction (14% vs 39%; P = .04).
Bacteremias were common within 3 months of PTX. A significant number (39%) were multidrug resistant. The majority were accompanied by abdominal, urinary, or line infections. Bacteremias were associated with slightly higher incidences of rejection, mortality, and graft loss.