[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of coconut oil and garlic powder supplementation on digestibility of nutrients, rumen fermentation, rumen ecology, rumen microorganism and methanogen diversity. Four, 3-year old, rumen fistulated swamp buffalo bulls were randomly assigned in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments; 7% coconut oil, 7% coconut oil with 50g/day of garlic powder, 7% coconut oil with 100g/day of garlic powder and non-supplemented (control). During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% of BW while rice straw was given on ad libitum basis. It was found that supplementation of 7% coconut oil had significantly influenced on total DM intake, OM, NDF and ADF digestibilites while supplementation of 7% coconut oil with garlic powder (50 and 100g/day) were not significantly different when compared with the control. Dietary supplementations did not affect on rumen pH, NH3–N concentrations. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly higher in supplemented groups. Total VFA concentration, proportion of acetate and acetate to propionate ratio were reduced by supplementation. Proportion of propionate was increased (P
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An in vitro gas technique trial was conducted to investigate the effect of coconut oil (Co), garlic powder (G) and their mixtures on in vitro fermentation. Incubation was carried out using rumen fluid obtained from swamp buffaloes. The experimental design was a completely randomized design (CRD). The dietary treatments were ratio of Co and G supplementation at 0:0, 16:0, 8:4, 4:8 and 0:16mg with rice straw as a roughage source. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72h of incubation. In vitro true digestibility (IVTD) was determined after 48h incubation. Cumulative gas production at 72h was significantly lowest (P
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The application of RNA interference (RNAi) strategy for controlling classical swine fever could become a promising alternative to the conventional eradication measures, as it was recently shown for foot-and-mouth disease (Chen et al., 2004), influenza (Ge et al., 2003), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (He et al., 2007) and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis (Zhou et al., 2007). The use of synthetic siRNA which is corresponding to nucleotides 1130-1148 of the CSF virus strain Alfort, targeting the nucleocapsid protein (C) was investigated to show the inhibition of CSF virus replication. It could be shown that the virus titer of infected cells, which had been mock-transfected or transfected with control (non-silence) RNA were not affected. These data indicate that siRNA_253 is able to inhibit viral replication.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.] powder (LGP) on rumen ecology, rumen microorganisms, and digestibility of nutrients. Four ruminally fistulated crossbred (Brahman native) beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were LGP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/d with urea-treated rice straw (5%) fed to allow ad libitum intake. Digestibilities of DM, ether extract, and NDF were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation. However, digestibility of CP was decreased with LGP supplementation (P < 0.05), whereas ruminal NH(3)-N and plasma urea N were decreased with incremental additions of LGP (P < 0.05). Ruminal VFA concentrations were similar among supplementation concentrations (P > 0.05). Total viable bacteria, amylolytic bacteria, and cellulolytic bacteria were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation (4.7 x 10(9), 1.7 x 10(7), and 2.0 x 10(9) cfu/mL, respectively). Protozoal populations were significantly decreased by LGP supplementation. In addition, efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis based on OM truly digested in the rumen was enriched by LGP supplementation, especially at 100 g/d (34.2 g of N/kg of OM truly digested in the rumen). Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of LGP at 100 g/d improved digestibilities of nutrients, rumen microbial population, and microbial protein synthesis efficiency, thus improving rumen ecology in beef cattle.
Journal of Animal Science 08/2008; 86(12):3497-503. · 2.09 Impact Factor