[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polo-like kinase-2 (Plk-2) has been implicated as the dominant kinase involved in the phosphorylation of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies, which are one of the hallmarks of Parkinson's disease neuropathology. Potent, selective, brain-penetrant inhibitors of Plk-2 were obtained from a structure-guided drug discovery approach driven by the first reported Plk-2-inhibitor complexes. The best of these compounds showed excellent isoform and kinome-wide selectivity, with physicochemical properties sufficient to interrogate the role of Plk-2 inhibition in vivo. One such compound significantly decreased phosphorylation of α-synuclein in rat brain upon oral administration and represents a useful probe for future studies of this therapeutic avenue toward the potential treatment of Parkinson's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Utilizing a structure based design approach, combined with extensive medicinal chemistry execution, highly selective, potent and novel BACE1 inhibitor 8 (BACE1 Alpha assay IC50=8nM) was made from a weak μM potency hit in an extremely efficient way. The detailed SAR and general design approaches will be discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structure-activity relationship of a series of dihydroisoquinoline BACE-1 inhibitors is described. Application of structure-based design to screening hit 1 yielded sub-micromolar inhibitors. Replacement of the carboxylic acid of 1 was guided by X-ray crystallography, which allowed the replacement of a key water-mediated hydrogen bond. This work culminated in compounds such as 31, which possess good BACE-1 potency, excellent permeability and a low P-gp efflux ratio.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The SAR of a series of brain penetrant, trisubstituted thiophene based JNK inhibitors with improved pharmacokinetic properties is described. These compounds were designed based on information derived from metabolite identification studies which led to compounds such as 42 with lower clearance, greater brain exposure and longer half life compared to earlier analogs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The SAR of a series of tri-substituted thiophene JNK3 inhibitors is described. By optimizing both the N-aryl acetamide region of the inhibitor and the 4-position of the thiophene we obtained single digit nanomolar compounds, such as 47, which demonstrated an in vivo effect on JNK activity when dosed orally in our kainic acid mouse model as measured by phospho-c-jun reduction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this Letter, we describe the discovery of selective JNK2 and JNK3 inhibitors, such as 10, that routinely exhibit >10-fold selectivity over JNK1 and >1000-fold selectivity over related MAPKs, p38α and ERK2. Substitution of the naphthalene ring affords an isoform selective JNK3 inhibitor, 30, with approximately 10-fold selectivity over both JNK1 and JNK2. A naphthalene ring penetrates deep into the selectivity pocket accounting for the differentiation amongst the kinases. Interestingly, the gatekeeper Met146 sulfide interacts with the naphthalene ring in a sulfur-π stacking interaction. Compound 38 ameliorates neurotoxicity induced by amyloid-β in human cortical neurons. Lastly, we demonstrate how to install propitious in vitro CNS-like properties into these selective inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structure-activity relationship of the prime region of hydroxyethylamine BACE inhibitors is described. Variation in the aryl linker region with 5- and 6-membered heterocycles provided compounds such as 33 with improved permeability and reduced P-gp liability compared to benzyl amine analog 1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From high throughput screening, we discovered compound 1, the prototype for a series of disubstituted thiophene inhibitors of JNK which is selective towards closely related MAP kinases p38 and Erk2. Herein we describe the evolution of these compounds to a novel class of thiophene and thiazole JNK inhibitors that retain favorable solubility, permeability, and P-gp properties for development as CNS agents for treatment of neurodegeneration. Compound 61 demonstrated JNK3 IC(50)=77 nM and retained the excellent broad kinase selectivity observed for the series.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein we describe further evolution of hydroxyethylamine inhibitors of BACE-1 with enhanced permeability characteristics necessary for CNS penetration. Variation at the P2' position of the inhibitor with more polar substituents led to compounds 19 and 32, which retained the potency of more lipophilic analog 1 but with much higher observed passive permeability in MDCK cellular assay.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using structure-guided design, hydroxyethylamine BACE-1 inhibitors were optimized to nanomolar Abeta cellular inhibition with selectivity against cathepsin-D. X-ray crystallography illuminated the S1' residues critical to this effort, which culminated in compounds 56 and 57 that exhibited potency and selectivity but poor permeability and high P-gp efflux.