ABSTRACT: Effective antigen-sparing vaccines are needed to confront pandemic influenza. Whole-virion and oil-in-water adjuvanted vaccines are the most effective formulations against H5N1 avian influenza. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity in adults in the UK of pandemic H1N1 whole-virion vaccine and oil-in-water adjuvanted vaccine purchased by the UK government in 2009.
In our randomised, observer-blind, parallel-group, controlled trial, healthy adults aged 18-44 years, 45-64 years, and 65 years and older (from Oct 19, to Nov 12, 2009) received two doses of vaccine given 21 days apart: either 7·5 μg of haemagglutinin formulated as whole-virion vaccine, or 3·75 μg of haemagglutinin formulated as split-virion vaccine with AS03(A) oil-in-water adjuvant. Assignment was by a computer-generated code, with random permuted blocks of two, four, and six. All participants and investigators were unaware of vaccine assignments. The trial was done at three hospitals in the UK. We measured antibody titres with a haemagglutination-inhibition assay at baseline; 7, 14, and 21 days after each vaccination; and at 6 months after the first dose. Primary outcome was vaccine immunogenicity of the full analysis set by the EU Committee of Human Medicinal Products licensing criteria. This study is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN92328241.
At day 0, baseline antibody (titre ≥1/8) was detected in 44 (13%) of 347 participants. Sera from 95% to 98% of participants were assessed for immunogenicity on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42, and at 6 months. On day 21 after one dose of adjuvanted AS03(A) or whole-virion vaccine, 63 (94%, 95 CI 85·4-98·4) of 67 and 50 (71%, 59·4-81·6) of 70 participants aged 18-44 years, 51 (77%, 65·3-86·7) of 66 and 26 (39%, 27·1-51·5) of 67 aged 45-64 years, and 19 (51%, 34·4-68·1) of 37 and 11 (32%, 17·4-50·5) of 34 aged 65 years or older had titres of 1:40 or greater. On day 42 (21 days after the second dose), 64 (100%, 94·4-100) of 64 and 49 (73%, 60·9-83·2) of 67 participants aged 18-44 years, 59 (91%, 81·0-96·5) of 65 and 29 (43·9%, 31·7-56·7) of 66 aged 45-64 years, and 28 (76%, 58·8-88·2) of 37 and 12 (36%, 20·4-54·9) of 33 aged 65 years or older had titres of 1/40 or greater. At 6 months, 62 (98%, 91·5-100) of 63 and 54 (78%, 66·7-87·3) of 69 participants aged 18-44 years, 54 (82%, 70·4-90·2) of 66 and 37 (55%, 42·6-67·4) of 67 aged 45-64 years, and 21 (57%, 39·5-72·9) of 37 and 10 (29%, 15·1-47·5) of 34 aged 65 years or older had titres of 1/40 or greater. There were no vaccine-related serious adverse events. Whole-virion vaccine was associated with fewer local and systemic reactions than adjuvanted vaccine.
AS03(A)-adjuvanted vaccine was more immunogenic against pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus than whole-virion vaccine and offers greater antigen-sparing capacity. A two-dose strategy should be considered for older people.
Department of Health, National Institute for Health Research Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 02/2011; 11(2):91-101. · 17.39 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Antibiotic overuse in respiratory illness is common and is associated with drug resistance and hospital-acquired infection. Biomarkers that can identify bacterial infections may reduce antibiotic prescription. We aimed to compare the usefulness of the biomarkers procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with pneumonia or exacerbations of asthma or COPD.
Patients with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia or exacerbation of asthma or COPD were recruited during the winter months of 2006 to 2008. Demographics, clinical data, and blood samples were collected. Procalcitonin and CRP concentrations were measured from available sera.
Sixty-two patients with pneumonia, 96 with asthma, and 161 with COPD were studied. Serum procalcitonin and CRP concentrations were strongly correlated (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [rs] = 0.56, P < .001). Patients with pneumonia had increased procalcitonin and CRP levels (median [interquartile range] 1.27 ng/mL [2.36], 191 mg/L ) compared with those with asthma (0.03 ng/mL [0.04], 9 mg/L ) and COPD (0.05 ng/mL [0.06], 16 mg/L ). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (95% CI) for distinguishing between patients with pneumonia (antibiotics required) and exacerbations of asthma (antibiotics not required), for procalcitonin and CRP was 0.93 (0.88-0.98) and 0.96 (0.93-1.00). A CRP value > 48 mg/L had a sensitivity of 91% (95% CI, 80%-97%) and specificity of 93% (95% CI, 86%-98%) for identifying patients with pneumonia.
Procalcitonin and CRP levels can both independently distinguish pneumonia from exacerbations of asthma. CRP levels could be used to guide antibiotic therapy and reduce antibiotic overuse in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory illness.
Chest 10/2010; 139(6):1410-8. · 5.25 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Avian influenza H9N2 viruses are considered as a pandemic threat. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of fourteen H9N2 vaccine formulations. A randomized, phase I trial was done in 353 adults, aged 18-82 years. Subjects received two doses of A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (H9N2) whole-virus, alum-adjuvanted whole-virus, virosomal, or intradermal whole-virus vaccine at four doses (1.7, 5, 15 or 45 microg haemagglutinin). Sera were obtained before and three weeks after each vaccination (days 0, 21, and 42) for haemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) and neutralization assays. All formulations were well tolerated. Pre-vaccination sera from subjects aged below or above 40 years had baseline antibody to H9N2 in 1% and 16% of samples. Compared to intramuscular whole-virus vaccine, alum-adjuvanted vaccine was more immunogenic, intradermal vaccine was comparable, and virosomal vaccine less immunogenic. Among subjects under 40 years, two doses (45, 15, and 5 microg) of alum-adjuvanted vaccine achieved seroprotective HAI titres in 50%, 41%, and 39% respectively, and neutralization seroconversions in 83%, 82%, and 78% of recipients. Among subjects over 40 years, one dose (45, 15, and 5 microg) of alum-adjuvanted vaccine achieved seroprotective HAI titres in 50%, 25% and 0% respectively, and neutralization seroconversions in 88%, 63% and 63% of recipients. Among immunologically naive subjects under 40 years, two doses of vaccine are required and alum-adjuvanted vaccines were most immunogenic. Among immunologically primed subjects over 40 years, one dose of whole-virus or alum-adjuvanted vaccine induced immune responses; the second dose provided less additional benefit. However, no vaccine formulation satisfied all European regulatory criteria for pandemic vaccines.
Vaccine 09/2009; 28(1):171-8. · 3.77 Impact Factor