E.M. Schooneveld

Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (88)84.17 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The research of reliable substitutes of 3He detectors is an important task for the affordability of new neutron scattering instrumentation for future spallation sources like the European Spallation Source. GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier)-based detectors represent a valid alternative since they can combine high-rate capability, coverage of up to area and good intrinsic spatial resolution (for this detector class it can be better than 0.5 mm). The first neutron diffraction measurements performed using a borated GEM detector are reported. The detector has an active area of and is equipped with a borated cathode. The GEM detector was read out using the standard ISIS Data Acquisition System. The comparison with measurements performed with standard 3He detectors shows that the broadening of the peaks measured on the diffractogram obtained with the GEM is 20–30% wider than the one obtained by 3He tubes but the active area of the GEM is twice that of 3He tubes. The GEM resolution is improved if half of its active area is considered. The signal-to-background ratio of the GEM is about 1.5 to 2 times lower than that of 3He. This measurement proves that GEM detectors can be used for neutron diffraction measurements and paves the way for their use at future neutron spallation sources.
    EPL (Europhysics Letters) 07/2014; 107(1):12001. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measurements of the fast neutron energy spectrum at the ISIS spallation source are reported. The measurements were performed with a Proton Recoil Telescope consisting of a thin plastic foil placed in the neutron beam and two scintillator detectors. Results in the neutron energy range 30 MeV < En < 80 MeV are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron spectrum.
    Journal of Instrumentation. 11/2013; 8(11):1008P-.
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    ABSTRACT: A metallic 19th century flute was studied by means of integrated and simultaneous neutron-based techniques: neutron diffraction, neutron radiative capture analysis and neutron radiography. This experiment follows benchmark measurements devoted to assessing the effectiveness of a multitask beamline concept for neutron-based investigation on materials. The aim of this study is to show the potential application of the approach using multiple and integrated neutron-based techniques for musical instruments. Such samples, in the broad scenario of cultural heritage, represent an exciting research field. They may represent an interesting link between different disciplines such as nuclear physics, metallurgy and acoustics.
    Measurement Science and Technology 09/2013; 24:095601. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single crystal diamond (SDD) detectors coupled to fast digital data acquisition were tested as monitors of fast neutrons at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source. The ISIS pulsed neutron beams are generated by proton induced spallation on a tungsten tantalum target at 50 Hz repetition rate. The SDD signal was digitized at 1 GHz to reconstruct the deposited energy and time of flight (tToF) of each detection event. The SDD system was used reliably and almost continuously over a period of several days. The results of the biparametric measurements are in qualitative agreement with predictions based on the proton beam pulse structure and the energy deposited in the SDD by the main neutron interaction processes.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 08/2013; 720:125–127. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development and testing of the Off Specular MicrOstrip Neutron Detector (OSMOND) is described. Based on a microstrip gas chamber the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate detector capable of replacing the existing rate limited scintillator detectors currently in use on the CRISP reflectometer for off specular reflectometry experiments. The detector system is described together with results of neutron beam tests carried out at the ISIS spallation neutron source.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 01/2013; 698:168–176. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development and testing of the SuPerior Rate for INTER (SPRINTER) detector is described. Based on a microstrip gas chamber (MSGC), the aim of the project was to produce a matched pair of high-counting-rate detectors capable of replacing the existing 3He tubes currently used on the INTER reflectometer of the ISIS spallation neutron source. The detector system is described, and the results from the first neutron beam tests carried out on an ISIS neutron reflectometer are also shown.
    IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 01/2013; 60(2):1327-1331. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The software package ANTS (Anger-camera type Neutron detector: Toolkit for Simulations), developed for simulation of Anger-type gaseous detectors for thermal neutron imaging was extended to include a module for experimental data processing. Data recorded with a sensor array containing up to 100 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) in a custom configuration can be loaded and the positions and energies of the events can be reconstructed using the Center-of-Gravity, Maximum Likelihood or Least Squares algorithm. A particular strength of the new module is the ability to reconstruct the light response functions and relative gains of the photomultipliers from flood field illumination data using adaptive algorithms. The performance of the module is demonstrated with simulated data generated in ANTS and experimental data recorded with a 19 PMT neutron detector. The package executables are publicly available at http://coimbra.lip.pt/~andrei/ [http://coimbra.lip.pt/~andrei]
    Journal of Instrumentation 01/2013; 8(05):P05002. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The performance characteristics of the Off Specular MicrOstrip Neutron Detector (OSMOND) are described. Based on microstrip gas chamber (MSGC) detectors, OSMOND is a high counting rate detector, with sub-millimeter position resolution, capable of replacing the existing rate limited scintillator detectors currently in use on the suite of reflectometer instruments of the ISIS spallation neutron source. The detector system is described together with results of neutron beam tests carried out on the CRISP and POLREF reflectometers.
    IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 01/2013; 60(3):2232-2236. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The high-energy neutron field of the VESUVIO instrument at the ISIS facility has been characterized using the technique of thin-film breakdown counters (TFBC). The technique utilizes neutron-induced fission reactions of natU and 209Bi with detection of fission fragments by TFBCs. Experimentally determined count rates of the fragments are ≈50% higher than those calculated using spectral neutron flux simulated with the MCNPX code. This work is a part of the project to develop ChipIr, a new dedicated facility for the accelerated testing of electronic components and systems for neutron-induced single event effects in the new Target Station 2 at ISIS. The TFBC technique has shown to be applicable for on-line monitoring of the neutron flux in the neutron energy range 1–800 MeV at the position of the device under test (DUT).
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 09/2012; 687:14–22. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A fast neutron detection system suitable for high rate measurements is presented. The detector is based on a commercial high purity single crystal diamond (SDD) coupled to a fast digital data acquisition system. The detector was tested at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source. The SDD event signal was digitized at 1 GHz to reconstruct the deposited energy (pulse amplitude) and neutron arrival time; the event time of flight (ToF) was obtained relative to the recorded proton beam signal t{sub 0}. Fast acquisition is needed since the peak count rate is very high ({approx}800 kHz) due to the pulsed structure of the neutron beam. Measurements at ISIS indicate that three characteristics regions exist in the biparametric spectrum: i) background gamma events of low pulse amplitudes; ii) low pulse amplitude neutron events in the energy range E{sub dep}= 1.5-7 MeV ascribed to neutron elastic scattering on {sup 12}C; iii) large pulse amplitude neutron events with E{sub n} < 7 MeV ascribed to {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}){sup 9}Be and 12C(n,n')3{alpha}.
    AIP Conference Proceedings. 06/2012; 1442(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The prototype of a wavelength-sensitive neutron filter has been realized and tested successfully for the first time. The filter exploits the neutron wavelength dependence of the transparency of He-3 gas. The analysis of test results gives high wavelength resolution Delta lambda/lambda similar or equal to 0.5% over the broad wavelength range 0.2-5.2 angstrom. We propose an idea to expand the filter range in the short wavelength direction by use of a cryogenic environment, and also consider the use of media using other than He-3 gas. The proposed filter might be used in advanced reflectometers and SANS2D neutron scattering instruments.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 06/2012; 677:1 - 3. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    D Duxbury, N Rhodes, E Schooneveld, E Spill
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    ABSTRACT: Several investigations have been undertaken to ascertain the suitability of gaseous electron multipliers (GEMs) for use as a neutron detector on the ISIS spallation neutron source. Our initial investigations focused purely on whether these devices could be operated at the elevated pressure of 3He and CF4 necessary for 1mm position resolution (2.6 bars of CF4). In fact we were able to operate the GEMs at suitable gains with 3.5 bars of CF4. However encouraging these results were, we found that the GEMs charged up over time, which we postulated was due to the kapton substrate. A similar problem was seen at the early stages of the development of the microstrip gas chamber (MSGC), a solution of which was to use the semiconducting glass Schott S8900 as the substrate. Therefore we focused our attention to the manufacture of a GEM structure on an S8900 substrate. Our first devices were manufactured from 1mm thick glass and exhibit gains in excess of 1 × 104 for a single GEM stage in an argon isobutane gas mixture, when illuminated with 55Fe x-rays. A small amount of charging under irradiation has been observed in a flowing gas mixture, but the GEMs quickly stabilise and track atmospheric conditions. Further measurements in a 3He:CF4 atmosphere will show how suited these devices are to the needs of ISIS.
    Journal of Instrumentation 01/2012; 7(01):C01040. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The performance of a single crystal diamond (4.7x4.7x0.5mm3 active volume) detector was tested in the ISIS pulsed neutron beam using biparametric (time of flight and pulse height) data acquisition. Three characteristic regions in the biparametric spectra are observed: i) low pulse height events with very short time of flight induced by γ-rays; ii) low pulse height events at longer flight times (i.e. neutron energies En > 3.5–6 MeV), possibly due to neutron elastic scattering off 12C; iii) events with large pulse height and flight times corresponding to En > 6 MeV mainly due to inelastic reactions such as 12C(n,α)9Be and 12C(n,n')3α. The potential use of this detector is discussed in relation to the ChipIr neutron beam line for fast neutron irradiation of electronic components at the ISIS spallation source.
    Journal of Instrumentation 01/2012; 7(05). · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A neutron transmission detector has been developed at ISIS for use on the Small Angle Neutron Scattering instrument, SANS2D. The new transmission detector has a negligible effect on the SANS pattern. This means the SANS area detector and the transmission detector can be used simultaneously. The use of this detector has given rise to a more than 30% increase in measurement output during its first period of operation. The unique design could be used at other SANS facilities, where currently the transmission measurement is taken independently of the SANS measurement.
    Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 2012 IEEE; 01/2012
  • G.J. Sykora, E.M. Schooneveld, N.J. Rhodes, L. Van Eijck
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    ABSTRACT: Gamma sensitivity of an ISIS linear position sensitive wavelength shifting fiber (WLSF) detector was evaluated at the Reactor Institute Delft (RID) using 60Co and 137CS sources. The caveat of quoting gamma sensitivity of a detector in pure gamma fields is that detectors are never operated in gamma only environments. A concern is that the sensitivity may increase during neutron measurements due to the increase of pulse pile-up which can occur in ZnS:Ag detectors as the afterglow of a neutron event coincides with a gamma scintillation event causing the gamma event to appear brighter than it actually was. For this reason, gamma sensitivity measurements were performed on a time of flight neutron reflectometer at RID. Results presented here detail neutron efficiency and rate capability of the detector as well as demonstrate gamma sensitivity in pure gamma and mixed fields. It is shown that, in a pure gamma field, the detector has gamma sensitivity on the order of 10-7-10-6 for 60Co and 10-9-10-8 for 137Cs as a result of detector geometry, fibre coding and signal processing. Gamma sensitivity is unchanged to any statistical significance in a mixed neutron gamma field. A less than 1% gamma-induced deadtiming at neutron rates above 5kHz and high gamma flux on the order of 104 gammas/second/cm2 was observed.
    Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 2012 IEEE; 01/2012
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    ABSTRACT: The existence of resonance peaks in neutron absorption spectra in the epithermal range of energies enables unique non-destructive testing techniques. The deep penetration of epithermal neutrons provides an opportunity to perform a compositional analysis of a sample which is opaque to X-rays and thermal neutrons. The neutron resonances in the transmission spectra constitute a characteristic pattern for many isotopes, which can be used to identify the isotope and to map the distribution of the isotope in a sample. The neutron transmission spectra can be measured with the time of flight (TOF) technique using a pulsed neutron source. Combining this method with a high resolution neutron counting detector enables substantial improvements of spatial resolution of neutron resonance transmission imaging. Such a detector has been developed to register neutrons with 55 μm spatial and 10-1000 ns temporal resolution Our proof-of-principle experiments at the ISIS pulsed neutron spallation source demonstrate that compositional analysis of multi-element samples can now be performed with ~150 μm spatial resolution. Images of a test mask consisting of <; 200 μm thick foils of Au, Ag, In and Gd were collected in the 1-100 eV energy range. The experimental results demonstrate the potential for compositional analysis via resonance absorption transmission with high spatial resolution. In-bulk temperature measurement through Doppler broadening analysis will also benefit from this technique.
    IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 01/2012; 59(6):3272-3277. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The resonance structure in neutron induced reaction cross sections can be used to determine the elemental compositions of materials or objects. The occurrence of resonances is the basis of neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) and neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA). NRCA and NRTA are fully non-destructive methods to determine the bulk elemental composition without the need of any sample preparation and resulting in a negligible residual activity. They have been applied to determine the elemental composition of archaeological objects and to characterize reference materials used for cross section measurements. For imaging applications a position sensitive neutron detector has been developed within the ANCIENT CHARM project. The detector is based on a 10 × 10 array of 6Li-glass scintillators mounted on a pitch of 2.5 mm, resulting in a 25 × 25 mm2 active area. The detector has been tested at the time-of-flight facility GELINA and used at the ISIS spallation source to study cultural heritage objects.
    Journal of Instrumentation 01/2012; 7(03). · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 2D position sensitive gas scintillation detector for thermal neutrons is under development as part of the European FP7 NMI3 JRA program (Project 226507). The aim of the project is to have a detector with: sub-millimetre position resolution, high rate capability (>1 MHz), high efficiency (>50% for 1 Angstrom neutrons) and an active area of 200×200 mm2. A detector with these characteristics is of interest for retlectometry and micro-focusing SANS instruments at the neutron scattering facilities. The detector under development is a gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) that uses the light emitted in the gas avalanche to determine the position of neutrons absorbed inside the detector using the Anger camera principle. The device for the gas multiplication is an MSGC and the gas is a mixture of 3He and CF4, Despite the worldwide shortage of 3He, it still represents a valid option for small detectors that require high efficiency like the one under development in this project. The status of the project will be reported in the following sections.
    Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 2012 IEEE; 01/2012
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    ABSTRACT: A fast neutron beam monitor based on a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector was developed and tested for the ISIS spallation neutron source in U.K. The test on beam was performed at the VESUVIO beam line operating at ISIS. The 2D fast neutron beam footprint was recorded in real time with a spatial resolution of a few millimeters thanks to the patterned detector readout.
    Journal of Instrumentation 01/2012; 7(07). · 1.66 Impact Factor
  • D.M. Duxbury, N.J. Rhodes, E.M. Schooneveld, E.J. Spill
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    ABSTRACT: The Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology promises to deliver 3He based neutron detectors for a wide range of applications for the spallation neutron source ISIS. These devices offer a high rate capability and when used in conjunction CF4 as a quench gas they offer the potential of a sub mm resolution 2D detector for thermal neutron detection. The operation of these devices at elevated CF4 pressures (necessary for reducing the proton range) however has proved to be somewhat challenging. A program of work was undertaken at RAL to determine whether these devices are appropriate for deployment on the ISIS instruments.
    Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 2012 IEEE; 01/2012

Publication Stats

264 Citations
84.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2010–2013
    • Science and Technology Facilities Council
      Swindon, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009–2010
    • Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2004
    • University of Milan
      • Department of Physics
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2003–2004
    • University of Aveiro
      • Department of Physics
      Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal