[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By 30 July 2009, Indonesia had reported 139 outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) H5N1 infection in humans. Risk factors for case clustering remain largely unknown. This study assesses risk factors for cluster outbreaks and for secondary case infection.
The 113 sporadic and 26 cluster outbreaks were compared on household and individual level variables. Variables assessed include those never reported previously, including household size and genealogical relationships between cases and their contacts.
Cluster outbreaks had larger households and more blood-related contacts, especially first-degree relatives, compared with sporadic case outbreaks. Risk factors for cluster outbreaks were the number of first-degree blood-relatives to the index case (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.86) and index cases having direct exposure to sources of AI H5N1 virus (aOR, 3.20; 95% CI: 1.15-8.90). Risk factors for secondary case infection were being aged between 5 and 17 years (aOR, 8.32; 95% CI: 1.72-40.25), or 18 and 30 years (aOR, 6.04; 95% CI: 1.21-30.08), having direct exposure to sources of AI H5N1 virus (aOR, 3.48; 95% CI: 1.28-9.46), and being a first-degree relative to an index case (aOR, 11.0; 95% CI: 1.43-84.66). Siblings to index cases were 5 times more likely to become secondary cases (OR, 4.72; 95% CI: 1.67-13.35).
The type of exposure and the genealogical relationship between index cases and their contacts impacts the risk of clustering. The study adds evidence that AI H5N1 infection is influenced by, and may even depend on, host genetic susceptibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Encephalitis is a clinical syndrome commonly caused by emerging pathogens, which are not under surveillance in Australia. We reviewed rates of hospitalization for patients with encephalitis in Australia's most populous state, New South Wales, from January 1990 through December 2007. Encephalitis was the primary discharge diagnosis for 5,926 hospital admissions; average annual hospitalization rate was 5.2/100,000 population. The most commonly identified pathogen was herpes simplex virus (n = 763, 12.9%). Toxoplasma encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis showed notable declines. The average annual encephalitis case-fatality rate (4.6%) and the proportion of patients hospitalized with encephalitis with no identified pathogen (69.8%, range 61.5%-78.7%) were stable during the study period. The nonnotifiable status of encephalitis in Australia and the high proportion of this disease with no known etiology may conceal emergence of novel pathogens. Unexplained encephalitis should be investigated, and encephalitis hospitalizations should be subject to statutory notification in Australia.