James B. Wade

University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States

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Publications (16)92.22 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We proposed a sequential model of pain processing with pain intensity as stage 1, pain unpleasantness as stage 2, pain-related emotions (depression, anxiety, frustration, anger, fear) as stage 3, and overt behavioral expression of pain as stage 4. We tested hypotheses about relationships between sex and the first 3 stages of pain processing by conducting simultaneous regression analysis using LISREL-8 with data collected from 967 women and 680 men with chronic pain. We found the following results: (1) women reported higher pain-related frustration and fear; (2) frustration related most highly to pain intensity among women, as compared with anxiety and depression among men; (3) depression and frustration related most highly to usual and highest pain unpleasantness among women, as compared with frustration among men; and (4) contrary to expectations, pain-related emotions were more strongly related to pain for men. Consistent with the sequential model of pain processing, emotional response to pain was more closely related to pain unpleasantness than to pain intensity across sex. Anxiety and frustration were the emotions most highly related to pain. The current results highlight sex differences in the experience of chronic pain and the importance of assessing a range of emotions in patients with pain.
    Journal of Pain 01/2002; 2(6):354-9. DOI:10.1054/jpai.2001.27000 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), patients with Major Depression (MD) and normal control (NC) subjects were administered a continuous performance test (CPT) under neutral and incentive conditions. Patients made more errors than NC subjects with the MD group making a disproportionately large number of omission errors and the PD group tending to make commission errors. Incentive reduced errors across groups. Reaction times were slowest in the MD group. The pattern of findings in patients with MD is consistent with a failure of effort-demanding cognitive processes. In contrast, nondemented patients with PD appeared to have deficiencies in executive control. A previously reported paradoxical effect of incentive on recognition memory performance in depressed patients did not generalize to a vigilance task.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 03/1998; 20(1):111-7. DOI:10.1076/1380-3395(199802)20:1;1-P;FT111 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A four-stage model of pain processing was proposed, consisting of pain sensation intensity, pain unpleasantness (stage 1 affect), suffering (stage 2 affect), and pain behavior. We studied 506 chronic pain patients (230 male and 276 female) using a multivariate statistical technique (LISREL) in order to demonstrate the structural relationship among multiple indicators of pain processing; and to characterize these stages in terms of their interactions. A strong relationship was revealed between the majority of the underlying indicators of each pain processing stage. A linear stage sequence best fitted the relationship between the four stages. Successive stages did not have recursive effects on earlier pain components. A confirmatory LISREL analysis was conducted with an additional sample of 502 chronic pain patients. In this replication analysis the structural equation model consisted of pain intensity, unpleasantness (stage 1 affect), emotional suffering (stage 2 affect), and pain behavior. This study extends the validation of these pain dimensions, as well as the validity of the measure(s) of each separate stage.
    Pain 12/1996; 68(1):157-67. DOI:10.1016/S0304-3959(96)03162-4 · 5.84 Impact Factor
  • J B Wade · R P Hart · L M Dougherty
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to clarify factors associated with severity of tardive dyskinesia (TD). It was hypothesized that dopaminergic changes associated with neuroleptic medication may interact with unknown vulnerabilities contributing to the manifestation of TD. Fifty-four psychiatric patients residing on the acute and intermediate care wards of a Veterans Administration hospital participated. Thirty schizophrenic and 24 manic patients, under 60 years of age, were assessed for TD using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale. Cognitive tests were used to form verbal and nonverbal composite indices. The results of multiple regression analyses revealed a modest linear relationship between TD and nonverbal function (p < .03) after controlling for duration of hospitalization, years of illness, motor speed, and age. This relationship was noted for both manic and schizophrenic patients. The results of this study suggest that nonverbal dysfunction is related to severity of TD.
    Brain and Cognition 09/1993; 23(1):71-80. DOI:10.1006/brcg.1993.1045 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between neuroticism and extraversion on the 4 major stages of pain processing, that of pain sensation intensity, pain unpleasantness, suffering, and pain behavior, were studied in 205 chronic pain patients (88 male and 117 female). Patients underwent psychological evaluation which included the Pain Experience visual analogue scales (VAS) (Price et al. 1983), NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) (Costa and McCrae 1985), and the Psychosocial Pain Inventory (PPI) (Getto and Heaton 1980). Canonical correlation was used to control for pain sensation intensity in evaluating affective dimensions of pain and to control for neuroticism in assessing effects of extraversion on different stages and dimensions of pain. Neither neuroticism nor extraversion were related to pain sensation intensity. Only neuroticism was associated with pain unpleasantness. Personality factors had their greatest impact on stages 3 (suffering) and 4 (illness behavior) of pain processing. The results of multiple regression analyses indicated that life-long vulnerability to anxiety and depression is paramount in understanding the relationship between personality and suffering in chronic pain. These findings provide support for the idea that personality traits influence the ways in which people cognitively process the meanings that chronic pain holds for their life, and hence the extent to which they suffer.
    Pain 11/1992; 51(1):67-73. DOI:10.1016/0304-3959(92)90010-9 · 5.84 Impact Factor
  • James B. Wade · Donald D. Price
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    ABSTRACT: Samenvatting In het hier besproken onderzoek is een poging gedaan om de relatieve bijdrage van frustratie, angst, woede en vrees te bepalen aan de negatieve gevoelens en depressie die patiënten met pijnklachten ervaren. Aan dit onderzoek deden 69 vrouwen en 74 mannen mee; hun gemiddelde leeftijd was 47 jaar. De patiënten kregen een psychologisch onderzoek waarin de volgende componenten vertegenwoordigd waren: de Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (mmpi, een persoonlijkheidsvragenlijst), de Beck Depression Inventory (bdi, een vragenlijst omtrent depressieve gevoelens), en zeven visuele analoge schalen (vas), waarmee de mate van emotionele onlustgevoelens gemeten wordt, de pijnintensiteit, vrees, frustratie, angst, woede en depressie. Test-hertest betrouwbaarheidscoëfficiënten bleken significant te zijn voor de vas met betrekking tot de negatieve gevoelens, waarbij een gemiddelde betrouwbaarheidscoëfficiënt van 0,82 verkregen werd. (Dit betrof de vas voor depressie, vrees, angst, frustratie en woede.)
    Stimulus 09/1992; 11(3):174-175. DOI:10.1007/BF03075829
  • R P Hart · C C Colenda · L M Dougherty · J B Wade
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    ABSTRACT: We present descriptive data for alternate forms of clustered and unclustered word list recall in 102 healthy elderly adults and test results for 11 patients with Parkinson's disease. The word list test provided a relatively stable measure of verbal memory. Alternate forms were equivalent except for a tendency of the unclustered list of Form 1 to be easier than those of the other three forms. Verbal intelligence, total word recall, and the ability to cluster related words at recall were related significantly. There were modest effects of education on word recall; female subjects tended to recall more words than males.
    Journal of Clinical Psychology 06/1992; 48(3):341-54. DOI:10.1002/1097-4679(199205)48:33.0.CO;2-U · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present descriptive data for alternate forms of clustered and unclustered word list recall in 102 healthy elderly adults and test results for 11 patients with Parkinson's disease. The word list test provided a relatively stable measure of verbal memory. Alternate forms were equivalent except for a tendency of the unclustered list of Form 1 to be easier than those of the other three forms. Verbal intelligence, total word recall, and the ability to cluster related words at recall were related significantly. There were modest effects of education on word recall; female subjects tended to recall more words than males.
    Journal of Clinical Psychology 05/1992; 48(3):341 - 354. DOI:10.1002/1097-4679(199205)48:3<341::AID-JCLP2270480312>3.0.CO;2-U · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fifty-nine chronic pain patients satisfying one of four previously identified pain group classifications were evaluated using the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), a standardized measure of normal adult personality structure. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) pain subgroups differed with respect to level of NEO-PI Neuroticism. In particular, emotionally overwhelmed pain patients as defined by multiple MMPI scale elevations had higher NEO-PI Neuroticism scores. Post hoc analyses revealed higher levels of depression, anxiety, vulnerability, and hostility in emotionally overwhelmed subjects. None of the remaining groups differed from each other on NEO-PI Neuroticism. Additionally, none of the other NEO-PI domains discriminated pain subgroups. NEO-PI profiles for pain patients (except for Neuroticism in emotionally overwhelmed patients) yielded t scores in the average range, suggesting that chronic pain patients present with a relatively normal underlying personality structure.
    Pain 02/1992; 48(1):37-43. DOI:10.1016/0304-3959(92)90129-Y · 5.84 Impact Factor
  • James B. Wade · Robert P. Hart
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    ABSTRACT: A case is described of a 38-year-old, left-handed female who demonstrated mirror phenomena for both language and non-motor, nonverbal material. She mirror-wrote with her left hand with normal right-hand writing. Mirror-reading as well as object and spatial reversals were revealed. These data are consistent with bilateral representation of visual engrams, with one hemisphere containing a mirror-reversed representation of the other.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 04/1991; 13(2):299-308. DOI:10.1080/01688639108401045 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study sought to determine the relative contribution of frustration, fear, anger and anxiety, to the unpleasantness and depression pain patients experience. Sixty-nine women and 74 men, with an average age of 47 years, were included. Patients underwent psychological evaluation which included use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and 7 visual analog scales (VAS) measuring degree of emotional unpleasantness, pain intensity, anxiety, frustration, fear, anger and depression. Test-retest reliability coefficients were significant for the negative feeling VAS yielding an average reliability coefficient of 0.82. Analyses relating the negative feeling state VAS to pain unpleasantness and depression indices from the MMPI (scale 2) and BDI (sum score) yielded significant canonical correlations. Multiple regression was used to clarify the relationships between negative feeling VAS, pain-related unpleasantness, and indices of depression. After statistically controlling for intensity of pain, anxiety and frustration predicted unpleasantness. Regression analyses indicate that anger is an important concomitant of the depression that pain patients experience. The results suggest that anger and frustration are critical concomitants of the pain experience. Treatment techniques specifically targeting anger and frustration in these patients may prove efficacious.
    Pain 04/1990; 40(3):303-10. DOI:10.1016/0304-3959(90)91127-5 · 5.84 Impact Factor
  • Charles M. Morin · Robert A. Kowatch · James B. Wade
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical efficacy of a behavioral management program for treating insomnia secondary to chronic pain was evaluated within a multiple-baseline design across subjects. Treatment consisted of a combination of stimulus control and sleep restriction procedures. Daily sleep diaries and all-night polysomnographic (PSG) measures were used to document changes in sleep/wake patterns. The results showed that treatment was effective in improving sleep patterns in all three patients. A substantial decrease of time awake at night was obtained and this was reflected by reductions of sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and early morning awakenings. Sleep improvements were well maintained at follow-ups and were also paralleled by improved mood states. The findings indicate that behavioral procedures are effective for treating sleep disturbances associated with chronic pain conditions.
    Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 01/1990; 20(4):295-302. DOI:10.1016/0005-7916(89)90060-8 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied 30 schizophrenic and 10 manic patients, <60 years of age, in evaluating the relationship between tardive dyskinesia (TD) and cognitive impairment. TD was assessed using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale. Cognitive tests included selected Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Memory Scale subtests, serial 7's, Wisconsin Card Sort, Shipley Abstraction Index, Verbal Fluency, and tests of verbal and figural long-term memory. The results of multiple regression analyses revealed a modest linear relationship between TD and cognition (p < 0.04) after controlling for the effects of years of illness, duration of hospitalization, motor speed, severity of illness, and medication. The hypothesis that cognitive change associated with TD would be specifically related to frontal lobe dysfunction was not supported. Moderate bilateral cognitive impairment was noted for both schizophrenic and manic patients. (C) Lippincott-Raven Publishers.
    Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology 12/1987; 1(3). · 1.14 Impact Factor
  • Journal of medical education 12/1987; 62(11):940-2. DOI:10.1097/00001888-198711000-00014
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT), patients with major depression, and normal control subjects completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Symbol test and a measure of incidental memory for the digit-symbol pairs. Mild DAT and depressed patients had equivalent deficits in psychomotor speed, but DAT patients recalled fewer digit-symbol items. Although the standard administration of the Digit Symbol test has limited utility in differential diagnosis, the addition of a brief measure of incidental memory may be clinically useful as part of the battery of neuropsychological tests used to distinguish early dementia from depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 05/1987; 55(2):236-8. DOI:10.1037/0022-006X.55.2.236 · 4.85 Impact Factor
  • J B Wade · R P Hart · Cary Suter
    The Lancet 08/1986; 2(8498):102-3. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(86)91632-6 · 45.22 Impact Factor