[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whereas visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with cardiometabolic risk, there is debate regarding the role of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships of subcutaneous and visceral abdominal fat with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
A total of 234 patients (men 131, women 103, mean age: 53 years) with T2DM were enrolled. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) were assessed by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography (US).
Compared to women, men had significantly higher VFT and lower SFT (p = 0.002, p = 0.04, respectively). In partial correlation coefficient analyses between CIMT and abdominal fat thickness after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), SFT showed a negative correlation with CIMT in men (r = -0.27, p = 0.03). VFT was not correlated with CIMT in either men or women. In women, SFT was not correlated with CIMT (r = -0.01, p = 0.93). VFT/SFT ratio was not correlated with CIMT in either men or women. In multivariate regression analyses adjusted for BMI and other CVD risk factors, SFT but not VFT was independently inversely associated with CIMT in men but not in women (p < 0.001).
SFT assessed by US was inversely associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with T2DM, particularly men. Further research into the different roles of the two types of abdominal adipose tissue in both men and women is warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the relationship between central blood pressure (BP), brachial BP with carotid atherosclerosis and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
We recruited 201 patients who were evaluated for central BP, brachial BP, carotid ultrasonography, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), ankle-brachial index (ABI) and microvascular complications. Central BP were calculated using a radial automated tonometric system.
Agreement between central BP and brachial BP was very strong (concordance correlation coefficient between central and brachial SBP = 0.889, between central and brachial PP = 0.816). Central pulse pressure (PP) was correlated with mean carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), baPWV and ABI, whereas brachial PP was borderline significantly correlated with CIMT. The prevalence of nephropathy(DN) and retinopathy(DR) according to the brachial PP tertiles increased, the prevalences of microvascular complications were not different across central PP tertiles. In multivariate analysis, the relative risks (RRs) for the presence of DR were 1.2 and 4.6 for the brachial PP tertiles 2 and 3 when compared with the first tertile. Also, the RRs for the presence of DN were 1.02 and 3 for the brachial PP tertiles 2 and 3 when compared with the first tertile.
Agreement of central BP and brachial BP was very strong. Nonetheless, this study showed that higher brachial PP levels are associated with increased probability for the presence of microvascular complications such as DR/DN. However, there are no associations with central SBP and central PP with microvascular complications. Central BP levels than brachial BP are correlated with surrogate marker of macrovascular complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is not clear whether microangiopathies are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated the relation of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and other microangiopathies with carotid atherosclerosis in T2DM.
A total of 131 patients with T2DM were stratified by mean carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ≥ or <1.0 mm and the number of carotid plaques. CAN was assessed by the five standard cardiovascular reflex tests according to the Ewing's protocol. CAN was defined as the presence of at least two abnormal tests or an autonomic neuropathy points ≥2. Diabetic microangiopathies were assessed.
Patients with CAN comprised 77% of the group with mean CIMT ≥1.0 mm, while they were 29% of the group with CIMT <1.0 mm (P=0.016). Patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) comprised 68% of the group with CIMT ≥1.0 mm, while they were 28% of the group without CIMT thickening (P=0.003). Patients with CAN comprised 51% of the group with ≥2 carotid plaques, while they were 23% of the group with ≤1 carotid plaque (P=0.014). In multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis, the patients who presented with CAN showed an odds ratio [OR] of 8.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 44.8) for CIMT thickening and an OR of 2.9 (95% CI, 1.1 to 7.5) for carotid plaques. Furthermore, patients with DR were 3.8 times (95% CI, 1.4 to 10.2) more likely to have CIMT thickening.
These results suggest that CAN is associated with carotid atherosclerosis, represented as CIMT and plaques, independent of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors in T2DM. CAN or DR may be a determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis in T2DM.
Endocrinology and metabolism (Seoul, Korea). 12/2013; 28(4):309-19.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:We examined the relationship between serum fetuin-A, insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome (MS) and vascular complications including cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Methods:A total of 172 T2DM patients were recruited and evaluated for diabetic microangiopathies (nephropathy, retinopathy and peripheral neuropathy) including CAN. Serum fetuin-A levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the IR was assessed by the index of homeostasis model [homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Atherosclerotic burden was assessed by ankle-brachial index (ABI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV).Results:Serum fetuin-A levels showed significant positive correlations with HOMA-IR (r = 0.196, p = 0.022), and the mean levels of HOMA-IR were significantly increased progressively across fetuin-A tertiles (p for trend = 0.044). Serum fetuin-A showed significant positive correlations with baPWV, systolic blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, triglycerides, serum fasting c-peptide and negative correlations with ABI. Serum fetuin-A levels were also negatively correlated with serum adiponectin and positively correlated with serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The mean levels of serum fetuin-A were not significantly different according to the presence of each microangiopathies including CAN. Also, the mean levels of serum fetuin-A were not different between patients with MS and without MS.Conclusions:This present study showed that levels of serum fetuin-A are significantly associated with IR and arterial stiffness assessed by baPWV, while there are no associations with each microangiopathies in patients with T2DM.
Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research 06/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Considerable amount of interest has been focused on the positive relationship between inflammation and the metabolic syndrome (MS). However, few studies have been performed to evaluate the relationship between baseline white blood cell (WBC) count and future risk for developing MS. Therefore, we investigated whether the baseline plasma levels of WBC count could be associated with future risk for MS in apparently healthy Korean. Materials and Methods: A total of 1135 subjects (781 men and 354 women with a mean age of 49 years), who underwent health examinations at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital in both 2002 and 2005 were enrolled. The presence of MS was defined using the modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III using BMI instead of waist circumference. Results: The baseline levels of WBC count were significantly higher among incident MS cases than among subjects without MS. The relative risks of incident MS were 1.4, 3.2 and 2.7 for WBC quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, when compared with the first quartile (p-value for trend <0.001). These positive associations persisted after adjustment for baseline body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance; adjusted relative risk of incident MS for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartile groups vs. the lowest quartile were 1.2, 2.4 and 1.7, respectively (p-value for trend =0.011). Conclusion: This retrospective cohort study suggests that an elevated WBC count could be associated with incident MS, suggesting that baseline inflammation mirrored by WBC level can impact future MS development.
Yonsei medical journal 05/2013; 54(3):615-20. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: When a pulmonary nodular lesion is detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a patient with post-surgical papillary thyroid carcinoma with undetectable serum-stimulated thyroglobulin levels and negative 131I whole body scan, diagnosis and management of the nodule may be confusing. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe two post-surgical patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma who showed pulmonary nodular lesions detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In both cases serum-stimulated thyroglobulin levels were undetectable and nodular lesions were not detected by 131I whole body scan. In the first case, a 64-year-old Asian woman showed one focal increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake lesion in the right lower lobe of one of her lungs. Based on the histologic study, the pulmonary nodular lesion was diagnosed as a solitary pulmonary metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma. In the second case, a 59-year-old Asian woman showed a new pulmonary nodule in the right lower lobe. The computed tomography scan of her chest revealed a 9mm nodule in the anterior basal segment and another tiny nodule in the posterior basal segment of the right lower lobe. Six months later, both nodules had increased in size and miliary disseminated nodules were also seen in both lungs. Based on their histology, the pulmonary nodular lesions were considered to be primary lung adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The present cases emphasize that physicians should be cautious and make efforts for an accurate diagnosis of pulmonary nodules detected on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with no evidence of metastasis such as negative 131I whole body scan and undetectable stimulated serum thyroglobulin levels.
Journal of Medical Case Reports 10/2012; 6(1):374.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated whether the clinicopathological factors of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), especially tumoe size, are associated with subcinical central lymph node metastasis.
A total of 160 patients diagnosed with PTMC who underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral central lymph node dissection were enrolled in this study. All patients were clinically lymph node negative PTMC. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the size of tumor (≤5 mm vs. >5 mm). Clinicopathologic risk factors for subclinical central lymph node metastasis were analyzed.
Subclinical central lymph node metastasis was detected in 61 (38.1%). Patients with tumors ≤5 mm had a lower frequency of extrathyroidal extension, multifocality and subclinical central lymph node metastasis. On multivariate analysis, only male and tumor size >5 mm were independent predictors of subclinical central lymph node metastasis; age, multifocality, bilaterality, extrathyroidal extension, lymphvascular invasion and lymphocytic thyroiditis were not.
In this study, male and tumor size >5 mm were two independent predictive factors for subclinical central lymph node metastasis in PTMC. These are easier factors to assess before surgery than other factors when planning the central lymph node dissection. However, further long-term follow-up studies are needed to confirm the prognostic significance of subclinical central lymph node metastasis in PTMC.
Yonsei medical journal 09/2012; 53(5):924-30. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common complication of diabetes associated with poor prognosis. In addition, the autonomic imbalance is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetes. It is thought that adipocytokines contribute to the increased risk of vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, literature data on the association between CAN with adipocytokines such as leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), adiponectin in subjects with T2DM is limited.Therefore, in the present study, we examined the relationship between fasting serum leptin, TNF- alpha and adiponectin and CAN in Korean T2DM patients.
A total of 142 T2DM patients (94 males, 48 females) were recruited. CAN was assessed by the five tests according to the Ewing's protocol and the time and frequency domain of the heart rate variability (HRV) was evaluated. Serum TNF-alpha and adiponectin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum leptin levels were measured using radioimmunoassay.
Although, the mean levels of leptin, TNF-alpha and adiponectin were not significantly different between the groups with and without CAN, the levels of leptin and adiponectin had a tendency to increase as the score of CAN increased (p = 0.05, p = 0.036). Serum leptin levels demonstrated a negative correlation with low frequency (LF) in the upright position (p = 0.037). Regarding TNF-alpha, a significant negative correlation was observed with SDNN and RMSSD in the upright position (p = 0.023, p = 0.019). Adiponectin levels were not related to any HRV parameters. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the odds of CAN increased with a longer duration of diabetes (1.25, [1.07-1.47]) and higher homeostatic model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (5.47, [1.8-16.5]). The relative risks for the presence of CAN were 14.1 and 51.6 for the adiponectin 2nd, 3rd tertiles when compared with first tertile (p-value for trend = 0.022).
In the present study, the higher serum adiponectin levels and HOMA-IR were associated with an increased risk for the presence of CAN. Also, the CAN score correlated with the serum adiponectin. Serum adipocytokines such as leptin and TNF-alpha were significantly correlated with parameters of HRV, representative markers of CAN. Future prospective studies with larger number of patients are required to establish a direct relationship between plasma adipocytokine concentrations and the development or severity of CAN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As in other countries, type 2 diabetes is major health concern in Korea. A dramatic increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its chronic complications has led to an increase in health costs and economic burdens. Early detection of high risk individuals, hidden diabetic patients, and improvement in the quality of care for the disease are the first steps to mitigate the increase in prevalence. The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association revised and updated the '3rd Clinical Practice Guidelines' at the end of 2010. In the guidelines, the committee recommended active screening of high risk individuals for early detection and added the hemoglobin A1c level to the diagnostic criteria for type 2 diabetes based on clinical studies performed in Korea. Furthermore, the committee members emphasized that integrating patient education and self-management is an essential part of care. The drug treatment algorithm based on the degree of hyperglycemia and patient characteristics were also updated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes is unclear. We examined whether SCH is associated with diabetic retinopathy or nephropathy in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. Data from 489 patients who visited the diabetes clinic at a university hospital between 2001 and 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. Participants were evaluated for glycemic control, thyroid function, and diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. Diabetic retinopathy was classified into five grades. Diabetic nephropathy was assessed by the presence of albuminuria. Patients in the SCH group had a higher proportion of women, older age, longer duration of diabetes, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and higher insulin resistance index compared with the euthyroid group. No significant difference in family history of diabetes or body mass index was found between groups. The prevalence of severe diabetic retinopathy (severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy or proliferative diabetic retinopathy) was significantly higher in the SCH group than the euthyroid group (32.8% vs. 19.6%, P = 0.036), whereas no between-group difference was found in the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. After adjustment for potential confounding factors (HbA1c, BMI, duration of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, and hypertension) by multivariate logistic regression analysis, SCH remained significantly associated with severe diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio 2.086 (95% CI, 1.010-4.307), P = 0.047). These results suggest that SCH was independently associated with severe diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Further prospective studies are required to confirm the association between SCH and diabetic retinopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed to determine the factors associated with long-term oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) responsiveness in Korean type 2 diabetic patients.
Two groups of patients were selected among the type 2 diabetic patients who were followed for more than two years at a university hospital diabetes clinic. The OHA responsive group consisted of 197 patients whose HbA1c levels were maintained at ≤7% with OHA for more than two years. The OHA failure group consisted of 180 patients whose HbA1c levels were >8% in spite of optimal combined OHA therapy or patients who required insulin therapy within the two years of the study.
The OHA failure group had higher baseline values of fasting and postprandial glucose, HbA1c, and lower fasting, postprandial, and delta C-peptide compared to those of the OHA responsive group. The OHA failure group also had a higher proportion of female patients, longer diabetic duration, and more family history of diabetes. There were no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) or insulin resistance index between the two groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the highest quartile of baseline fasting, postprandial glucose, and HbA1c and the lowest quartile of postprandial and delta C-peptide were associated with an increased odds ratio of OHA failure after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and family history of diabetes.
Lower baseline values of postprandial and delta C-peptide and elevated fasting glucose and HbA1c are associated with long-term OHA responsiveness in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the association between serum C-peptide levels and chronic vascular complications in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. Data for 1,410 patients with type 2 diabetes were evaluated cross-sectionally. Fasting and postprandial 2-hour serum C-peptide levels were analyzed with respect to diabetic micro- and macrovascular complications. In the group of patients with lower fasting serum C-peptide quartile, the prevalences of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy were significantly higher (P = 0.035, P < 0.001, respectively). In the group of patients with lower delta C-peptide (postprandial - fasting C-peptide) quartile, the prevalences of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy were significantly higher (P < 0.001 for all). Low delta C-peptide quartile was also associated with increased severity of retinopathy and nephropathy. The age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy in the lowest versus the highest delta C-peptide quartile were 6.45 (95% confidence interval 3.41-12.22), 3.01 (2.16-4.19), and 2.65 (1.71-4.12), respectively. After further adjustment for the duration of diabetes, type of antidiabetic therapy, mean hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, and blood pressure, the ORs were reduced to 2.83 (1.32-6.08), 1.68 (1.12-2.53), and 1.61 (1.05-2.47), respectively, but remained significant. No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of macrovascular complications with respect to fasting or delta C-peptide quartiles. These results suggest that low C-peptide level is associated with diabetic microvascular, but not macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies were performed to evaluate the prevalence of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and the difference of chronic complications between LADA, T1DM, and T2DM in Korean. The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of LADA in a diabetic clinic of Soonchunhyang University hospital and to compare the phenotypic characteristics according to DM classification based on positivity of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA). Also, another important point concerns the occurrence of diabetes chronic microvascular complications in LADA. 323 patients who were checked GADA among diabetic patients admitted at Soonchunhyang University hospital were recruited. Twenty-eight patients (8.7%) were identified as positive for GADA. 11.5% (n = 37) were diagnosed with T1DM and 5.3% (n = 17) were diagnosed with LADA. GADA titer showed significant negative correlation with age of onset, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), fasting C-peptide, stimulated C-peptide, BMI, and positive correlation with HbA1C and HDL-C. Compared with those that tested negative for GADA, patients with GADA positive had lower values of onset age, BMI, TC, TG, LDL-C, fasting, and stimulated C-peptide levels and higher values of HbA1C. A significant gradual increase of values was observed for the onset age, BMI, SBP, DBP, fasting, and stimulated C-peptide across the T1DM, LADA, and T2DM subgroups. Concerning the chronic complications there was no difference in prevalence of retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy between three groups. Of LADA patients, 12 patients were receiving insulin treatment and mean time to insulin initiation was about 37 months. In conclusion, because our study suggests LADA subgroups in Korea appear to have a faster decline in C-peptide levels, it is worth detecting the patients with LADA early and effort to preserve beta cell function. Furthermore, our results showed that the prevalence of microvascular complication was comparable between the subgroups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because T2DM increases the risk of coronary atherosclerosis and CAD and new noninvasive techniques to assess CVD risk have gained considerable popularity, it is important to know how these tools relate to each other. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the extent of coronary artery calcification measured by MDCT, plasma OPG levels, baPWV and the established cardiovascular risk factors in Korean patients with T2DM. From November 2006 to December 2007, 110 asymptomatic Korean patients with T2DM without prior evidence of CAD were assessed (mean age 57.2 years). CAC imaging was performed using a 40-slice MDCT. Serum OPG levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Oscotec, Korea) from the serum samples of each subject. We measured the baPWV as an index of arterial stiffness. In addition, we measured fasting glucose, HbA(1)C, hsCRP and lipid profiles. A total of 74 patients (67.3%) had minimal or insignificant CAC (<10). The CACS, OPG and baPWV showed significant positive correlations with each other. The CACS was significantly associated with the baPWV, smoking and use of a statin. The baPWV was significantly associated with age, duration of DM, total cholesterol and CACS by multiple linear regression models of the dependent variables of CACS or baPWV. CAC and baPWV were significant predictors of each other (r = 0.359, P = 0.014 and r = 0.361, P = 0.004). The results of this study showed that CAC, baPWV and serum OPG levels were significantly correlated with each other in asymptomatic Korean patients with T2DM. Furthermore, our results suggest that arterial stiffness, as determined by baPWV, may predict the extent of coronary calcification by MDCT.