[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most significant hurdles to developing new chemical probes of biological systems and new drugs to treat disease is that of understanding the mechanism of action of small molecules discovered with cell-based small-molecule screening. Here we have assembled an ordered, high-expression clone set of all of the essential genes from Escherichia coli and used it to systematically screen for suppressors of growth inhibitory compounds. Using this chemical genomic approach, we demonstrate that the targets of well-known antibiotics can be identified as high copy suppressors of chemical lethality. This approach led to the discovery of MAC13243, a molecule that belongs to a new chemical class and that has a unique mechanism and promising activity against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We show that MAC13243 inhibits the function of the LolA protein and represents a new chemical probe of lipoprotein targeting in bacteria with promise as an antibacterial lead with Gram-negative selectivity.
Nature Chemical Biology 09/2009; 5(11):849-56. DOI:10.1038/nchembio.221 · 13.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Valproic (2-propylpentanoic) acid is a commonly used drug in the treatment of bipolar disorder and epilepsy. The molecular mechanism that underlies its clinical efficacy remains controversial and is complicated by the broad range of intracellular effects of valproic acid, including its ability to inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC) and induce protein chaperone expression. Here we show that an established HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, promotes ER chaperone expression in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, we use chemical derivatives of valproic acid to show that the ability to promote GRP78 levels directly correlates with the induction of histone H4 hyperacetylation. These results suggest that exposure to valproic acid enhances chaperone expression by a mechanism that involves histone hyperacetylation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Heck cross-coupling of aryl iodides and bromides with olefins proceeds in the phosphonium salt ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride (THP-Cl) in excellent yields. Furthermore, it is shown that the counter anion matched to the phosphonium cation exerts a measurable effect on the overall yield.Graphical abstract
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sensitization of Eu(III) and Tb(III) by ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid (EDTA)-derivatized tryptophan (Trp), 7-azatryptophan (7AW) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HW) has been examined. These Trp analogs were utilized in the present study because they can be incorporated into proteins in place of native Trp residues and because they absorb strongly beyond 305 nm (where Trp absorbance goes to zero), allowing selective excitation of such species in the presence of other Trp-containing proteins. All three indole derivatives were able to sensitize Tb(III) luminescence, with the relative sensitization being in the order Trp > 5HW > 7AW. On the other hand, only the 7AW-EDTA complex was able to sensitize Eu(III) luminescence, likely owing to a better spectral overlap between 7AW emission and Eu(III) absorbance. The sensitized emission of Tb(III) and Eu(II) displayed the expected long emission lifetimes at 545 nm [for Tb(III)] and 617 nm [for Eu(III)], indicating that long-lifetime lanthanide emission could be produced using nonnatural amino-acid donors. Thus, 7AW- and 5HW-sensitized lanthanide emissions should prove to be useful in biophysical studies, such as the use of fluorescence energy transfer to probe biomolecular interactions in vivo.
Photochemistry and Photobiology 02/2002; 75(2):117-21. DOI:10.1562/0031-8655(2002)0750117SOLBNA2.0.CO2 · 2.27 Impact Factor