Nikolaus Schiering

Novartis, Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland

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Publications (18)85.74 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A cis-configured 3,5-disubstituted piperidine direct renin inhibitor, (syn,rac)-1, was discovered as a high-throughput screening hit from a target-family tailored library. Optimization of both the prime and the nonprime site residues flanking the central piperidine transition-state surrogate resulted in analogues with improved potency and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, culminating in the identification of the 4-hydroxy-3,5-substituted piperidine 31. This compound showed high in vitro potency toward human renin with excellent off-target selectivity, 60% oral bioavailability in rat, and dose-dependent blood pressure lowering effects in the double-transgenic rat model.
    ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 07/2014; 5(7):787-92. DOI:10.1021/ml500137b · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fluorescence lifetime (FLT)-based assays have developed to become highly attractive tools in drug discovery. All recently published examples of FLT-based assays essentially describe their use for monitoring enzyme-mediated peptide modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage or phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. Here we report the development of competitive binding assays as novel, inhibitor-centric assays, principally employing the FLT of the acridone dye Puretime 14 (PT14) as the readout parameter. Exemplified with two case studies on human serine proteases, the details of the rationale for both the design and synthesis of probes (i.e., active site-directed low-molecular-weight inhibitors conjugated to PT14) are provided. Data obtained from testing inhibitors with the novel assay format match those obtained with alternative formats such as FLT-based protease activity and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based competitive binding assays.
    Journal of Biomolecular Screening 01/2014; 19(6). DOI:10.1177/1087057114521295 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health burden with over 170 million people infected worldwide. In a significant portion of patients chronic hepatitis C infection leads to serious liver diseases, including fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The HCV NS3 protein is essential for viral polyprotein processing and RNA replication and hence viral replication. It is composed of an N-terminal serine protease domain and a C-terminal helicase/NTPase domain. For full activity, the protease requires the NS4A protein as a cofactor. HCV NS3/4A protease is a prime target for developing direct-acting antiviral agents. First-generation NS3/4A protease inhibitors have recently been introduced into clinical practice, markedly changing HCV treatment options. To date, crystal structures of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors have only been reported in complex with the protease domain alone. Here, we present a unique structure of an inhibitor bound to the full-length, bifunctional protease-helicase NS3/4A and show that parts of the P4 capping and P2 moieties of the inhibitor interact with both protease and helicase residues. The structure sheds light on inhibitor binding to the more physiologically relevant form of the enzyme and supports exploring inhibitor-helicase interactions in the design of the next generation of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors. In addition, small angle X-ray scattering confirmed the observed protease-helicase domain assembly in solution.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2011; 108(52):21052-6. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1110534108 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Anna Vulpetti, Nikolaus Schiering, Claudio Dalvit
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    ABSTRACT: (19)F NMR screening of fluorinated fragments with different Local Environment of Fluorine, a.k.a. LEF library, is an experimental methodology which, beyond providing useful starting fragments for fragment-based drug discovery projects, offers, in combination with crystal and computational analysis, an approach for the identification of fluorophilic hot-spots in the proteins of interest. The application of this approach in the identification of fluorinated fragments binding to the serine protease trypsin, and the X-ray structures of the complexes are presented. The specific nature of the observed fluorine-protein interactions is discussed and compared with the interactions detected for other fluorinated ligands reported in the protein data bank. The presence of similar 3D arrangements of protein atoms at the fluorine sub-sites is identified with a newly developed tool. In this approach, protein sub-sites are extracted around each fluorine contained in the protein data bank and compared with the query of interest by using a pharmacophoric description.
    Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 12/2010; 78(16):3281-91. DOI:10.1002/prot.22836 · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 11/2010; 53(21):7490-520. DOI:10.1021/jm901885s · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fragment-based screening (FBS) has gained acceptance in the pharmaceutical industry as an attractive approach for the identification of new chemical starting points for drug discovery programs in addition to classical strategies such as high-throughput screening. There is the concern that screening of fragments at high µM concentrations in biochemical assays results in increased false-positive and false-negative rates. Here the authors systematically compare the data quality of FBS obtained by enzyme activity-based fluorescence intensity, fluorescence lifetime, and mobility shift assays with the data quality from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. The serine protease trypsin and the matrix metalloprotease MMP12 were selected as model systems. For both studies, 352 fragments were selected each. From the data generated, all 3 biochemical protease assay methods can be used for screening of fragments with low false-negative and low false-positive rates, comparable to those achieved with the SPR-based assays. It can also be concluded that only fragments with a solubility higher than the screening concentration determined by means of NMR should be used for FBS purposes. Extrapolated to 10,000 fragments, the biochemical assays speed up the primary FBS process by approximately a factor of 10 and reduce the protease consumption by approximately 10,000-fold compared to NMR protein observation experiments.
    Journal of Biomolecular Screening 10/2010; 15(9):1029-41. DOI:10.1177/1087057110380455 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Point mutations emerge as one of the rate-limiting steps in tumor response to small molecule inhibitors of protein kinases. Here we characterized the response of the MET mutated variants, V1110I, V1238I, V1206L and H1112L to the small molecule SU11274. Our results reveal a distinct inhibition pattern of the four mutations with IC(50) values for autophosphorylation inhibition ranging between 0.15 and 1.5muM. Differences were further seen on the ability of SU11274 to inhibit phosphorylation of downstream MET transducers such as AKT, ERK, PLCgamma and STAT3 and a variety of MET-dependent biological endpoints. In all the assays, H1112L was the most sensitive to SU11274, while V1206L was less affected under the used concentration range. The differences in responses to SU11274 are discussed based on a structural model of the MET kinase domain.
    Cancer letters 09/2009; 289(2):228-36. DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2009.08.017 · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years considerable advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular basis of iron-mediated regulation of diphtheria toxin expression. The tox gene has been shown to be regulated by the heavy metal ion-activated regulatory element DtxR. In the presence of divalent heavy metal ions, DtxR becomes activated and binds to a 9 bp interrupted palindromic sequence. The consensus-binding site has been determined by both the sequence analysis of DtxR-responsive operators cloned from genomic libraries of Corynebacterium diphtheriae as well as by in vitro genetic methods using cyclic amplification of selected targets (CAST-ing). it is now clear that DtxR functions as a global iron-sensitive regulatory element in the control of gene expression in C. diphtheriae. In addition, the metal ion-activation domain of DtxR is being characterized by both mutational analysis and determination of the X-ray structure at 3.0 Å resolution.
    Molecular Microbiology 10/2006; 14(2):191 - 197. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.1994.tb01280.x · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The replication of flaviviruses requires the correct processing of their polyprotein by the viral NS3 protease (NS3pro). Essential for the activation of NS3pro is a 47-residue region of NS2B. Here we report the crystal structures of a dengue NS2B-NS3pro complex and a West Nile virus NS2B-NS3pro complex with a substrate-based inhibitor. These structures identify key residues for NS3pro substrate recognition and clarify the mechanism of NS3pro activation.
    Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 05/2006; 13(4):372-3. DOI:10.1038/nsmb1073 · 11.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both dengue and West Nile virus infections are an increasing risk to humans, not only in tropical and subtropical areas, but also in North America and parts of Europe. These viral infections are generally transmitted by mosquitoes, but may also be tick-borne. Infection usually results in mild flu-like symptoms, but can also cause encephalitis and fatalities. Approximately 2799 severe West Nile virus cases were reported this year in the United States, resulting in 102 fatalities. With this alarming increase in the number of West Nile virus infections in western countries and the fact that dengue virus already affects millions of people per year in tropical and subtropical climates, there is a real need for effective medicines. A possible therapeutic target to combat these viruses is the protease, which is essential for virus replication. In order to provide structural information to help to guide a lead identification and optimization program, crystallizations of the NS2B-NS3 protease complexes from both dengue and West Nile viruses have been initiated. Crystals that diffract to high resolution, suitable for three-dimensional structure determinations, have been obtained.
    Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 03/2006; 62(Pt 2):157-62. DOI:10.1107/S1744309106001199 · 0.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Met receptor tyrosine kinase plays a crucial role in the regulation of a large number of cellular processes and, when deregulated by overexpression or mutations, leads to tumor growth and invasion. The Y1235D mutation identified in metastases was shown to induce constitutive activation and a motile-invasive phenotype on transduced carcinoma cells. Wild-type Met activation requires phosphorylation of both Y1234 and Y1235 in the activation loop. We mapped the major phosphorylation sites in the kinase domain of a recombinant Met protein and identified the known residues Y1234 and Y1235 as well as a new phosphorylation site at Y1194 in the hinge region. Combining activating and silencing mutations at these sites, we characterized in depth the mechanism of activation of wild-type and mutant Met proteins. We found that the phosphotyrosine mimetic mutation Y1235D is sufficient to confer constitutive kinase activity, which is not influenced by phosphorylation at Y1234. However, the specific activity of this mutant was lower than that observed for fully activated wild-type Met and induced less phosphorylation of Y1349 in the signaling site, indicating that this mutation cannot entirely compensate for a phosphorylated tyrosine at this position. The Y1194F silencing mutation yielded an enzyme that could be activated to a similar extent as the wild type but with significantly slower activation kinetics, underlying the importance of this residue, which is conserved among different tyrosine kinase receptors. Finally, we observed different interactions of wild-type and mutant Met with the inhibitor K252a that may have therapeutic implications for the selective inhibition of this kinase.
    Biochemistry 12/2005; 44(43):14110-9. DOI:10.1021/bi051242k · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The protooncogene c-met codes for the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase. Binding of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, stimulates receptor autophosphorylation, which leads to pleiotropic downstream signaling events in epithelial cells, including cell growth, motility, and invasion. These events are mediated by interaction of cytoplasmic effectors, generally through Src homology 2 (SH2) domains, with two phosphotyrosine-containing sequence motifs in the unique C-terminal tail of c-Met (supersite). There is a strong link between aberrant c-Met activity and oncogenesis, which makes this kinase an important cancer drug target. The furanosylated indolocarbazole K-252a belongs to a family of microbial alkaloids that also includes staurosporine. It was recently shown to be a potent inhibitor of c-Met. Here we report the crystal structures of an unphosphorylated c-Met kinase domain harboring a human cancer mutation and its complex with K-252a at 1.8-A resolution. The structure follows the well established architecture of protein kinases. It adopts a unique, inhibitory conformation of the activation loop, a catalytically noncompetent orientation of helix alphaC, and reveals the complete C-terminal docking site. The first SH2-binding motif (1349YVHV) adopts an extended conformation, whereas the second motif (1356YVNV), a binding site for Grb2-SH2, folds as a type II Beta-turn. The intermediate portion of the supersite (1353NATY) assumes a type I Beta-turn conformation as in an Shc-phosphotyrosine binding domain peptide complex. K-252a is bound in the adenosine pocket with an analogous binding mode to those observed in previously reported structures of protein kinases in complex with staurosporine.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2003; 100(22):12654-9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1734128100 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are key modules in intracellular signal transduction. They link activated cell surface receptors to downstream targets by binding to phosphotyrosine-containing sequence motifs. The crystal structure of a Grb2-SH2 domain-phosphopeptide complex was determined at 2.4 A resolution. The asymmetric unit contains four polypeptide chains. There is an unexpected domain swap so that individual chains do not adopt a closed SH2 fold. Instead, reorganization of the EF loop leads to an open, nonglobular fold, which associates with an equivalent partner to generate an intertwined dimer. As in previously reported crystal structures of canonical Grb2-SH2 domain-peptide complexes, each of the four hybrid SH2 domains in the two domain-swapped dimers binds the phosphopeptide in a type I beta-turn conformation. This report is the first to describe domain swapping for an SH2 domain. While in vivo evidence of dimerization of Grb2 exists, our SH2 dimer is metastable and a physiological role of this new form of dimer formation remains to be demonstrated.
    Biochemistry 12/2000; 39(44):13376-82. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are key modules in intracellular signal transduction. They link activated cell surface receptors to downstream targets by binding to phosphotyrosine-containing sequence motifs. The crystal structure of a Grb2-SH2 domain-phosphopeptide complex was determined at 2.4 Angstrom resolution. The asymmetric unit contains four polypeptide chains. There is an unexpected domain swap so that individual chains do not adopt a closed SH2 fold. Instead, reorganization of the EF loop leads to an open, nonglobular fold, which associates with an equivalent partner to generate an intertwined dimer. As in previously reported crystal structures of canonical Grb2-SH2 domain-peptide complexes, each of the four hybrid SH2 domains in the two domain-swapped dimers binds the phosphopeptide in a type 1 beta -turn conformation. This report is the first to describe domain swapping for an SH2 domain. While in vivo evidence of dimerization of Grb2 exists, our SH2 dimer is metastable and a physiological role of this new form of dimer formation remains to be demonstrated.
    Biochemistry 11/2000; 39(44):13376-13382. DOI:10.1021/bi0012336 · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • X Ding, H Zeng, N Schiering, D Ringe, J R Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: The diphtheria tox repressor, DtxR, is a 226 amino acid transition metal ion-activated regulatory protein that controls the expression of diphtheria toxin in toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The previously solved three-dimensional DtxR structures have identified two potential metal ion binding sites which may play a role in the activation of DNA binding by the repressor. We have used both X-ray crystallographic and site-directed mutational analysis of DtxR(C102D)-Ni2+ complexes and DtxR to identify the metal ion-binding site which results in the activation of the repressor. We demonstrate that DtxR contains both a primary and an ancillary metal ion binding site. The primary site functions directly in the activation of DNA binding. In contrast, the ancillary site contributes weakly, if at all, to activation.
    Nature Structural Biology 05/1996; 3(4):382-7. DOI:10.1038/nsb0496-382
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    ABSTRACT: The diphtheria tox repressor (DtxR) of Corynebacterium diphtheriae plays a critical role in the regulation of diphtheria toxin expression and the control of other iron-sensitive genes. The crystal structures of apo-DtxR and of the metal ion-activated form of the repressor have been solved and used to identify motifs involved in DNA and metal ion binding. Residues involved in binding of the activated repressor to the diphtheria tox operator, glutamine 43, arginine 47, and arginine 50, were located and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Previous biochemical and genetic data can be explained in terms of these structures. Conformational differences between apo- and Ni-DtxR are discussed with regard to the mechanism of action of this repressor.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1995; 92(21):9843-50. DOI:10.1073/pnas.92.21.9843 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crystals of the diphtheria tox repressor (DtxR) from Corynebacterium diphtheriae suitable for structure determination have been obtained. DtxR activated with transition metal ions represses the expression of the structural gene for the diphtheria toxin, tox, which is encoded on the genome of a family of closely related corynebacteriophages. The space group of the obtained crystals is trigonal P3(1)21 or its enantiomorph P3(2)21 with a = b = 64.2 A, c = 220.5 A, alpha = beta = 90 degrees, gamma = 120 degrees. Two monomers comprise the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to a resolution of better than 3 A.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 01/1995; 244(5):654-6. DOI:10.1006/jmbi.1994.1760 · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • X Tao, N Schiering, H Y Zeng, D Ringe, J R Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years considerable advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular basis of iron-mediated regulation of diphtheria toxin expression. The tox gene has been shown to be regulated by the heavy metal ion-activated regulatory element DtxR. In the presence of divalent heavy metal ions, DtxR becomes activated and binds to a 9 bp interrupted palindromic sequence. The consensus-binding site has been determined by both the sequence analysis of DtxR-responsive operators cloned from genomic libraries of Corynebacterium diphtheriae as well as by in vitro genetic methods using cyclic amplification of selected targets (CASTing). It is now clear that DtxR functions as a global iron-sensitive regulatory element in the control of gene expression in C. diphtheriae. In addition, the metal ion-activation domain of DtxR is being characterized by both mutational analysis and determination of the X-ray structure at 3.0 A resolution.
    Molecular Microbiology 11/1994; 14(2):191-7. · 5.03 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

601 Citations
85.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • Novartis
      • Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2011
    • Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995–2006
    • Brandeis University
      Waltham, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005
    • Nerviano Medical Sciences
      Nerviano, Lombardy, Italy