Shawna D Persaud

University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, United States

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Publications (6)39.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: All-trans retinoic acid (atRA), one of the active ingredients of vitamin A, exerts canonical activities to regulate gene expression mediated by nuclear RA receptors (RARs). AtRA could also elicit certain non-canonical activities including, mostly, rapid activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2); but the mechanism was unclear. In this study, we have found that cellular retinoic acid binding protein I (CRABPI) mediates the non-canonical, RAR- and membrane signal-independent activation of ERK1/2 by atRA in various cellular backgrounds. In the context of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), atRA/CRABPI-dependent ERK1/2 activation rapidly affects ESC cell cycle, specifically to expand the G1 phase. This is mediated by ERK stimulation resulting in dephosphorylation of nuclear p27, which elevates nuclear p27 protein levels to block G1 progression to S phase. This is the first study to identify CRABPI as the mediator for non-canonical activation of ERK1/2 by atRA, and demonstrate a new functional role for CRABPI in modulating ESC cell cycle progression.
    Cellular Signalling 09/2012; 25(1):19-25. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to stress is associated with adverse emotional and behavioral responses. Whereas the κ-opioid receptor (KOR) system is known to mediate some of the effects, it is unclear whether and how stress affects epigenetic regulation of this gene. Because the KOR gene can use two promoters (Pr1 and Pr2) and two polyadenylation signals (PA1 and PA2), it is also interesting whether and how these distinct regulatory mechanisms are differentially modulated by stress. The current study examined the effects of stress on these different regulatory mechanisms of the KOR gene. Results showed that stress selectively increased the expression of KOR mRNA isoforms controlled by Pr1 and terminated at PA1 in specific brain areas including the medial-prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, brainstem, and sensorimotor cortex, but not in the amygdala or hypothalamus. These effects correlated with altered epigenetic state of KOR Pr1 chromatin, as well as elevation and increased recruitment of the principal transcription factor c-Myc, which could activate Pr1. Stress-induced modulation of Pr1 was further validated using glutamate-sensitive murine hippocampal cell line, HT22. The results revealed a common molecular mechanism underlying the effect of stress on selected chromatin regions of this gene at the cellular level and in the context of whole animal and identified a critical role for c-Myc in stress-triggered epigenetic regulation of the KOR gene locus. This study sheds light on the mechanisms of stress-induced epigenetic regulation that targets specific chromatin segments and suggests certain KOR transcripts and its principal transcription factor c-Myc as potential targets for brain-area-specific intervention.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2012; 109(23):9167-72. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The physiological signal activating cytoplasmic accumulation of nuclear receptor interacting protein 140 (RIP140) in adipocytes was unclear. We uncover that endothelin-1 (ET-1) promotes cytoplasmic accumulation of RIP140 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We determine ET-1's signal transduction pathway in adipocytes, which is by activating ET(A) receptor-PLCβ-nuclear PKCε. Blocking this pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cultures, by treating cells with an ET(A) antagonist, inhibiting PLCβ, or silencing PKCε, reduces ET-1-stimulated cytoplasmic accumulation of RIP140. In a HFD-fed obese mouse model, administration of a selective ET(A) antagonist, ambrisentan, effectively dampens cytoplasmic accumulation of RIP140 in the epididymal adipose tissue and reduces HFD-caused adipocyte dysfunctions. Importantly, ambrisentan improves blood glucose control and reduces the severity of hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. This study reports a physiological signal that stimulates nuclear export of RIP140 in adipocytes and provides evidence for a strategy using selective ET(A) antagonist to treat obesity-induced insulin resistance and, possibly, other metabolic disorders.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 12/2011; 351(2):176-83. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Receptor interacting protein 140 (RIP140) is a coregulator for numerous nuclear receptors and transcription factors and primarily exerts gene-repressive activities on various target genes. We previously identified a spectrum of posttranslational modifications on RIP140 that augment its property and biological activity. In T(3)-triggered biphasic regulation of cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 (Crabp1) gene along the course of fibroblast-adipocyte differentiation, we found TRAP220(MED1) critical for T(3)-activated chromatin remodeling whereas RIP140 essential for T(3)-repressive chromatin remodeling of this gene promoter. In this current study, we aim to examine whether and how RIP140 replaces TRAP220(MED1) on the CrabpI promoter in differentiating adipocyte cultures. We find increasing recruitment of RIP140 to this promoter, with corresponding reduction in TRAP220(MED1) recruitment during the T(3)-repressive phase. We also uncover direct interaction of RIP140 with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)8 through the amino terminus of RIP140, which is stimulated by lysine acetylation on RIP140. We further validate the biological activity of lysine acetylation-mimetic RIP140, which elicits a stronger repressive effect and more efficiently recruits CDK8 and confirm CDK8's function in recruiting repressive components, such as G9a, to the RIP140 complex on this promoter. This underlies the T(3)-triggered repression of CrabpI gene. This study illustrates a new gene-repressive mechanism of RIP140 that can affect the transcription machinery by directly interacting with CDK8.
    Molecular Endocrinology 08/2011; 25(10):1689-98. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Promyelocytic leukemia (Pml) protein is required for Oct4 gene expression and the maintenance of its open chromatin conformation in stem cells. In proliferating stem cells, Pml-nuclear body, along with transcription factors TR2, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) and Sp1, and Brg1-dependent chromatin remodeling complex (BRGC), associates with conserved region 1 (CR1) of this promoter to maintain a nucleosome-free region for gene activity. Retinoic acid (RA) rapidly downregulates Pml, resulting in the replacement of BRGC with Brm-containing remodeling complex, disassociation of SF1 and Sp1, retaining of TR2, recruitment of receptor-interaction protein 140, G9a and HP1γ, and sequential insertion of two nucleosomes on CR1 that progressively displays repressive heterochromatin marks. This study demonstrates a functional role for Pml in maintaining a specific open chromatin conformation of the Oct4 promoter region for its constant expression in stem cells; and illustrates the mechanism underlying RA-induced chromatin remodeling of Oct4 gene in differentiating cells, in which Pml plays a critical role. The study also demonstrates a novel mode of chromatin remodeling, which occurs by repositioning and sequentially inserting nucleosomes into a specific region of the gene promoter to compact the chromatin in differentiating cells.
    Stem Cells 02/2011; 29(4):660-9. · 7.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 (Crabp1) gene is biphasically (proliferation versus differentiation) regulated by thyroid hormone (T3) in 3T3-L1 cells. This study examines T3-repression of Crabp1 gene during adipocyte differentiation. T3 repression of Crabp1 requires receptor interacting protein 140 (RIP140). During differentiation, the juxtaposed chromatin configuration of Crabp1 promoter with its upstream region is maintained, but the 6-nucleosomes spanning thyroid hormone response element to transcription initiation site slide bi-directionally, with the third nucleosome remaining at the same position throughout differentiation. On the basal promoter, RIP140 replaces coactivators GRIP1 and PCAF and forms a repressive complex with CtBP1, HDAC3 and G9a. Initially active chromatin marks on this promoter, histone modifications H3-Ac and H3K4-me3, are weakened whereas repressive chromatin marks, H3K9-me3 and H3K27-me3 modification and recruitment of G9a, HP1alpha, HP1gamma and H1, are intensified. This is the first study to examine chromatin remodeling, during the phase of hormone repression, of a bi-directionally regulated hormone target gene, and provides evidence for a functional role of RIP140 in chromatin remodeling to repress hormone target gene expression.
    Nucleic Acids Research 09/2009; 37(21):7085-94. · 8.81 Impact Factor