[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To report the efficacy and safety of the Outback((R)) LTD (R) Re-Entry Catheter in reentering the distal true lumen during percutaneous intentional extraluminal revascularization (PIER). Background
Reentry catheters are used to treat chronic, total arterial occlusions of the lower extremities when standard methods of recanalization have failed. Success and complication rates of these catheters in the real world are uncertain and variable. MethodsA retrospective review of our peripheral catheterization database from January 2004 to September 2009 was undertaken to identify consecutive cases of peripheral chronic total occlusions (CTOs) requiring the use of the Outback reentry catheter. Patient demographics, indication for the procedure, location and extent of occlusion, procedural success, and complications were studied. ResultsA total of 51 patients were identified. Of the 51, 28 (54.9%) patients presented with nonhealing ulcer and 22 (43.1%) had lifestyle-limiting claudication. One patient presented with acute limb ischemia. There were 6 (11.8%) patients with common iliac artery occlusion, 2 (3.9%) with external iliac artery occlusion, 1 (1.9%) with common femoral artery occlusion, 35 (68.6%) with superficial femoral artery occlusion, 6 (11.8%) with popliteal artery occlusion, and 1 (1.9%) with tibioperoneal artery occlusion. Median lesion length was 230 mm. Procedural success was achieved in 49 patients (96.1%). There was 1 (1.9%) periprocedural complication. Conclusion
Use of Outback((R)) LTD (R) Re-Entry Catheter is a safe and valuable option for PIER/subintimal angioplasty and recanalization in patients with symptomatic lower-extremity CTOs. However, long-term patency remains unknown. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Sleep disturbance caused by obstructive sleep apnea is recognized as a contributing factor to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of restless legs syndrome, another common cause of fragmented sleep, on cardiac structure, function, and long-term outcomes is not known. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of frequent leg movement during sleep on cardiac structure and outcomes in patients with restless legs syndrome.
In our retrospective study, patients with restless legs syndrome referred for polysomnography were divided into those with frequent (periodic movement index > 35/hour) and infrequent (≤ 35/hour) leg movement during sleep. Long-term outcomes were determined using Kaplan-Meier and logistic regression models.
Of 584 patients, 47% had a periodic movement index > 35/hour. Despite similarly preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, the group with periodic movement index > 35/hour had significantly higher left ventricular mass and mass index, reflective of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). There were no significant baseline differences in the proportion of patients with hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, prior myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure, or the use of antihypertensive medications between the groups. Patients with frequent periodic movement index were older, predominantly male, and had more prevalent coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation. However, on multivariate analysis, periodic movement index > 35/hour remained the strongest predictor of LVH (odds ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.67-3.59; P < .001). Advanced age, female sex, and apnea-hypopnea index were other predictors of LVH. Patients with periodic movement index > 35/hour had significantly higher rates of heart failure and mortality over median 33-month follow-up.
Frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is an independent predictor of severe LVH and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 04/2013; 26(7). DOI:10.1016/j.echo.2013.03.018 · 4.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared use of intravenous (IV) normal saline (NS) to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) with or without oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI).
CI-AKI is associated with significant adverse clinical events. Use of NAC has produced variable results. Recently, intravenous hydration with NaHCO(3) for CI-AKI prophylaxis has been adopted as standard treatment for patients with stable chronic renal disease undergoing catheterization procedures.
We prospectively enrolled 320 patients with baseline renal insufficiency scheduled to undergo catheterization. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either IV NS ± NAC (n = 161) or IV dextrose 5% in water containing 154 mEq/l of NaHCO(3) ± NAC (n = 159). IV NS was administered at 1 ml/kg body weight for 12 hr preprocedure and 12 more hr postprocedure. IV NaHCO(3) was administered at 3 ml/kg body weight for 1 hr preprocedure followed by 1 ml/kg body weight postprocedure. A 1,200 mg oral dose of NAC was given 2-12 hr preprocedure and 6-12 hr postprocedure in 50% of patients in each study arm. CI-AKI was defined as an increase of >0.5 mg/dl or >25% above baseline creatinine.
Overall incidence of CI-AKI was 10.3%. There was no significant difference in incidence among the two groups (NS ± NAC 11.8% vs. NaHCO(3) ± NAC 8.8%, p = ns). Incidence of CI-AKI increased with increasing age (p = 0.001), contrast agent use >3 ml/kg body weight (p = 0.038) and diuretic use (p = 0.005).
Incidence of CI-AKI was no different in the NaHCO(3) group compared to NS group, and NAC did not reduce CI-AKI in the two study arms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between echocardiographic parameters and CHADS2 score in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF).
Seventy-seven subjects (36 patients with AF, 41 control subjects) underwent standard two-dimensional, Doppler, and speckle-tracking echocardiography to compute regional and global left atrial (LA) strain.
Global longitudinal LA strain was reduced in patients with AF compared with controls (P < .001) and was a predictor of high risk for thromboembolism (CHADS2 score ≥ 2; odds ratio, 0.86; P = .02). LA strain indexes showed good interobserver and intraobserver variability. In sequential Cox models, the prediction of hospitalization and/or death was improved by addition of global LA strain and indexed LA volume to CHADS2 score (P = .003).
LA strain is a reproducible marker of dynamic LA function and a predictor of stroke risk and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AF.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 05/2011; 24(5):506-12. DOI:10.1016/j.echo.2011.02.012 · 4.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Predictors of atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after catheter ablation (CA) are not fully defined. We hypothesized that 2D left atrial (LA) regional strain maps would help identify abnormal atrial substrate that increases susceptibility to AF recurrence post-CA.
Sixty-three patients (63 ± 10 years, 60% male) underwent CA for symptomatic paroxysmal (75%) or persistent (25%) AF. Baseline LA mechanical function determined using speckle tracking echocardiography was compared between those with AF recurrence (AFR) and no recurrence post-CA. Bi-dimensional global and regional maps of LA wall velocity, strain, and strain rate (SR) were obtained during end ejection and early diastole. After 18 ± 12 months of follow-up, 34 patients were free of AFR post-CA. There were no differences in clinical characteristics, LA and LV volumes, and Doppler estimates of LV diastolic function and filling pressures at baseline between patients with recurrent AF and those that maintained sinus rhythm. However, the LA emptying fraction (55 ± 17% vs. 64 ± 14%, p = 0.04), global and regional systolic and diastolic strains, SR, and velocities were reduced in patients with recurrent AF. There was marked attenuation of peak LA lateral wall longitudinal strain (LS; 11 ± 7% vs. 20 ± 14%, p = 0.007) and SR (0.9 ± 0.4 vs.1.3 ± 0.6 s(-1), p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed lateral wall LS (odds ratio = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.02-1.28, p = 0.01) as an independent predictor of AFR.
Regional LA lateral wall LS is a pre-procedural determinant of AFR in patients undergoing CA, independent of LA enlargement. Characterization of atrial myocardial tissue properties by speckle tracking echo may aid the appropriate selection of adjunctive strategies and prognostication of patients undergoing CA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the choice reperfusion strategy for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, data on PPCI in elderly patients are sparse. This study determined clinical outcome post-PPCI in elderly versus younger patients with STEMI.
A cohort of 790 consecutive STEMI patients was studied for survival and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after PPCI using a precise cardiac catheterization protocol. Patients were divided into two groups: those ≥75 years (elderly) and those <75 years. Median door-to-balloon time (DBT) was 82 minutes in the elderly versus 66 minutes in the younger group (P = 0.002). In-hospital all-cause mortality was higher in the elderly group (15.5% vs. 2.7%, P < 0.001). In elderly patients, MACE were found to be higher (32.3% vs. 16.1%, P < 0.001). Using a multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR]= 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.02-1.05, P < 0.001), diabetes (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.33-3.53, P = 0.002), renal failure (OR = 3.75, 95% CI = 1.30-10.79, P = 0.014) and coronary artery disease (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.00-2.59, P = 0.050) were associated with higher in-hospital MACE, while age (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.02-1.08, P = 0.001), diabetes (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.06-4.47, P = 0.034) and renal failure (OR = 6.65, 95% CI = 2.01-22.09, P = 0.002) were associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Kaplan-Meier 1-year survival rate was lower in the elderly.
In a contemporary population of STEMI patients treated with PPCI, overall in-hospital MACE and mortality remain higher in elderly compared to younger patients. Although partly due to higher burden of preexisting comorbidities, a higher DBT may also be responsible. (J Interven Cardiol 2011;24:357-365).