[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asbestos exposure can result in serious and frequently lethal diseases, including malignant mesothelioma. The host sensor for asbestos-induced inflammation is the NLRP3 inflammasome and it is widely assumed that this complex is essential for asbestos-induced cancers. Here, we report that acute interleukin-1β production and recruitment of immune cells into peritoneal cavity were significantly decreased in the NLRP3-deficient mice after the administration of asbestos. However, NLRP3-deficient mice displayed a similar incidence of malignant mesothelioma and survival times as wild-type mice. Thus, early inflammatory reactions triggered by asbestos are NLRP3-dependent, but NLRP3 is not critical in the chronic development of asbestos-induced mesothelioma. Notably, in a two-stage carcinogenesis-induced papilloma model, NLRP3-deficient mice showed a resistance phenotype in two different strain backgrounds, suggesting a tumour-promoting role of NLRP3 in certain chemically-induced cancer types.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 25 September 2012; doi:10.1038/icb.2012.46.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The success of a vaccine consists in the induction of an innate immune response and subsequent activation of the adaptive immune system. Because antigens are usually not immunogenic, the addition of adjuvants that activate innate immunity is required. The mycobacterial cord factor trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) and its synthetic adjuvant analogue trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) rely on the C-type lectin Mincle and the signaling molecules Syk and Card9 to trigger innate immunity. In this study, we show that stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) with TDB induces Nlrp3 inflammasome-dependent IL-1β secretion. While Card9 is required for NF-κB activation by TDB, it is dispensable for TDB-induced activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome. Additionally, efflux of intracellular potassium, lysosomal rupture, and oxygen radical (ROS) production are crucial for caspase-1 processing and IL-1β secretion by TDB. In an in vivo inflammation model, we demonstrate that the recruitment of neutrophils by TDB is significantly reduced in the Nlrp3-deficient mice compared to the wild-type mice, while the production of chemokines in vitro is not influenced by the absence of Nlrp3. These results identify the Nlrp3 inflammasome as an essential mediator for the induction of an innate immune response triggered by TDB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caspase 1 is part of the inflammasome, which is assembled upon pathogen recognition, while caspases 3 and/or 7 are mediators of apoptotic and nonapoptotic functions. PARP1 cleavage is a hallmark of apoptosis yet not essential, suggesting it has another physiological role. Here we show that after LPS stimulation, caspase 7 is activated by caspase 1, translocates to the nucleus, and cleaves PARP1 at the promoters of a subset of NF-κB target genes negatively regulated by PARP1. Mutating the PARP1 cleavage site D214 renders PARP1 uncleavable and inhibits PARP1 release from chromatin and chromatin decondensation, thereby restraining the expression of cleavage-dependent NF-κB target genes. These findings propose an apoptosis-independent regulatory role for caspase 7-mediated PARP1 cleavage in proinflammatory gene expression and provide insight into inflammasome signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) are intracellular proteins involved in innate-driven inflammatory responses. The function of the family member NLR caspase recruitment domain containing protein 5 (NLRC5) remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to NF-κB activation, type I IFN, and MHC I expression. To address the role of NLRC5, we generated Nlrc5-deficient mice (Nlrc5(Δ/Δ)). In this article we show that these animals exhibit slightly decreased CD8(+) T cell percentages, a phenotype compatible with deregulated MHC I expression. Of interest, NLRC5 ablation only mildly affected MHC I expression on APCs and, accordingly, Nlrc5(Δ/Δ) macrophages efficiently primed CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, NLRC5 deficiency dramatically impaired basal expression of MHC I in T, NKT, and NK lymphocytes. NLRC5 was sufficient to induce MHC I expression in a human lymphoid cell line, requiring both caspase recruitment and LRR domains. Moreover, endogenous NLRC5 localized to the nucleus and occupied the proximal promoter region of H-2 genes. Consistent with downregulated MHC I expression, the elimination of Nlrc5(Δ/Δ) lymphocytes by cytotoxic T cells was markedly reduced and, in addition, we observed low NLRC5 expression in several murine and human lymphoid-derived tumor cell lines. Hence, loss of NLRC5 expression represents an advantage for evading CD8(+) T cell-mediated elimination by downmodulation of MHC I levels-a mechanism that may be exploited by transformed cells. Our data show that NLRC5 acts as a key transcriptional regulator of MHC I in lymphocytes and support an essential role for NLRs in directing not only innate but also adaptive immune responses.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2012; 188(8):3820-8. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1102671 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent inflammatory cytokine that is usually cleaved and activated by inflammasome-associated caspase-1. To determine whether IL-1β activation is regulated by inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, we treated macrophages with an IAP-antagonist "Smac mimetic" compound or genetically deleted the genes that encode the three IAP family members cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP. After Toll-like receptor priming, IAP inhibition triggered cleavage of IL-1β that was mediated not only by the NLRP3-caspase-1 inflammasome, but also by caspase-8 in a caspase-1-independent manner. In the absence of IAPs, rapid and full generation of active IL-1β by the NLRP3-caspase-1 inflammasome, or by caspase-8, required the kinase RIP3 and reactive oxygen species production. These results demonstrate that activation of the cell death-inducing ripoptosome platform and RIP3 can generate bioactive IL-1β and implicate them as additional targets for the treatment of pathological IL-1-driven inflammatory responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a hallmark of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) induces granulomatous lung lesions and systemic inflammatory responses during active disease. Molecular regulation of inflammation is associated with inflammasome assembly. We determined the extent to which MTB triggers inflammasome activation and how this impacts on the severity of TB in a mouse model. MTB stimulated release of mature IL-1β in macrophages while attenuated M. bovis BCG failed to do so. Tubercle bacilli specifically activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and this propensity was strictly controlled by the virulence-associated RD1 locus of MTB. However, Nlrp3-deficient mice controlled pulmonary TB, a feature correlated with NLRP3-independent production of IL-1β in infected lungs. Our studies demonstrate that MTB activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages in an ESX-1-dependent manner. However, during TB, MTB promotes NLRP3- and caspase-1-independent IL-1β release in myeloid cells recruited to lung parenchyma and thus overcomes NLRP3 deficiency in vivo in experimental models.
European Journal of Immunology 02/2012; 42(2):374-84. DOI:10.1002/eji.201141548 · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Memory T cells exert antigen-independent effector functions, but how these responses are regulated is unclear. We discovered an in vivo link between flagellin-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation in splenic dendritic cells (DCs) and host protective interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion by noncognate memory CD8(+) T cells, which could be activated by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We show that CD8α(+) DCs were particularly efficient at sensing bacterial flagellin through NLRC4 inflammasomes. Although this activation released interleukin 18 (IL-18) and IL-1β, only IL-18 was required for IFN-γ production by memory CD8(+) T cells. Conversely, only the release of IL-1β, but not IL-18, depended on priming signals mediated by Toll-like receptors. These findings provide a comprehensive mechanistic framework for the regulation of noncognate memory T cell responses during bacterial immunity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uncontrolled endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses are proposed to contribute to the pathology of chronic inflammatory diseases such as type 2 diabetes or atherosclerosis. However, the connection between ER stress and inflammation remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that ER stress causes activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, with subsequent release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. This ER-triggered proinflammatory signal shares the same requirement for reactive oxygen species production and potassium efflux compared with other known NLRP3 inflammasome activators, but is independent of the classical unfolded protein response (UPR). We thus propose that the NLRP3 inflammasome senses and responds to ER stress downstream of a previously uncharacterized ER stress response signaling pathway distinct from the UPR, thus providing mechanistic insight to the link between ER stress and chronic inflammatory diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1b (IL-1b) is a potent inflammatory cyto- kine that is usually cleaved and activated by inflam- masome-associated caspase-1. To determine whether IL-1b activation is regulated by inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, we treated macrophages with an IAP-antagonist ‘‘Smac mimetic’’ compound or genetically deleted the genes that encode the three IAP family members cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP. After Toll-like receptor priming, IAP inhibition triggered cleavage of IL-1b that was mediated not only by the NLRP3-caspase-1 inflammasome, but also by cas- pase-8 in a caspase-1-independent manner. In the absence of IAPs, rapid and full generation of active IL-1b by the NLRP3-caspase-1 inflammasome, or by caspase-8, required the kinase RIP3 and reactive oxygen species production. These results demon- strate that activation of the cell death-inducing ripop- tosome platform and RIP3 can generate bioactive IL-1b and implicate them as additional targets for the treatment of pathological IL-1-driven inflamma- tory responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The family of death domain (DD)-containing proteins are involved in many cellular processes, including apoptosis, inflammation and development. One of these molecules, the adapter protein MyD88, is a key factor in innate and adaptive immunity that integrates signals from the Toll-like receptor/interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (TLR/IL-1R) superfamily by providing an activation platform for IL-1R-associated kinases (IRAKs). Here we show that the DD-containing protein Unc5CL (also known as ZUD) is involved in a novel MyD88-independent mode of IRAK signaling that culminates in the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Unc5CL required IRAK1, IRAK4 and TNF receptor-associated factor 6 but not MyD88 for its ability to activate these pathways. Interestingly, the protein is constitutively autoproteolytically processed, and is anchored by its N-terminus specifically to the apical face of mucosal epithelial cells. Transcriptional profiling identified mainly chemokines, including IL-8, CXCL1 and CCL20 as Unc5CL target genes. Its prominent expression in mucosal tissues, as well as its ability to induce a pro-inflammatory program in cells, suggests that Unc5CL is a factor in epithelial inflammation and immunity as well as a candidate gene involved in mucosal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease.
Cell death and differentiation 12/2011; 19(4):722-31. DOI:10.1038/cdd.2011.147 · 8.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. Pneumococci can be divided into >90 serotypes that show differences in the pathogenicity and invasiveness. We tested the hypotheses that the innate immune inflammasome pathway is involved in fighting pneumococcal pneumonia and that some invasive pneumococcal types are not recognized by this pathway. We show that human and murine mononuclear cells responded to S. pneumoniae expressing hemolytic pneumolysin by producing IL-1β. This IL-1β production depended on the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Some serotype 1, serotype 8, and serotype 7F bacteria, which have previously been associated with increased invasiveness and with production of toxins with reduced hemolytic activity, or bacterial mutants lacking pneumolysin did not stimulate notable IL-1β production. We further found that NLRP3 was beneficial for mice during pneumonia caused by pneumococci expressing hemolytic pneumolysin and was involved in cytokine production and maintenance of the pulmonary microvascular barrier. Overall, the inflammasome pathway is protective in pneumonia caused by pneumococci expressing hemolytic toxin but is not activated by clinically important pneumococcal sequence types causing invasive disease. The study indicates that a virulence factor polymorphism may substantially affect the recognition of bacteria by the innate immune system.
The Journal of Immunology 07/2011; 187(1):434-40. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1003143 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell death and differentiation is a monthly research journal focused on the exciting field of programmed cell death and apoptosis. It provides a single accessible source of information for both scientists and clinicians, keeping them up-to-date with advances in the field. It encompasses programmed cell death, cell death induced by toxic agents, differentiation and the interrelation of these with cell proliferation.
Cell death and differentiation 05/2011; 18(8):1387. DOI:10.1038/cdd.2011.64 · 8.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent inflammatory responses are triggered by a variety of signals of host danger, including infection, tissue damage and metabolic dysregulation. How these diverse activators cause inflammasome activation is poorly understood. Recent data suggest that the mitochondria integrate these distinct signals and relay this information to the NLRP3 inflammasome. Dysfunctional mitochondria generate ROS, which is required for inflammasome activation. On the contrary, the NLRP3 inflammasome is negatively regulated by autophagy, which is a catabolic process that removes damaged or otherwise dysfunctional organelles, including mitochondria. In addition to the processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, NLRP3 inflammasome activation also influences cellular metabolic pathways such as glycolysis and lipogenesis. Mapping the connections between mitochondria, metabolism and inflammation is of great interest, as malfunctioning of this network is associated with many chronic inflammatory diseases.
European Journal of Immunology 05/2011; 41(5):1196-202. DOI:10.1002/eji.201141436 · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammasome activation with the production of IL-1β received substantial attention recently in inflammatory diseases. However, the role of inflammasome in the pathogenesis of asthma is not clear. Using an adjuvant-free model of allergic lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin (OVA), we investigated the role of NLRP3 inflammasome and related it to IL-1R1 signaling pathway.
Allergic lung inflammation induced by OVA was evaluated in vivo in mice deficient in NLRP3 inflammasome, IL-1R1, IL-1β or IL-1α. Eosinophil recruitment, Th2 cytokine, and chemokine levels were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung homogenates, and mediastinal lymph node cells ex vivo.
Allergic airway inflammation depends on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Dendritic cell recruitment into lymph nodes, Th2 lymphocyte activation in the lung and secretion of Th2 cytokines and chemokines are reduced in the absence of NLRP3. Absence of NLRP3 and IL-1β is associated with reduced expression of other proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-5, IL-13, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Furthermore, the critical role of IL-1R1 signaling in allergic inflammation is confirmed in IL-1R1-, IL-1β-, and IL-1α-deficient mice.
NLRP3 inflammasome activation leading to IL-1 production is critical for the induction of a Th2 inflammatory allergic response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PIDD has been implicated in survival and apoptotic pathways in response to DNA damage, and a role for PIDD was recently identified in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair induced by γ-irradiation. Here, we present an interaction of PIDD with PCNA, first identified in a proteomics screen. PCNA has essential functions in DNA replication and repair following UV irradiation. Translesion synthesis (TLS) is a process that prevents UV irradiation-induced replication blockage and is characterized by PCNA monoubiquitination and interaction with the TLS polymerase eta (polη). Both of these processes are inhibited by p21. We report that PIDD modulates p21-PCNA dissociation, and promotes PCNA monoubiquitination and interaction with polη in response to UV irradiation. Furthermore, PIDD deficiency leads to a defect in TLS that is associated, both in vitro and in vivo, with cellular sensitization to UV-induced apoptosis. Thus, PIDD performs key functions upon UV irradiation, including TLS, NHEJ, NF-κB activation and cell death.
Cell death and differentiation 03/2011; 18(6):1036-45. DOI:10.1038/cdd.2011.19 · 8.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interleukin-1 (IL-1) family of cytokines has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in previous studies. The NLRP3 inflammasome has recently emerged as a pivotal regulator of IL-1β maturation and secretion by macrophages. Little is currently known about a possible role for the NLRP3 inflammasome in atherosclerosis progression in vivo. We generated ApoE-/- Nlrp3-/-, ApoE-/- Asc-/- and ApoE-/- caspase-1-/- double-deficient mice, fed them a high-fat diet for 11 weeks and subsequently assessed atherosclerosis progression and plaque phenotype. No differences in atherosclerosis progression, infiltration of plaques by macrophages, nor plaque stability and phenotype across the genotypes studied were found. Our results demonstrate that the NLRP3 inflammasome is not critically implicated in atherosclerosis progression in the ApoE mouse model.