[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the underlying mechanism of gonadal growth during the attainment of puberty and to test a coincidence model, 7 experimental groups of 2-week-old male mice, Mus musculus, were administered the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan, followed by the dopamine precursor, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine at hourly intervals of 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 h (5 mg/100 g body weight per day for 13 days). At 11 days post-treatment, a suppression of gonadal activity was seen in the 7-h mice and a maximum suppression in the 8-h mice, along with a significantly increased degree of gonadal development in the 12-h mice, as compared with the controls. In addition to its known regulation of seasonal gonadal cycles, the relative position of two circadian neural oscillations may also affect the rate of gonadal development during the attainment of puberty in mice. Moreover, the present study provides an experimental paradigm to test the coincidence model of circadian oscillations.
Journal of Biosciences 12/2010; 35(4):571-81. · 1.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study analyzed changes in the expression of RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3; a mammalian ortholog of avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone), in the brain and correlated it with testicular activity of mice of different age groups (day-old, 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 9-, 11-, 13-week and 1.5-year-old). Testicular activity after a progressive increase up to 13-week of age declined in the old mice. On the other hand, while immunoreactive (ir) RFRP-3 neurons were not seen in the day-old mice, few appeared in 1-week-old mice, their number and size increased drastically at 3-week of age. This condition remained unaltered until 7-week of age followed by a progressive decline up to the age of 13-week and thereafter increased again in the old age. The present findings indicate that hyperactivity of the ir-RFRP-3 neurons of dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus (DMH) observed in prepubertal mice declines in reproductively active mice and increases again in the old mice having declined reproductive performance. It is concluded that aging mice exhibits inverse correlation of RFRP-3 neurons and gonadal activity suggesting that function of RFRP-3 is not initiated until 1-week of age and thereafter it could participate in the regulation of gonadal development.
General and Comparative Endocrinology 04/2010; 168(3):326-32. · 2.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to study the effect of the temporal synergism of neural oscillations on reproductive regulation and the response of RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3; a mammalian ortholog of avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone), expression of immunoreactive RFRP-3 in the neurons of the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus was monitored in sexually immature and mature laboratory mice (study I). In study II, the effects of serotonin and dopamine precursors (5-hydroxytryptophan and L-dihydroxyphenylalanine; injected daily, 8 or 12 h apart, for 13 days in 3-week-old mice) on testicular activity and immunoreactive RFRP-3 neurons were studied until 24 days after treatment. Results indicate high levels of expression of immunoreactive RFRP-3 in the sexually immature and 8-hour mice (simulating gonadal suppression), while a low level was noted in mature and 12-hour mice (simulating gonadal stimulation). These findings not only suggest the modulation of gonadal development in mice (during the course of puberty attainment) by changing the temporal phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations (as in some seasonally breeding species), but also demonstrate an inverse correlation of RFRP-3 neurons and gonadal activity in both control and experimental conditions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The temporal phase relation of circadian oscillations is reported to regulate reproduction in many seasonally breeding avian and mammalian species, but its role in the reproductive regulation of continuous breeders is not yet known. Hence in the present study, six experimental groups of 3-week-old male Parkes strain mice, Mus musculus, were injected with 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, serotonin precursor) and L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA, dopamine precursor) at intervals of 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 or 20 hr (5mg/100g body weight per day for 13 days). Control mice received two daily injections of normal saline. When observed 24 days post-treatment, 8-hr mice exhibited low body weight and suppression of gonadal activity (spermatogenesis, sperm count/motility/viability and plasma testosterone concentration), while body weight and degree of gonadal development were higher in the 12-hr mice as compared to the controls. It is concluded that normal somatic and gonadal growth of pre-puberal mice may be suppressed with an 8-hr phase relation of circadian serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations. On the other hand, a 12-hr phase relation accelerated the rate of gonadal maturation, while other relations led to more or less similar gonadal development as in the control mice. This study suggests the importance of circadian organization as a function of specific temporal phase relations of neural oscillations in the maturation of gonads. Although the exact mechanism still needs to be investigated, this seems to be mediated via effects on the neuroendocrine axis.