[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sustained neuroinflammation strongly contributes to the pathogenesis of pain. The clinical challenge of chronic pain relief led to the identification of molecules such as cytokines, chemokines and more recently matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as putative therapeutic targets. Evidence points to a founder member of the matricial CCN family, NOV/CCN3, as a modulator of these inflammatory mediators. We thus investigated the possible involvement of NOV in a preclinical model of persistent inflammatory pain.
We used the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced model of persistent inflammatory pain and cultured primary sensory neurons for in vitro experiments. The mRNA expression of NOV and pro-inflammatory factors were measured with real-time quantitative PCR, CCL2 protein expression was assessed using ELISA, MMP-2 and -9 activities using zymography. The effect of drugs on tactile allodynia was evaluated by the von Frey test.
NOV was expressed in neurons of both dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and dorsal horn of the spinal cord (DHSC). After intraplantar CFA injection, NOV levels were transiently and persistently down-regulated in the DRG and DHSC, respectively, occurring at the maintenance phase of pain (15 days). NOV-reduced expression was restored after treatment of CFA rats with dexamethasone. In vitro, results based on cultured DRG neurons showed that siRNA-mediated inhibition of NOV enhanced IL-1β- and TNF-α-induced MMP-2, MMP-9 and CCL2 expression whereas NOV addition inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression through β1 integrin engagement. In vivo, the intrathecal delivery of MMP-9 inhibitor attenuated mechanical allodynia of CFA rats. Importantly, intrathecal administration of NOV siRNA specifically led to an up-regulation of MMP-9 in the DRG and MMP-2 in the DHSC concomitant with increased mechanical allodynia. Finally, NOV intrathecal treatment specifically abolished the induction of MMP-9 in the DRG and, MMP-9 and MMP-2 in the DHSC of CFA rats. This inhibitory effect on MMP is associated with reduced mechanical allodynia.
This study identifies NOV as a new actor against inflammatory pain through regulation of MMPs thus uncovering NOV as an attractive candidate for therapeutic improvement in pain relief.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 02/2012; 9:36. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uncontrolled or sustained inflammation is the underlying cause of or actively contributes to the progression of many chronic pathologies such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, or neuroinflammatory diseases. Matricellular proteins of the CCN family (CYR61/CTGF/NOV) have emerged as localized multitasking signal integrators. These structurally conserved secreted proteins specifically interact with and signal through various extracellular partners, in particular integrins, which enable them to play crucial roles in various processes including development, angiogenesis, wound healing and diseases such as fibrosis, vascular disease and cancer. In this review, we discuss the possibility that the CCN family members could represent a putative new class of modulators of inflammation. In this context, we focused on their relationship with cytokines and chemokines. In vitro, CCN expression is finely regulated by diverse inflammatory mediators including cytokines (TNFα, IL1β, TGF-β), small factors such as prostaglandins, nitric oxide, histamine and serotonin, and extracellular matrix enzymes. In addition, CCN proteins acting alone or in concert with their specific partners appear to be potent regulators of the production of cytokines and chemokines in a context-dependent manner. Finally, emerging studies suggest a potential role for CCN proteins in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory kidney diseases and neuroinflammatory pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease. CCN members could therefore represent new potential therapeutic targets for drug development against such diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that CCN matricellular proteins play important roles in inflammation. One of the major cell types that handle inflammation in the brain is the astrocyte, which, upon activation, dramatically increases its production of cytokines and chemokines. Here, we report that NOV/CCN3, added to primary cultured rat brain astrocytes, markedly increased the expression of CCL2 and CXCL1 chemokines, as indicated by ELISA and RT-qPCR assays. This effect was selective, as the production of thirteen other cytokines and chemokines was not affected by NOV. NOV expression by astrocytes was demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, and astrocyte transfection with NOV small interfering RNA (siRNA) markedly decreased CXCL1 and CCL2 production, indicating that endogenous NOV played a major role in the control of astrocytic chemokine synthesis. NOV was shown to mediate several of its actions through integrins. Here, we observed that siRNAs against integrins beta1 and beta5 decreased basal and abrogated NOV-stimulated astrocyte expression of CCL2 and CXCL1, respectively. Using a panel of kinase inhibitors, we demonstrated that NOV action on CCL2 and CXCL1 production involved a Rho/ROCK/JNK/NF-kappaB and a Rho/qROCK/p38/NF-kappaB pathway, respectively. Thus, distinct integrins and signaling mechanisms are involved in NOV-induced production of CCL2 and CXCL1 in astrocytes. Finally, astrocytic expression of NOV was detected in rat brain tissue sections, and NOV intracerebral injection increased CCL2 and CXCL1 brain levels in vivo. Altogether, our data shed light on the signaling pathways operated by NOV and strongly suggest that NOV mediates astrocyte activation and, therefore, might play a role in neuroinflammation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A body of evidence points to the matricial CCN proteins as key regulators of organogenesis. NOV/CCN3, a founder CCN member, is expressed in the developing central nervous system but its functions during neural development have not been studied yet. Here we describe the pattern of NOV expression during rat cerebellar postnatal development and show that NOV expression increases during the second postnatal week, a critical period for the maturation of granule neuron precursors (GNP). NOV transcripts are specifically produced by Purkinje neurons and NOV protein localises extracellularly in the molecular layer and the inner part of the external granule layer, at a key position to control GNP proliferation and migration. In vitro, NOV reduces Sonic Hedgehog-induced GNP proliferation through beta3 integrins and stimulation of GSK3-beta activity whereas NOV stimulates GNP migration through distinct RGD-dependent integrins. These findings identify a new paracrine role of NOV in the development of cerebellar granule neurons.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 04/2009; 43(1):60-71. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) have a fetal adrenal phenotype and overexpress steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). Nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV)/cysteine-rich protein 61/connective tissue growth factor/nephroblastoma overexpressed gene-3 mRNA is significantly down-regulated in childhood ACTs.
The objective of the study was to measure NOV protein levels in childhood ACTs and characterize NOV expression regulation and biological function in human adrenocortical cells.
Protein extracts from ACT and normal adrenal cortex samples, human adrenocortical carcinoma H295R, primary adrenocortical tumors and fetal adrenal cultures, tissue culture supernatants, and cell lysates from H295R cells overexpressing SF-1 in an inducible fashion were used.
NOV protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay and immunoblot. Transient transfection assays were used to study the activity of NOV promoter. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling, caspase assays, and flow cytometry were used to assess the proapoptotic activity of NOV on cells in culture.
NOV mRNA and protein expression is lower in childhood ACTs than in normal adrenal cortex. No significant difference was observed between adenomas and carcinomas. SF-1 overexpression down-regulates NOV at the transcriptional level. NOV has a selective proapoptotic activity toward human adrenocortical cells. The C-terminal domain of NOV is responsible for its proapoptotic effect. NOV protein is expressed in DAX-1-positive human fetal adrenal cells.
NOV is a selective proapoptotic factor for human adrenocortical cells. Reduced expression of NOV in ACTs may play an important role in the process of childhood ACT tumorigenesis, accounting at least in part for the defect of apoptotic regression of the fetal adrenal that has been proposed to be responsible for tumor formation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NOV (nephroblastoma overexpressed) is a member of a family of proteins which encodes secreted matrix-associated proteins. NOV is expressed during development in dermomyotome and limb buds, but its functions are still poorly defined. In order to understand the role of NOV in myogenic differentiation, C2C12 cells overexpressing NOV (C2-NOV) were generated. These cells failed to engage into myogenic differentiation, whereas they retained the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. In differentiating conditions, C2-NOV cells remained proliferative, failed to express differentiation markers and lost their ability to form myotubes. Inhibition of differentiation by NOV was also observed with human primary muscle cells. Further examination of C2-NOV cells revealed a strong downregulation of the myogenic determination genes MyoD and Myf5 and of IGF-II expression. MyoD forced expression in C2-NOV was sufficient to restore differentiation and IGF-II induction whereas 10(-6) M insulin treatment had no effects. NOV therefore acts upstream of MyoD and does not affect IGF-II induction and signaling. HES1, a target of Notch, previously proposed to mediate NOV action, was not implicated in the inhibition of differentiation. We propose that NOV is a specific cell fate regulator in the myogenic lineage, acting negatively on key myogenic genes thus controlling the transition from progenitor cells to myoblasts.
Experimental Cell Research 07/2006; 312(10):1876-89. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the involvement of NOV/CCN3, whose function is poorly understood, in chondrocyte differentiation. NOV was found to upregulate TGF-beta2 and type X collagen and to act as a downstream effector of TGF-beta1 in ATDC5 and primary chondrocytes. Thus, NOV is a positive modulator of chondrogenesis.
NOV/CCN3 is a matricellular protein that belongs to the CCN family. A growing body of evidence indicates that NOV could play a role in cell differentiation, particularly in chondrogenesis. During chick embryo development, NOV expression is tightly regulated in cartilage, and a high expression of NOV has been associated with cartilage differentiation in Wilms' tumors. However, a precise role for NOV and potential target genes of NOV in chondrogenesis are unknown.
ATDC5 cells and primary chondrocytes were either treated with NOV recombinant protein or transfected with a NOV-specific siRNA to determine, using quantitative RT-PCR, the effect of NOV on the expression of several molecules involved in chondrocyte differentiation. Stable ATDC5 clones expressing NOV were also established to show that NOV was a downstream effector of TGF-beta1.
We established that NOV/CCN3 expression increases in ATDC5 cells at early stages of chondrogenic differentiation and precedes the appearance of TGF-beta2 and of several chondrocytic markers such as SOX9 or type X collagen. When exogenously administered, NOV recombinant protein up-regulates TGF-beta2 and type X collagen mRNA levels both in ATDC5 cells and in primary mouse chondrocytes but does not influence SOX9 expression. This regulation also occurs at the endogenous level because downregulation of NOV expression is correlated with an inhibition of TGF-beta2 and type X collagen in primary chondrocytes. Furthermore, we found that NOV expression is downregulated when chondrocytes are exposed to TGF-beta1-dedifferentiating treatment in chondrocytes, further providing evidence that NOV may counteract TGF-beta1 effects on chondrocytes.
This study provides the first characterization of two new targets of NOV involved in chondrocyte differentiation, shows that NOV acts with TGF-beta1 in a cascade of gene regulation, and indicates that NOV is a positive modulator of chondrogenesis.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 01/2006; 20(12):2213-23. · 6.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nephroblastoma overexpressed gene (NOV) is highly expressed in the nervous system. We investigated its biological activity by expressing the human NOV gene (NOVH) in a human glioblastoma cell line that is negative for NOVH and by analyzing four clones with different levels of NOVH expression. There was no difference in cell proliferation between the NOVH-expressing cell lines, but there was increased cell adhesion and migration that correlated with increasing NOVH expression. Gene expression profiling was used to investigate the mechanisms by which NOVH expression regulated cell activity. We identified two induced genes in NOVH-expressing cells that are involved in cell migration: matrix metalloprotease (MMP)3 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-alpha. Our studies show that PDGFR-alpha induced MMP3 gene expression and increased cell proliferation and cell migration upon stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA. We also show that the induction of MMP3 in cells expressing NOVH is potentiated by either cell density, serum, or PDGF-BB. Thus, expression of NOVH in glioblastoma cells triggers a cascade of gene expression resulting in increased cell adhesion and migration.
The FASEB Journal 11/2003; 17(13):1919-21. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunochromatography has shown that human NOV (NOVH), a member of the CCN (CTGF/CYR61/NOV) family, forms a physiological complex with fibulin-1 in blood. We developed an enzyme immunoassay specific for NOVH and showed for the first time that the concentration of NOVH differs in each of these biological fluids. The normal concentration of NOVH circulating in the blood is 350-400 ng/ml, but this concentration varies with age. By using sera from patients with adrenal gland diseases we found that in vivo ACTH or glucocorticoids are not responsible for the high concentration of NOVH in this endocrine gland. However, the NOVH concentration was significantly modified in malignant adrenocortical tumors, but not in benign adrenocortical tumors. The concentration of NOVH was significantly decreased in patients suffering from astrocytomas or multiple sclerosis, two diseases of the nervous system. Thus, NOVH is a potentially useful marker for the diagnosis of these diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human NOV secreted glycoprotein (NOVH) is abundant in the fetal and adult adrenal cortex. The amount of NOVH increases in benign adrenocortical tumors and decreases in malignant adrenocortical tumors, suggesting that NOVH plays a role in tumorigenesis in the adrenal cortex. Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and insulin growth factors (IGFs) play crucial roles in the physiology of the adrenal cortex. We investigated the effects of these factors on the expression of novH in the NCI H295R adrenocortical cell line. The amounts of NOVH protein and novH transcripts were down-regulated by TGFbeta1 and up-regulated by FGF2, whereas IGFs had no effect. Furthermore, the TGFbeta1-dependent inhibition of novH promoter activity was completely abrogated following site-directed mutation of two activating protein (AP-1) sequences (positions -473 and -447), whereas the stimulatory effect of FGF2 was not affected. Co-transfection with dominant negative forms of c-Jun and MEKK1 also abrogated novH-targeted regulation by TGFbeta1, whereas the overproduction of Smad proteins or dominant negative forms of Smad had no effect. Taken together, these results suggest that c-Jun and MEKK1 signaling but not Smad signaling are involved in the TGFbeta1-dependent decrease in NOVH in NCI H295R cells. In conclusion, our data provide evidence that novH is a new target of TGFbeta1; unlike other members of the CCN (cyr61, ctgf, nov) family, however, its expression is repressed rather than induced.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2002; 277(43):41220-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NOVH belongs to the CCN (CTGF/CYR61/NOV) family of proteins, some of which have chemotactic, mitogenic, adhesive, and angiogenic properties. Whereas ctgf and cyr61 are growth factor-inducible, immediate-early genes, nov is expressed in growth-arrested or quiescent cells. As nov expression has been shown to be altered in both avian and human nephroblastomas and to be a target of WT1 regulation, NOV may play important roles in normal nephrogenesis and the development of Wilms' tumors. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in novH expression were associated with tumorigenesis in tissues other than those of the kidney. We showed by Northern blotting and immunohistochemistry that among human adult endocrine tissues, the adrenal gland is a major site of novH expression, and that in adult and fetal adrenal tissue, novH is primarily expressed in the adrenal cortex. Studies with 12 benign and 18 malignant adrenocortical tumors revealed that the levels of novH mRNA and protein decreased significantly (P < 0.004) with progression of adrenocortical tumors from a benign to a malignant state. Although the localization of NOVH did not change, the N-glycosylation profile of benign and malignant tumors differed considerably from that of normal adrenocortical tissue, and these differences may affect the biochemical properties of the molecule. The properties of NOVH here provide the first evidence that this member of the CCN family could be involved in adrenocortical tumor development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously established that the expression of the human nov gene (novH) was altered in Wilms' tumors and that levels of novH and WT1 mRNA were inversely correlated in individual Wilms' tumors. Insofar as novH has been shown to be a target for WT1 regulation, novH might play an important role during normal nephrogenesis and in the development of Wilms' tumors. We now show that during normal nephrogenesis novH protein is tightly associated with differentiation of glomerular podocytes. NovH expression is not restricted to renal differentiation but is also detected in endothelium and neural tissue of the kidney. Our results establish that alteration of novH expression in sporadic and heritable Wilms' tumors is associated with dysregulated expression of both novH mRNA and protein. In general, the highest novH expression was noted in the Wilms' tumor, genitourinary anomalies, aniridia, and mental retardation (WAGR)-associated Wilms' tumors. Expression in the Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS)-associated Wilms' tumors fell within the variable spectrum observed in sporadic Wilms' tumor cases. As in developing kidney podocytes, novH protein was also prominent in the abnormal hypoplastic podocytes from DDS cases and in kidney podocytes adjoining Wilms' tumors. In Wilms' tumors exhibiting heterotypic differentiation, novH protein was expressed at high levels in tumor-derived striated muscle and at lower levels in tumor-derived cartilage. These observations taken together indicate that novH may represent both a marker of podocytic differentiation in kidney and a marker of heterotypic mesenchymal differentiation in Wilms' tumors. In addition, absence or very low levels of WT1 are correlated with higher novH expression, and its variable expression in cases with mutant WT1 (sporadic and DDS) suggests that the potential activation and repression transcriptional functions possessed by WT1 are likely dependent on the specific mutation incurred.
American Journal Of Pathology 07/1998; 152(6):1563-75. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During mammalian development, expression of the Nephroblastoma overexpressed gene (NOV/CCN3) is tightly regulated in skeletal muscles. Ex vivo, ectopic expression of NOV blocks myogenic differentiation. NOV also supports endothelial cell adhesion and angiogenesis through interactions with integrins. Integrins play fundamental roles during myogenesis. In this study, we show that NOV mediates adhesion and spreading of myoblasts. Myoblasts adhesion to NOV does not require proteoglycans and is dependent on integrin beta1, whereas spreading involves another RGD-sensitive integrin. The C-Terminal part of NOV as well as full-length is able to support adhesion of myoblasts; in addition, both increase focal-adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation. Furthermore, NOV is an adhesive substrate that, combined with FGF2 or IGF-1, promotes cell specific proliferation and survival, respectively, in a better way than fibronectin. Taken together, these results identify NOV as an adhesion substrate for myoblasts which, in concert with growth factors, could play a role in the physiology of muscle cells.
Cell Communication & Adhesion 12(1-2):41-57. · 1.05 Impact Factor