[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL), an enzyme of digestive system, plays very important roles in the digestion and absorption of lipids. However, its distribution and function in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear. In the present study, we mainly investigated the expression and cellular localization of PTL during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Western blot and RT-PCR analysis revealed that PTL was present in normal rat brain cortex. It gradually increased, reached a peak at the 3rd day after TBI, and then decreased. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that PTL was co-expressed with neuron, but had a few colocalizations in astrocytes. When TBI occurred in the rat cortex, the expression of PTL gradually increased, reached the peak at the 3rd day after TBI, and then decreased. Importantly, more PTL was colocalized with astrocytes, which is positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In addition, Western blot detection showed that the 3rd day post injury was not only the proliferation peak indicated by the elevated expression of PCNA, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cyclin D1, but also the apoptotic peak implied by the alteration of caspase-3 and bcl-2. These data suggested that PTL may be involved in the pathophysiology of TBI and PTL may be complicated after injury, more PTL was colocalized with astrocytes. Importantly, injury-induced expression of PTL was colabelled by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (proliferating cells marker), and the western blot for GFAP, PCNA and cyclin D1, showed that 3 days post injury was the proliferation peak, in coincidence to it, the protein level change of caspase-3 and bcl-2 revealed that the stage was peak of apoptotic too. These data suggested that PTL may be involved in the pathophysiology of TBI and that PTL may be implicated in the proliferation of astrocytes and the recovery of neurological outcomes. But the inherent mechanisms remained unknown. Further studies are needed to confirm the exact role of PTL after brain injury.