[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutrophils recruited to the postischemic kidney contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), which is the most common cause of renal failure among hospitalized patients. The Slit family of secreted proteins inhibits chemotaxis of leukocytes by preventing activation of Rho-family GTPases, suggesting that members of this family might modulate the recruitment of neutrophils and the resulting IRI. Here, in static and microfluidic shear assays, Slit2 inhibited multiple steps required for the infiltration of neutrophils into tissue. Specifically, Slit2 blocked the capture and firm adhesion of human neutrophils to inflamed vascular endothelial barriers as well as their subsequent transmigration. To examine whether these observations were relevant to renal IRI, we administered Slit2 to mice before bilateral clamping of the renal pedicles. Assessed at 18 hours after reperfusion, Slit2 significantly inhibited renal tubular necrosis, neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, and rise in plasma creatinine. In vitro, Slit2 did not impair the protective functions of neutrophils, including phagocytosis and superoxide production, and did not inhibit neutrophils from killing the extracellular pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. In vivo, administration of Slit2 did not attenuate neutrophil recruitment or bacterial clearance in mice with ascending Escherichia coli urinary tract infections and did not increase the bacterial load in the livers of mice infected with the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Collectively, these results suggest that Slit2 may hold promise as a strategy to combat renal IRI without compromising the protective innate immune response.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 06/2013; 24(8). DOI:10.1681/ASN.2012090890 · 9.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular injury and atherothrombosis involve vessel infiltration by inflammatory leukocytes, migration of medial vascular smooth muscle cells to the intimal layer, and ultimately acute thrombosis. A strategy to simultaneously target these pathological processes has yet to be identified. The secreted protein, Slit2, and its transmembrane receptor, Robo-1, repel neuronal migration in the developing central nervous system. More recently, it has been appreciated that Slit2 impairs chemotaxis of leukocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells toward diverse inflammatory attractants. The effects of Slit2 on platelet function and thrombus formation have never been explored.
We detected Robo-1 expression in human and murine platelets and megakaryocytes and confirmed its presence via immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. In both static and shear microfluidic assays, Slit2 impaired platelet adhesion and spreading on diverse extracellular matrix substrates by suppressing activation of Akt. Slit2 also prevented platelet activation on exposure to ADP. In in vivo studies, Slit2 prolonged bleeding times in murine tail bleeding assays. Using intravital microscopy, we found that after mesenteric arteriolar and carotid artery injury, Slit2 delayed vessel occlusion time and prevented the stable formation of occlusive arteriolar thrombi.
These data demonstrate that Slit2 is a powerful negative regulator of platelet function and thrombus formation. The ability to simultaneously block multiple events in vascular injury may allow Slit2 to effectively prevent and treat thrombotic disorders such as myocardial infarction and stroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutrophils are involved in the inflammatory responses during atherosclerosis. Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) released from activated neutrophils exert immune modulating properties. We hypothesized that HNPs play an important role in neutrophil-mediated inflammatory cardiovascular responses in atherosclerosis.
We examined the role of HNPs in endothelial-leukocyte interaction, platelet activation, and foam cell formation in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that stimulation of human coronary artery endothelial cells with clinically relevant concentrations of HNPs resulted in monocyte adhesion and transmigration; induction of oxidative stress in human macrophages, which accelerates foam cell formation; and activation and aggregation of human platelets. The administration of superoxide dismutase or anti-CD36 antibody reduced foam cell formation and cholesterol efflux. Mice deficient in double genes of low-density lipoprotein receptor and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), and mice deficient in a single gene of LRP8, the only LRP phenotype expressed in platelets, showed reduced leukocyte rolling and decreased platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in response to HNP stimulation.
HNPs exert proatherosclerotic properties that appear to be mediated through LRP8 signaling pathways, suggesting an important role for HNPs in the development of inflammatory cardiovascular diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In atherosclerosis, chemokines recruit circulating mononuclear leukocytes to the vascular wall. A key factor is CX(3)CL1, a chemokine with soluble and transmembrane species that acts as both a chemoattractant and an adhesion molecule. Thromboxane A(2) and its receptor, TP, are also critical to atherogenesis by promoting vascular inflammation and consequent leukocyte recruitment. We examined the effects of TP stimulation on processing and function of CX(3)CL1, using CX(3)CL1-expressing human ECV-304 cells and primary human vascular endothelial cells. TP agonists promoted rapid shedding of cell surface CX(3)CL1, which was inhibited by pharmacological inhibitors or specific small interfering RNA targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE). Because it reduced cell surface CX(3)CL1, we predicted that TP stimulation would inhibit adhesion of leukocytes expressing the CX(3)CL1 cognate receptor but, paradoxically, saw enhanced adhesion. We questioned whether the enhanced ability of the remaining membrane-associated CX(3)CL1 to bind targets was caused by changes in its lateral mobility. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we found that plasmalemmal CX(3)CL1 was initially tethered but ultimately mobilized by TP agonists. TP stimulation provoked clustering of transmembrane CX(3)CL1 at sites of contact with adherent leukocytes. These data demonstrate that TP stimulation induces two distinct effects: a rapid cleavage of surface CX(3)CL1, thereby releasing the soluble chemoattractant, plus mobilization of the remaining transmembrane CX(3)CL1 to enhance the avidity of interactions with adherent leukocytes. The dual effect of TP allows CX(3)CL1 to recruit leukocytes to sites of vascular inflammation while enhancing their adhesion once recruited.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In inflammatory diseases, circulating neutrophils are recruited to sites of injury. Attractant signals are provided by many different chemotactic molecules, such that blockade of one may not prevent neutrophil recruitment effectively. The Slit family of secreted proteins and their transmembrane receptor, Robo, repel axonal migration during CNS development. Emerging evidence shows that by inhibiting the activation of Rho-family GTPases, Slit2/Robo also inhibit migration of other cell types toward a variety of chemotactic factors in vitro and in vivo. The role of Slit2 in inflammation, however, has been largely unexplored. We isolated primary neutrophils from human peripheral blood and mouse bone marrow and detected Robo-1 expression. Using video-microscopic live cell tracking, we found that Slit2 selectively impaired directional migration but not random movement of neutrophils toward fMLP. Slit2 also inhibited neutrophil migration toward other chemoattractants, namely C5a and IL-8. Slit2 inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis by preventing chemoattractant-induced actin barbed end formation and cell polarization. Slit2 mediated these effects by suppressing inducible activation of Cdc42 and Rac2 but did not impair activation of other major kinase pathways involved in neutrophil migration. We further tested the effects of Slit2 in vivo using mouse models of peritoneal inflammation induced by sodium periodate, C5a, and MIP-2. In all instances, Slit2 reduced neutrophil recruitment effectively (P<0.01). Collectively, these data demonstrate that Slit2 potently inhibits chemotaxis but not random motion of circulating neutrophils and point to Slit2 as a potential new therapeutic for preventing localized inflammation.