[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An adult, captive raised male Valley quail (Callipepla californica) acquired by a southern Brazilian aviary suddenly showed severe apathy, dyspnea and diarrhea, and died 18 hours after the onset of illness. At necropsy, pale muscles and whitish areas in the heart, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and consolidated red lungs were observed. Histological findings were mainly mononuclear inflammation with necrosis of liver, heart, spleen, bone marrow and lung. There were large numbers of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoitesorganisms in the liver, heart, spleen, bone marrow, lungs, trachea, kidneys, adrenal glands, testes, intestines, and pancreas. These organisms were seen free in the organs' stroma or within macrophages and stained positively with polyclonal antiserum to T. gondii. Genomic DNA was extracted from the tissues and PCR was used to target the B1 gene of T. gondii. The genotypic characterization by PCR-RFLP with 11 markers (SAG1, SAG2 and alt. SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3) revealed the ToxoDB-PCR-RFLP #87 genotype, the same as previously identified in a backyard chicken (TgCkBr156) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 05/2015; 42(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijppaw.2015.04.003
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After demonstrating chronic weight loss, prostration, and muscle flaccidness, a captive-bred 9-mo-old boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor) died and was submitted for necropsy. Along the spinal column there were multiple, yellowish white, macroscopic nodules of 1-5 mm in diameter in the ventral side of the vertebral body and in the intervertebral spaces. Severe multifocal necrotizing osteomyelitis associated with granulomatous inflammation was the main histologic finding in the vertebral column. In the liver, there was discrete but similar granulomatous changes. Positive anti-Salmonella immunostaining was observed in the spinal column and in the liver. Salmonella enterica serovar Derby was isolated from fragments of the spinal column. These bacteria are important cause of disease in captive reptiles.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2014; 45(3):642-4. DOI:10.1638/2013-0050R2.1 · 0.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 04/2014; 46(5). DOI:10.1007/s11250-014-0580-y · 0.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cases of acute copper intoxication in Santa Ines sheep are described. The disease occurred on a farm in Rio Grande do Sul. Three ewes that had recently lambed and that were fed cattle diet became severely ill and died one week after ingestion of a commercial mineral mix for beef cattle. The sheep showed anorexia, lateral and sternal recumbency, fasciculation and muscle stiffness and death. At necropsy from one of these sheep, the main changes were moderate hepatomegaly, prominent hepatic lobular pattern, and multifocal randomly distributed erosions and ulcerations on the abomasal mucosa. Histological evaluation of the liver showed marked centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis; diffuse hepatocyte swelling predominantly in the periportal area, and a few Kupffer cells contained cytoplasmic pigment granules. The diagnosis was based on the clinical history, necropsy and histopathologic findings, and confirmed by the high copper concentrations detected in the liver, feed, and mineral mix samples.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trema micrantha, a fast-growing tree distributed throughout the Americas, produces palatable leaves that have been associated with hepatic necrosis and acute death when consumed by livestock. This report describes fatal pulmonary disease of sheep triggered by consumption of Trema micrantha. Affected sheep had severe progressive dyspnea for a few days before death. Subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema, reddened lungs, interalveolar septal thickening, and diffuse type II pneumocyte proliferation were the main pathological findings. After ingesting 77.5 and 102.5 g/kg (divided in 3 doses, at 30-day intervals) of T. micrantha leaves, 2 additional sheep developed the same condition. These findings indicate that T. micrantha toxicosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovine respiratory disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An aflatoxicosis outbreak affected 65 dogs from 9 different farms after they were fed diets with cooked corn meal as a common ingredient. Of the dogs, 60 died. Numerous dogs died on additional farms, but those dogs were not included in the study. The farmers acquired the contaminated maize products, in the form of whole corn grain or as corn meal, from the same supplier. The corn product was mixed with meat that was left over from home or commercial rations to form corn polenta, which was fed to the dogs. Necropsy was performed on 3 dogs. Two of the dogs died after a few days of refusing food, showing anorexia, polydipsia, icteric mucous membranes, hematemesis, hematochezia, or melena, and bleeding of the skin, eye, ear, and mouth. The primary necropsy findings included jaundice, hemorrhages in several organs, and yellowish enlarged liver with enhanced lobular pattern. The dog that experienced chronic ascites had a yellowish liver with reduced volume, irregular surface, and increased consistency. The main histological findings included hepatocyte fatty degeneration, biliary duct hyperplasia, cholestasis and, in the chronic case, hepatic fibrosis. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the corn meal from 2 affected farms revealed 1,640 ppb and 1,770 ppb of aflatoxin B(1), respectively. The current study demonstrates an additional way that dogs can be exposed to, poisoned, and killed by aflatoxin.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 02/2013; 25(2). DOI:10.1177/1040638713477409 · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic cardiac insufficiency was associated with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a cow. An eight-year-old cow developed a progressive condition (over a period of three months) characterized by an enhanced abdominal volume, reluctance to move, a positive jugular pulse, watery diarrhea and death. At necropsy, moderate subcutaneous edema and an enhanced hepatic lobular pattern were observed. A 23x20x11 cm firm, grayish-white mass adhered to and infiltrated the right atrium. Multiple firm, yellowish-white nodules of 0.5 to 12 cm in diameter were diffusely scattered in the epicardium and parietal pericardium. Histologically, the tumor was poorly circumscribed with foci of infiltration of the myocardium. The neoplastic cells had two major histologic patterns, Antoni types A and B. Within occasional foci, pleomorphic cells with an epithelioid appearance were present in addition to multinucleated cells with periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-positive cytoplasmic globules. Foci of cartilaginous and granular differentiations were interspersed among the neoplastic cells. Multiple vessels presented wall hyalinization and tumoral embolus. Large necrotic foci with mineralization and cholesterol clefts were also observed. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for S100 protein, vimentin and neuron-specific enolase labeling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fresh or thawed Perreyia flavipes larvae were ground and mixed with water and orally ad ministered to sheep. At 5mg/kg, neither clinical nor enzymatic changes were observed. Unique do ses of 7.5 and 10mg/kg induced characteristic clinical signs of Perreyia sp. larvae poisoning, increased GGT and AST values, and decreased glycemic curves. However, doses of 5, 10, and 15mg/kg repeated at 30 or 15 days intervals caused no disease and mild disease followed by death, respectively. These fin dings indicate that these animals probably developed some degree of tolerance to the toxins in P. flavipes larvae. Ultrastru ctural examination of liver revealed proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the hepatocytes, which may be associated with an increased ability to metabolize toxins and could consequently lead to the tolerance observed in the present study. Further investigations may elucidate whether such tolerance effects could be applied as a control measure for P. flavipes poioning or other hepatotoxic diseases. In addition, clinicopathological findings were discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alternative diagnostic tools and interesting epidemiological assumptions were associated with an outbreak of Johne's disease. In a buffalo herd infected with paratuberculosis, seven clinically affected animals and 21 animals with anti-Mycobacterium avium ELISA reactions were identified. Total herd included 203 buffaloes. Most lesions were comparable to those described in buffaloes and cattle affected by Johne's disease. Water buffalo behaviors such as communal nursing and allosuckling may be additional risk factors for this disease. Detection of positive Ziehl-Neelsen staining and anti-M. avium immunolabeling in rectal biopsies from one buffalo with paratuberculosis are highlighted as auxiliary diagnostic tools for Johne's disease in live animals.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 04/2012; 44(8). DOI:10.1007/s11250-012-0154-9 · 0.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An outbreak of Sorghum sudanense (Sudan grass) poisoning affected three cows from a dairy herd in Triunfo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Although S. sudanense has been used as a source of forage for cattle, sporadic poisoning occurs in association with management failures of these pastures. Cyanogenic glycosides present in the plant may form hydrogen cyanide through hydrolysis and may cause livestock poisoning. Twenty-nine Holstein cattle were allowed to graze in an 800m2 paddock, in which lush sprouts of sudanense were 30cm high. Animals were placed on pasture at evening and, in the next morning, most forage had been consumed and three cattle were found dead. No clinical disease was noticed. Except by the presence of chewed sudan grass leaves near to the entrance of the rumen, there were neither macroscopic nor microscopic changes, Samples of S. sudanense taken from different places in the paddock were positive when evaluated by the picrosodic paper test. Such findings suggested that those three cows were affected by cyanide poisoning secondary to Sorghum sudanense consumption.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plants which cause sudden death of cattle in Brazil occupy a leading position for losses in the cattle industry. Amorimia exotropica is one of the plants pertaining to this group. Diagnostic findings in these cases may be inconclusive; further knowledge is necessary. This paper identifies cardiac lesions through anti-cardiac troponin C (cTnC) immunehistochemistry performed in tissues from cattle poisoned after consumption of A. exotropica in southern Brazil. Heart fragments from nine A. exotropica-poisoned cattle were studied immunohistochemically using anti-human cTnC as the primary antibody. In the hearts from all of the poisoned cattle, there was a sharp decrease in the cTnC expression level in the cytoplasm of groups of cardiomyocytes. A significant decrease in anti-cTnC immunoreactivity occurred particularly in degenerated or necrotic cardiomyocytes. Occasional groups of cells showed complete loss of immunolabeling. In the remaining intact cardiomyocytes from poisoned cattle and in cardiomyocytes from six cattle that died from other causes there was intense cytoplasmic staining.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since poisoning by Senecio spp. is one of the main causes of cattle death in southern Brazil, control of these plants is a priority for the local livestock production. After the pasture has been mowed, grazing by 16 sheep was efficient for controlling Senecio brasiliensis and Senecio madagascariensis populations in a 5.5-hectare area that had long been severely infested with these species. A total of 28,629 plants among S. brasiliensis (flower-of-souls, 10,122) and S. madagascariensis (fireweed, 18,507) were almost completely eliminated in a two-year period. The number of sheep was kept at 3.0 stock units/ha, but a variable number of cattle were temporarily stocked according to pasture availability. The major sanitary practice applied to the sheep was anthelmintic administration. Liver biopsies taken from sheep and cattle before and after experimental period didn't reveal any change associable with seneciosis. The performance levels of the sheep were comparable to those observed in flocks managed under traditional extensive grazing systems in southern Brazil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study reports the investigation on the cause of sudden deaths associated with cardiac fibrosis in cattle in northern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The exclusion of known causes of bovine cardiac fibrosis as well as the absence of the plants in that region whose consumption has already been linked to the disorder motivated this investigation. The condition, which was attributed to the consumption of Amorimia exotropica, affected draft oxen, most of which died suddenly without showing any clinical signs during usual management or work. Globular hearts with white foci at their cut surfaces were the main gross findings, which corresponded microscopically from multifocal to coalescent areas of myocardial fibrosis. To confirm the condition, A. exotropica from the ranches where cattle died from the disease was dosed to rabbits, which showed similar lesions to those seen in dead cattle after receiving 10 doses of 3.6 g/kg at 4-day intervals. Electron microscopy on rabbit tissues revealed severe tumefaction of the cardiomyocytes associated with mitochondrial swelling, displacement, and rupture of the mitochondrial crests, and of the bundles of myofibrils, apart from large glycogen deposits within the sarcoplasm. It is suggested that mitochondrial changes triggered alterations that lead to cardiac fibrosis and that all of these changes were induced by A. exotropica cardiotoxicity.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 11/2011; 23(6):1226-9. DOI:10.1177/1040638711425586 · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to confirm the toxicity and characterize the clinical and pathological aspects of poisoning by Trema micrantha in horses. The green leaves of the plant were spontaneously consumed by three ponies at single doses of 20, 25, and 30g/kg. The three ponies developed clinical disease characterized by apathy, equilibrium deficit, deglutition difficulty, sternal or lateral recumbency, paddling, coma and death. Affected ponies had also enhanced seric activity of gamma-glutamyl transferase, seric ammonia apart of diminished glycemia. An additional pony, that received 15 and 25g/kg of T. micrantha with a 30 day interval between the two doses, showed no clinical disease. The three ponies were necropsied and fragments from organs were collected for histology and immunostaining (IS) procedures. The main pathological findings were in the liver and encephalon. There were enhanced lobular pattern of the liver and yellowish areas in the cut surface of the encephalon, especially visualized in the cerebellar white matter. Microscopically, there was hepatocellular swelling and coagulative hepatic necrosis predominantly centrilobular with hemorrhages. Generalized perivascular edema and Alzheimer type II astrocytes were observed in the encephalon. The Alzheimer type II astrocytes showed weak or absent anti-glial fibrillar acid protein IS associated with positive IS for S-100 protein. The minimal lethal dose of Trema micrantha leaves was established at 20g/kg. The sensibility of horses to this plant, its wide distribution and high palatability reinforces the importance of Trema micrantha in accidental poisoning of horses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seven out of 25 goats from a southern Brazilian flock developed nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy. Affected animals were younger than 1 year of age and were confined in stalls and fed a concentrate ration containing 1:6 calcium:phosphorus ratio. The remaining flock (35 goats) was managed at pasture and showed no disease. Clinical signs were characterized by mandibular and maxillary enlargements, varying degrees of mouth opening and protruding tongue, dyspnea, apart of abnormalities of prehension and mastication. Affected animals had increased seric levels of phosphorus and parathormone, as well as higher alkaline phosphatase activity. Postmortem examination on three succumbed goats revealed bilateral enlargement of the maxilla and mandibula, and loose teeth, apart of multiple incomplete rib fractures in one of them. Severe diffuse proliferation of loose connective tissue surrounded the osteoid trabeculae, many of which were partially or completely non-mineralized. Mineralized osteoid trabeculae showed osteoclasts in the Howship's lacunae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An outbreak of monensin poisoning affected ostriches and horses from a farm in Rio Grande do Sul. Eight days before the onset of clinical signs, a commercial cattle concentrate containing monensin (177ppm) was introduced in the diet of the animals. Three horses showed difficulty moving, cramping, sweating and permanent recumbency, and death within 48 hours. Three ostriches showed sternal permanent recumbency or sluggish and reluctance to move. Two ostriches died 15 and 30 days after the onset of signs. Gross changes in the horses included multifocal myocardial pallor, endocardial and epicardial hemorrhages mainly around the coronary vessels, and bilateral yellowish white foci in skeletal muscles. Histological lesions were necrotic myopathy and cardiomyopathy. At necropsy of ostriches, skeletal muscles were diffusely pale with multiple small white spots, which corresponded to polyphasic segmental necrosis and regenerative changes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pekin robins (Leiothrix lutea) were once the most widely kept softbills in captivity. As a result of the Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES-1997), the worldwide trade of wild-caught pekin robins has been prohibited due to the depletion of native populations of this species. In Brazil, as in other countries, pekin robins imported prior to the enactment of the CITES have disappeared from aviaries because the end of the birds' natural life span has passed, and only very few captive-bred pekin robins now exist. While captive propagation fails to address the primary causes of wild bird population decline, it might help the recovery of populations of this species. This article presents records made over a 10-yr period of a captive colony of pekin robins. Emphasis is placed on the management of the flock, the ailments affecting the birds, and the findings associated with bird losses. The main causes of bird losses included rearing management failures and age-related disorders.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2011; 42(3):451-9. DOI:10.2307/41262653 · 0.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gross changes in spleen size and shape are frequently recognized in dogs, and splenectomy is the usual measure adopted in such cases. This study includes the changes observed in spleen samples excised from dogs. Cases were evaluated on the basis of general, clinical, and histopathological findings. In the 2000-2010 period, 9085 samples of canine tissues were evaluated, 179 (2%) of which were taken from total surgical spleen removal. The mean age of dogs studied was 9.9 years. A conclusive diagnosis was obtained in 173 spleen samples, of which 120 (69.3%) were neoplastic disorders and 53 (30.6%), non-neoplastic diseases. Malignant changes corresponded to 92.5% (111/120) of the neoplastic cases, and benign ones to 7.5% (9/120). The main changes observed in spleen samples were hemangiosarcoma 44.1% (79/179), nodular lymphoid hyperplasia 20.1% (36/179), fibrosarcoma 10.6% (19/179), hemangioma 3.9% (7/179), and immune-mediated hemolytic diseases 3.9% (7/179), apart of different metastatic neoplasms 3.3% (6/179).