[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a potential source of many bioactive components that can be found in its oil and fibers, but also in the seedcake, which is rich in antioxidants. To increase the levels of medically beneficial compounds, a genetically modified flax type (named GT) with an elevated level of phenylopropanoids and their glycoside derivatives was generated. In this study, we investigated the influence of GT seedcake extract preparations on human fibroblast proliferation and migration, and looked at the effect on a human skin model. Moreover, we verified its activity against bacteria of clinical relevance. METHODS: The GT flax used in this study is characterized by overexpression of the glucosyltransferase gene derived from Solanum sogarandinum. Five GT seedcake preparations were generated. Their composition was assessed using ultra pressure liquid chromatography and confirmed using the UPLC-QTOF method. For the in vitro evaluation, the influence of the GT seedcake preparations on normal human dermal fibroblast proliferation was assessed using the MTT test and the wound scratch assay. A human skin model was used to evaluate the potential for skin irritation. To assess the antimicrobial properties of GT preparations, the percentage of inhibition of bacterial growth was calculated. RESULTS: The GT seedcake extract had elevated levels of phenylopropanoid compounds in comparison to the control, non-transformed plants. Significant increases in the content of ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, and their glucoside derivatives, kaempferol, quercitin and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) were observed in the seeds of the modified plants. The GT seedcake preparations were shown to promote the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts and the migration of fibroblasts in the wound scratch assay. The superior effect of GT seedcake extract on fibroblast migration was observed after a 24-hour treatment. The skin irritation test indicated that GT seedcake preparations have no harmful effect on human skin. Moreover, GT seedcake preparations exhibited inhibitory properties toward two bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that preparations derived from the new GT flax are an effective source of phenylopropanoids and that their glycoside derivatives and might be promising natural products with both healing and bacteriostatic effects. This flax-derived product is a good candidate for application in the repair and regeneration of human skin and might also be an alternative to antibiotic therapy for infected wounds.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2012; 12(1):251. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fusarium is the most common flax pathogen causing serious plant diseases and in most cases leading to plant death. To protect itself, the plant activates a number of genes and metabolic pathways, both to counteract the effects of the pathogen, and to eliminate the threat. The identification of the plant genes which respond to infection is the approach, that has been used in this study. Forty-seven flax genes have been identified by means of cDNA subtraction method as those, which respond to pathogen infection. Subtracted genes were classified into several classes and the prevalence of the genes involved in the broad spectrum of antioxidants biosynthesis has been noticed. By means of semi-quantitative RT-PCR and metabolite profiling, the involvement of subtracted genes controlling phenylpropanoid pathway in flax upon infection was positively verified. We identified the key genes of the synthesis of these compounds. At the same time we determined the level of the metabolites produced in the phenylpropanoid pathway (flavonoids, phenolic acids) in early response to Fusarium attack by means of GC-MS technique. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report to describe genes and metabolites of early flax response to pathogens studied in a comprehensive way.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The great diversity of wounds and the broad range of available dressings complicate the selection of proper chronic wound treatment. Choosing the right treatment is the essential step in the healing process. In this review, we focus on chronic nonhealing ulcers, which are a critical problem in clinical practice, and current knowledge about persistent wound care. Here, we present the objectives of local treatment with description of several types of dressings and their ingredients, features, indications, and contraindications. These include hydrocolloid, alginate, hydrogel, and dextranomer dressings; polyurethane foam and membrane dressings; semipermeable polyurethane membrane dressings; and TenderWet (Hartmann, Rock Hill, SC) and flax dressings. There is also a brief section on the use of other alternative wound-healing accelerators, such as platelet-rich plasma and light-emitting diode therapy.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 10/2011; · 4.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to engineer a flax with increased resistance to pathogens. The approach was based on the recent analysis of the Solanum sogarandinum -derived glycosyltransferase (UGT) protein, designated SsGT1 (previously called 5UGT). On the basis of enzyme studies, the recombinant SsGT1 is a 7-O-glycosyltransferase, the natural substrates of which include both anthocyanidins and flavonols such as kaempferol and quercetin. Because flavonoids act as antioxidants and glycosylation increases the stability of flavonoids, it has been suggested that the accumulation of a higher quantity of flavonoid glycosides in transgenic plants might improve their resistance to pathogen infection. Flax overproducing SsGT1 showed higher resistance to Fusarium infection than wild-type plants, and this was correlated with a significant increase in the flavonoid glycoside content in the transgenic plants. Overproduction of glycosyltransferase in transgenic flax also resulted in proanthocyanin, lignan, phenolic acid, and unsaturated fatty acid accumulation in the seeds. The last is meaningful from a biotechnological point of view and might suggest the involvement of polyphenol glycosides in the protection of unsaturated fatty acids against oxidation and thus improve oil storage. It is thus suggested that introduction of SsGT1 is sufficient for engineering altered pathogen resistance in flax.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2009; 57(15):6698-705. · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the great progress in human medicine, infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi are still a serious threat to public health. The worldwide increase in multidrug resistance of pathogenic bacteria has led to an urgent need for identifying an alternative strategies to counter bacterial infection. The latest research have been focused on identifying the potential antimicrobial agent from the natural resources. It is suggested to use a plant extract rather than pure compound, as the activity of certain constituents might be altered and enhanced by the synergy phenomenon of plant compounds. Phenylopropanoids are the secondary metabolites exhibiting the strong antioxidant properties and thus have the inhibitory effect on bacteria, viruses and fungi. The rich source of these bioactive components is flax (Linum usitatissimum), the annual plant widely distributed in Mediterranean and temperate climate zone. It is not only the source of oil and fibres but also seedcake, rich in antioxidants. To increase the level of those compounds two GM flax types with elevated level of phenylopropanoids and their glycoside derivatives were generated. W92 type was characterized by overexpression of three genes derived from Petunia hybrida coding for enzymes: CHS, CHI and DFR; and GT type was overexpressing glycosyltransferase gene derived from Solanum sogarandinum. Hereby we present the antibacterial activity of GM flax extracts with unique composition of different phenylopropanoid compounds. Due to the elevated level of secoisolariciresinol (SDG), ferulic acid, p –coumaric acid, their glucosides and also their multidirectional mode of action the GM flax extract were effective in inhibiting bacterial growth. We aimed to evaluate activity of GM seedcake extract against the bacteria of clinical relevance: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, known to be causes of antibiotic-resistant infections. We determined the minimal inhibitory concentration and indicated the bacteriostatic or bactericidal action. Moreover the results of testing of the activity of GM flax extract on human fibroblast in in vitro experiments and also on chronic wounds are very promising. We suggest that extracts derived from new GM flax types might be the effective source of antibacterial compounds and the promising alternative to antibiotic therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The principal goal of this review is to present the status of genetic modifications of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and its possible application in industry. Flax is a valuable source of oil and fibres, and development of genetic engineering allows the possibility of improving the quality of these pro-ducts. There are different goals of flax modifications: improving the quality of flax fibres, improving oil properties, elevation of antioxidant level and creation of pathogen-resistant plants. These modifications made flax a more useful and precious source for a broad range of products applicable in industry. What makes flax valuable is the possibility of whole plant exploitation with almost no waste products.