ABSTRACT: The changes in inspiratory capacity (IC) over time in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are unknown. The Understanding Potential Long-term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT®) trial included IC measurements.
IC analysis from UPLIFT® (N = 5992) was performed at 1 and 6 months, and every 6 months through 4 years. Annualized rate of decline in pre- and post-bronchodilator IC and mean differences at each time point were analyzed by mixed-effects models. The relationships between baseline IC and exacerbation rate and mortality were explored using Cox regression analysis.
Baseline characteristics: age, 65 years; 75% men; post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 1.32 L (48% predicted); pre- and post-bronchodilator IC, 2.03 and 2.33 L. Mean IC rate of decline (mL/year) was 34 ± 2 (1.7% of baseline) and 50 ± 3 (2.1% of baseline) pre- and post-bronchodilator, respectively, without significant between-group differences. Morning pre-bronchodilator (trough) IC improved with tiotropium versus placebo: 124 mL (1 month), 103 mL (1 year), 107 mL (2 years), 98 mL (3 years), and 97 mL (4 years) (all p < 0.001). Post-bronchodilator improvements were similar between treatment groups. Lower baseline IC values were associated with reduced time to first exacerbation. For the lowest quartile (n = 1413) the values in months were 14.3 (11.7-17.0) for tiotropium and 10.3 (8.8-11.7) for controls (p < 0.01).
IC declines from approximately 34 to 50 mL/year in patients with stage II to IV COPD. Tiotropium treatment does not change the IC decline rate but provides 24-hour improvements in IC sustained over the long term. Trough IC differences suggest that tiotropium provides sustained decrease in end-expiratory lung volume.
Respiratory research 08/2012; 13:66. · 3.36 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: GOLD stage II COPD encompasses patients with FEV₁ 50-80% predicted. A published trials review suggested that benefits of maintenance therapy are limited to patients with FEV₁ <60% predicted. We previously reported data demonstrating the efficacy of tiotropium in GOLD stage II disease in the 4-year UPLIFT® trial, and present here a further analysis of a sub-category of GOLD stage II patients with post-bronchodilator FEV1 ≥60% predicted from UPLIFT®. Outcomes included pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry, exacerbations, SGRQ and mortality. Of the 5,992 UPLIFT® cohort, 1,210 (632 tiotropium, 578 control) had baseline post-bronchodilator FEV₁ ≥60% predicted (range 60-78%), mean age was 64 years, 70% were men, and mean SGRQ total score was 39.9 units. Mean annual rate of post-bronchodilator FEV₁ decline was 41 (tiotropium) and 49 (control) mL/year (P = 0.07); corresponding pre-bronchodilator values were 32 and 37 mL/year (P = 0.24). Morning pre-drug FEV₁ and FVC improvements for tiotropium versus control were 87-127 mL and 139-186 ml, respectively (P < 0.001, all time-points). SGRQ total score improvements (tiotropium-control) were 2.0-3.4 units (P < 0.05 for all); a higher percentage of patients had an improvement of ≥4 units with tiotropium (P <0.05). Tiotropium reduced risk for an exacerbation (HR [95% CI] = 0.83 [0.71, 0.96]) and mortality for the 4-year protocol-defined treatment period (HR [95% CI] = 0.66 [0.45, 0.96]). Tiotropium treatment provides clinical efficacy in patients with GOLD stage II disease with an FEV₁ ≥60% predicted, supporting current GOLD guidelines for COPD treatment. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00144339).
COPD Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 03/2012; 9(3):289-96. · 1.79 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Placebo-controlled clinical trials on COPD are characterized by premature discontinuation. At present, no clear insight into this phenomenon is available.
To obtain better insight into the phenomenon of premature discontinuation.
We analyzed the pattern of discontinuation in the UPLIFT-trial.
Premature discontinuation was substantial and greater in the placebo than in the tiotropium group (45 vs. 37%, p < 0.001). Patients discontinuing were characterized by more severe COPD (p < 0.0001), greater number of pack years (p < 0.002), smaller pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator FEV(1) (p < 0.0001 for both), and worse SGRQ scores (p < 0.0001). Rates of decline of FEV(1) and SGRQ were greater in non-completers (p < 0.0001 for both). The latter differences increased over time indicating that the evolution of variables in time was related to trial completion. The risks of exacerbations and hospitalizations were greater in non-completers. In logistic regression analysis BMI, post-bronchodilator FEV(1), male gender and treatment with tiotropium were positively related to trial completion, whereas age, worse SGRQ, female gender, current smoking and assignment to the placebo group were negatively related.
Assignment to the control group is related to premature discontinuation. Discontinuation was important and selective in this large trial. Pulmonary function, health-related quality of life and smoking are the most important other variables related to discontinuation. The evolution of variables during the trial is also related to discontinuation. Complete follow-up of discontinued patients may provide better insight into the efficacy of medication in future trials.
Respiratory medicine 04/2011; 105(10):1523-30. · 2.33 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The beneficial effects of pharmacotherapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are well established. However, there are few data for treatment in the early stages of the disease. We examined the effect of tiotropium on outcomes in a large subgroup of patients with moderate COPD.
The Understanding Potential Long-Term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT) study was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial undertaken in 487 centres in 37 countries. 5993 patients aged 40 years or more with COPD were randomly assigned to receive 4 years of treatment with either once daily tiotropium (18 microg; n=2987) or matching placebo (n=3006), delivered by an inhalation device. Randomisation was by computer-generated blocks of four, with stratification according to study site. In a prespecified subgroup analysis, we investigated the effects of tiotropium in patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage II disease. Primary endpoints were the yearly rates of decline in prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and in postbronchodilator FEV(1), beginning on day 30 until completion of double-blind treatment. The analysis included all patients who had at least three measurements of pulmonary function. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00144339.
2739 participants (mean age 64 years [SD 9]) had GOLD stage II disease at randomisation (tiotropium, n=1384; control, n=1355), with a mean postbronchodilator FEV(1) of 1.63 L (SD 0.37; 59% of predicted value). 1218 patients in the tiotropium group and 1157 in the control group had three or more measurements of postbronchodilator pulmonary function after day 30 and were included in the analysis. The rate of decline of mean postbronchodilator FEV(1) was lower in the tiotropium group than in the control group (43 mL per year [SE 2] vs 49 mL per year [SE 2], p=0.024). For prebronchodilator pulmonary function, 1221 patients in the tiotropium group and 1158 in the control group had three or more measurements and were included in the analysis. The rate of decline of mean prebronchodilator FEV(1) did not differ between groups (35 mL per year [SE 2] vs 37 mL per year [SE 2]; p=0.38). Health status, measured with the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, was better at all timepoints in the tiotropium group than in the control group (p</=0.006 for all timepoints). Time to first exacerbation and time to exacerbation resulting in hospital admission were also longer in the tiotropium group than in the control group (hazard ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.75-0.90, and 0.74, 0.62-0.88, respectively).
Tiotropium seemed to reduce the rate of decline of postbronchodilator FEV(1) in patients with GOLD stage II COPD. This finding and the other improvements in outcomes suggest that treatment of COPD should begin at an early stage of the disease.
Boehringer Ingelheim and Pfizer Pharmaceuticals.
The Lancet 09/2009; 374(9696):1171-8. · 38.28 Impact Factor