[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Debate continues as to whether acute bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) predicts long-term outcomes in COPD. Furthermore, there is no consensus on a threshold for BDR.
At baseline and during the 4-year Understanding Potential Long-term Improvements in Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT®) trial, patients had spirometry performed before and after administration of ipratropium bromide 80 mcg and albuterol 400 mcg. Patients were split according to three BDR thresholds: ≥ 12% + ≥ 200 mL above baseline (criterion A), ≥ 15% above baseline (criterion B); and ≥ 10% absolute increase in percent predicted FEV1 values (criterion C). Several outcomes (pre-dose spirometry, exacerbations, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ] total score) were assessed according to presence or absence of BDR in the treatment groups.
5783 of 5993 randomized patients had evaluable pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry at baseline. Mean age (SD) was 64 (8) years, with 75% men, mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 1.33 ± 0.44 L (47.6 ± 12.7% predicted) and 30% current smokers. At baseline, 52%, 66%, and 39% of patients had acute BDR using criterion A, B, and C, respectively. The presence of BDR was variable at follow-up visits. Statistically significant improvements in spirometry and health outcomes occurred with tiotropium regardless of the baseline BDR or criterion used.
A large proportion of COPD patients demonstrate significant acute BDR. BDR in these patients is variable over time and differs according to the criterion used. BDR status at baseline does not predict long-term response to tiotropium. Assessment of acute BDR should not be used as a decision-making tool when prescribing tiotropium to patients with COPD.
Respiratory research 01/2011; 12:6. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whilst recent large-scale studies have provided much evidence on the natural history and therapeutic response in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), relatively little is known about the effect in younger patients. We report a pre-specified post-hoc analysis of 356 patients with COPD ≤ 50 years old from the four year randomised, double blind placebo controlled Understanding Potential Long Term Impact on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT) trial. Inclusion criteria included a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) of ≤70%, FEV(1)/FVC < 0.70, age ≥40 years, and smoking history of ≥10 pack years. Younger patients had a mean FEV(1) of 1.24 L (39% predicted) and an impaired health-related quality of life (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)) compared to the entire UPLIFT population. There were 40.2% women and 51.1% current smokers in the younger age group. Tiotropium was associated with a sustained improvement in spirometry and SGRQ. Mean decline in post-bronchodilator FEV(1) was 58 ml/year (placebo) vs. 38 ml/year (tiotropium) (p = 0.01). Corresponding values for pre-bronchodilator FEV(1) were 41 ml/year (placebo) compared with 34 ml/year (tiotropium) (p = 0.34). The hazard ratio (95%CI) for an exacerbation in the younger age group was 0.87(0.68, 1.13)). The rate of exacerbations was reduced by tiotropium (rate ratio (95%CI) = 0.73(0.56, 0.95)). Tiotropium resulted in sustained bronchodilation, improved quality of life, and a decreased exacerbation rate in younger patients. Tiotropium also resulted in a significant reduction in the decline in post-bronchodilator FEV(1), suggesting possible disease modification by tiotropium in younger patients with COPD.
Respiratory medicine 11/2010; 104(11):1659-67. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gender differences may occur in many chronic diseases. We have examined the influence of gender in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on long-term responses to tiotropium.
Subgroup analysis of data from the Understanding the Potential Long-term Impact of Tiotropium (UPLIFT) trial (4-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tiotropium in patients with COPD).
Of 5992 patients, 75% were men and 25% women. Mean age was 65 and 63 years, respectively. Baseline post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV(1))=47% predicted(men) and 49% predicted(women). St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score was 44.9 and 48.7units, respectively. At 48 months, improvement in trough FEV(1) over control was 92mL(men) and 77mL(women) (p<0.001 for both), with no differences in the rate of decline (trial primary endpoint). Hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for first exacerbation (tiotropium/placebo) was 0.87(0.81, 0.93)(men) and 0.83(0.74, 0.94)(women). Number of exacerbations (per patient-year) was reduced with tiotropium in men (from 0.82 to 0.71) and women (from 0.92 to 0.77) (p<0.005 for both). HR (95% CI) for a hospitalized exacerbation was 0.89(0.79, 0.99) and 0.77(0.62, 0.94), respectively. HR (95% CI) for mortality during treatment was 0.85(0.72, 0.99)(men) and 0.85(0.62, 1.18)(women). Improvements in SGRQ total score (tiotropium-control) at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years were: -2.8, -2.3, -3.6, -2.4(men) and -2.7, -2.6, -2.6, -2.1(women) (p<0.05 for all).
Long-term treatment of COPD with tiotropium improves lung function, exacerbations and health status in men and women, with similar magnitudes of benefit. Boehringer Ingelheim trial 205.235; ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00144339.
Respiratory medicine 04/2010; 104(10):1495-504. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was investigate the long-term effect of tiotropium as first maintenance respiratory medication in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A 4-yr, randomised, multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial (Understanding Potential Long-term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT) was conducted. Analysis focused on the effect of tiotropium versus matching placebo in the 810 (13.5%) COPD patients not on other maintenance treatment (long-acting beta-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, theophyllines or anticholinergics) at randomisation. Spirometry, health-related quality of life (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score), exacerbations of COPD and mortality were also analysed. 403 patients (mean+/-sd age 63+/-8 yrs, post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) 53+/-12% predicted) received tiotropium and 407 (64+/-8 yrs of age, post-bronchodilator FEV(1) 51+/-12% pred) received placebo. Post-bronchodilator FEV(1) decline was 42+/-4 mL.yr(-1) in the tiotropium group and 53+/-4 mL.yr(-1) in the placebo group (p = 0.026). At 48 months, the morning pre-dose FEV(1) was 134 mL higher in the tiotropium group compared to the placebo group (p<0.001). SGRQ total score declined more slowly in the tiotropium group (difference of 1.05+/-0.34 units.yr(-1); p = 0.002). This was particularly significant for the impact (difference of 1.08+/-0.37 units.yr(-1); p = 0.004) and activity (1.44+/-0.40 units.yr(-1); p<0.001) domains, but not for symptoms (0.26+/-0.50 units.yr(-1); p = 0.6). At 48 months, the difference in total score was 4.6 units (p<0.001) with tiotropium compared to placebo. In patients with COPD who are not on maintenance therapy, tiotropium is associated with significant benefits in disease progression.
European Respiratory Journal 02/2010; 36(1):65-73. · 6.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: UPLIFT (Understanding Potential Long-Term Improvements in Function with Tiotropium), a 4-yr trial of tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, allowed for assessment of smoking status on long-term responses to maintenance bronchodilator therapy. 5,993 patients were randomised (tiotropium/placebo). Lung function, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, exacerbations and adverse events were followed. Patients were characterised as continuing smokers (CS), continuing ex-smokers (CE), or intermittent smokers (IS) based on self-reporting smoking behaviour. 60%, 14% and 26% of patients were CE, CS and IS, respectively. The rate of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) decline for placebo patients was most rapid in CS (-52+/-4, -37+/2 and -23+/2 mL.yr(-1) in CS, IS, and CE, respectively). Tiotropium did not alter FEV(1) decline, but was associated with significant improvements in pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV(1) over placebo that persisted throughout the 4-yr trial for each smoking status (pre-bronchodilator: 127, 55 and 97 mL at 48 months in CS, IS and CE, respectively; p< or =0.0003). Tiotropium reduced exacerbation risk in CS (HR (95% CI) 0.80 (0.67-0.95)), in CE (0.85 (0.79-0.92)) and trended towards significance in IS (0.89 (0.79-1.00)). At 4 yrs, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire for tiotropium patients improved the most in CS (-4.63 units, p = 0.0006) and the least in IS (-0.60 units, p = 0.51), [corrected] compared with control. Tiotropium provided long-term benefits irrespective of smoking status, although differences among categories were observed.
European Respiratory Journal 08/2009; 35(2):287-94. · 6.36 Impact Factor