Bradley T Hyman

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (434)2642.66 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interfering with the assembly of Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides from monomer to oligomeric species and fibrils, or promoting their clearance from brain, are targets of anti-Aβ directed therapies in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we demonstrate that Cromolyn Sodium (disodium cromoglycate), an FDA-approved drug already in use for the treatment of asthma, efficiently inhibits the aggregation of Aβ monomers into higher order oligomers and fibrils in vitro, without affecting Aβ production. In vivo, the levels of soluble Aβ are decreased by over 50% after only 1 week of daily intraperitoneal administered Cromolyn Sodium. Additional in vivo microdialysis studies also show that this compound decreases the half-life of soluble Aβ in the brain. These data suggest a clear effect of a peripherally administered, FDA approved medication on Aβ economy, supporting further investigation of the potential long term efficacy of Cromolyn Sodium in AD. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    The Journal of biological chemistry. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, intracellular aggregates of hyperphosphorylated, mislocalized tau protein, which are associated with neuronal loss. Changes in tau are known to impair cellular transport (including that of mitochondria) and are associated with cell death in cell culture and mouse models of tauopathy. Thus clearing pathological forms of tau from cells is a key therapeutic strategy. One critical modulator in the degradation and clearance of misfolded proteins is the co-chaperone CHIP (Carboxy terminus Hsp70 interacting Protein), which is known to play a role in refolding and clearance of hyperphosphorylated tau. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CHIP could ameliorate pathological changes associated with tau. We find that co-expressing CHIP with full-length tau, tau truncated at D421 mimicking caspase cleavage, or the short tauRDΔK280 tau construct containing only the tau repeat domain with a tauopathy mutation, decreases tau protein levels in human H4 neuroglioma cells in a manner dependent on the Hsp70-binding TPR domain of CHIP. The observed reduction in tau levels by CHIP is associated with a decrease of tau phosphorylation and reduced levels of cleaved Caspase 3 indicating that CHIP plays an important role in preventing tau-induced pathological changes. Furthermore, tau-associated mitochondrial transport deficits are rescued by CHIP co-expression in H4 cells. Together, these data suggest that the co-chaperone CHIP can rescue the pathological effects of tau, and indicate that other diseases of protein misfolding and accumulation may also benefit from CHIP upregulation.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 11/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recommend a new term, "primary age-related tauopathy" (PART), to describe a pathology that is commonly observed in the brains of aged individuals. Many autopsy studies have reported brains with neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that are indistinguishable from those of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in the absence of amyloid (Aβ) plaques. For these "NFT+/Aβ-" brains, for which formal criteria for AD neuropathologic changes are not met, the NFTs are mostly restricted to structures in the medial temporal lobe, basal forebrain, brainstem, and olfactory areas (bulb and cortex). Symptoms in persons with PART usually range from normal to amnestic cognitive changes, with only a minority exhibiting profound impairment. Because cognitive impairment is often mild, existing clinicopathologic designations, such as "tangle-only dementia" and "tangle-predominant senile dementia", are imprecise and not appropriate for most subjects. PART is almost universally detectable at autopsy among elderly individuals, yet this pathological process cannot be specifically identified pre-mortem at the present time. Improved biomarkers and tau imaging may enable diagnosis of PART in clinical settings in the future. Indeed, recent studies have identified a common biomarker profile consisting of temporal lobe atrophy and tauopathy without evidence of Aβ accumulation. For both researchers and clinicians, a revised nomenclature will raise awareness of this extremely common pathologic change while providing a conceptual foundation for future studies. Prior reports that have elucidated features of the pathologic entity we refer to as PART are discussed, and working neuropathological diagnostic criteria are proposed.
    Acta Neuropathologica 10/2014; · 9.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer¿s disease (AD) propagates with characteristic spatiotemporal patterns which follow brain network connections, implying trans-synaptic transmission of tauopathy. Since misfolded tau has been shown to transmit across synapses in AD animal models, we hypothesized that synapses in AD patients may contain misfolded tau. By immunofluorescence imaging of bipartite synapses from AD subjects, we detected tau protein in 38.4% of presynaptic and 50.9% of postsynaptic terminals. The pre/post distribution for hyperphosphorylated tau was 26.9%/30.7%, and for misfolded tau 18.3%/19.3%. In the temporal cortex, microscopic aggregates of tau, containing ultra-stable oligomers, were estimated to accumulate within trillions of synapses, outnumbering macroscopic tau aggregates such as tangles by 10000 fold. Non-demented elderly also showed considerable synaptic tau hyperphosphorylation and some misfolding, implicating the synapse as one of the first subcellular compartments affected by tauopathy. Misfolding of tau protein appeared to occur in situ inside synaptic terminals, without mislocalizing or mistrafficking. Misfolded tau at synapses may represent early signs of neuronal degeneration, mediators of synaptotoxicity, and anatomical substrates for transmitting tauopathy, but its actual role in these processes remain to be elucidated.
    Acta neuropathologica communications. 10/2014; 2(1):146.
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    ABSTRACT: To retrospectively determine the frequency of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) autoantibodies in patients with different forms of dementia. Clinical characterization of 660 patients with dementia, neurodegenerative disease without dementia, other neurological disorders and age-matched healthy controls combined with retrospective analysis of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the presence of NMDAR antibodies. Antibody binding to receptor mutants and the effect of immunotherapy were determined in a subgroup of patients. Serum NMDAR antibodies of IgM, IgA, or IgG subtypes were detected in 16.1% of 286 dementia patients (9.5% IgM, 4.9% IgA, and 1.7% IgG) and in 2.8% of 217 cognitively healthy controls (1.9% IgM and 0.9% IgA). Antibodies were rarely found in CSF. The highest prevalence of serum antibodies was detected in patients with "unclassified dementia" followed by progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal syndrome, Parkinson's disease-related dementia, and primary progressive aphasia. Among the unclassified dementia group, 60% of 20 patients had NMDAR antibodies, accompanied by higher frequency of CSF abnormalities, and subacute or fluctuating disease progression. Immunotherapy in selected prospective cases resulted in clinical stabilization, loss of antibodies, and improvement of functional imaging parameters. Epitope mapping showed varied determinants in patients with NMDAR IgA-associated cognitive decline. Serum IgA/IgM NMDAR antibodies occur in a significant number of patients with dementia. Whether these antibodies result from or contribute to the neurodegenerative disorder remains unknown, but our findings reveal a subgroup of patients with high antibody levels who can potentially benefit from immunotherapy.
    Annals of clinical and translational neurology. 10/2014; 1(10):822-832.
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    ABSTRACT: Mucolipidosis IV (MLIV) is caused by mutations in the gene MCOLN1. Patients with MLIV have severe neurologic deficits and very little is known about the brain pathology in this lysosomal disease. Using an accurate mouse model of mucolipidosis IV, we observed early behavioral deficits which were accompanied by activation of microglia and astrocytes. The glial activation that persisted during the course of disease was not accompanied by neuronal loss even at the late stage. In vivo [Ca2+]-imaging revealed no changes in resting [Ca2+] levels in Mcoln1 ¿/¿ cortical neurons, implying their physiological health. Despite the absence of neuron loss, we observed alterations in synaptic plasticity, as indicated by elevated paired-pulse facilitation and enhanced long-term potentiation. Myelination deficits and severely dysmorphic corpus callosum were present early and resembled white matter pathology in mucolipidosis IV patients. These results indicate the early involvement of glia, and challenge the traditional view of mucolipidosis IV as an overtly neurodegenerative condition.
    Acta neuropathologica communications. 09/2014; 2(1):133.
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias are a major public health challenge and present a therapeutic imperative for which we need additional insight into molecular pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study and analysis of known genetic risk loci for AD dementia using neuropathologic data from 4,914 brain autopsies. Neuropathologic data were used to define clinico-pathologic AD dementia or controls, assess core neuropathologic features of AD (neuritic plaques, NPs; neurofibrillary tangles, NFTs), and evaluate commonly co-morbid neuropathologic changes: cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), Lewy body disease (LBD), hippocampal sclerosis of the elderly (HS), and vascular brain injury (VBI). Genome-wide significance was observed for clinico-pathologic AD dementia, NPs, NFTs, CAA, and LBD with a number of variants in and around the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). GalNAc transferase 7 (GALNT7), ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family G (WHITE), Member 1 (ABCG1), and an intergenic region on chromosome 9 were associated with NP score; and Potassium Large Conductance Calcium-Activated Channel, Subfamily M, Beta Member 2 (KCNMB2) was strongly associated with HS. Twelve of the 21 non-APOE genetic risk loci for clinically-defined AD dementia were confirmed in our clinico-pathologic sample: CR1, BIN1, CLU, MS4A6A, PICALM, ABCA7, CD33, PTK2B, SORL1, MEF2C, ZCWPW1, and CASS4 with 9 of these 12 loci showing larger odds ratio in the clinico-pathologic sample. Correlation of effect sizes for risk of AD dementia with effect size for NFTs or NPs showed positive correlation, while those for risk of VBI showed a moderate negative correlation. The other co-morbid neuropathologic features showed only nominal association with the known AD loci. Our results discovered new genetic associations with specific neuropathologic features and aligned known genetic risk for AD dementia with specific neuropathologic changes in the largest brain autopsy study of AD and related dementias.
    PLoS Genetics 09/2014; 10(9):e1004606. · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Bradley T. Hyman, Peter Sorger
    Annals of Neurology 07/2014; · 11.19 Impact Factor
  • Bradley T Hyman
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    ABSTRACT: Sanders et al. (2014) demonstrate in this issue of Neuron that the natively unfolded protein tau can propagate indefinitely in distinct stable strains, therefore supporting the general idea that tau has prion-like properties, with implications for Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies.
    Neuron 06/2014; 82(6):1189-1190. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) - a characteristic pathological feature of Alzheimer's and several other neurodegenerative diseases - are considered a major target for drug development. Tangle load correlates well with the severity of cognitive symptoms and mouse models of tauopathy are behaviorally impaired. However, there is little evidence that NFTs directly impact physiological properties of host neurons. Here we used a transgenic mouse model of tauopathy to study how advanced tau pathology in different brain regions affects activity-driven expression of immediate-early gene Arc required for experience-dependent consolidation of long-term memories. We demonstrate in vivo that visual cortex neurons with tangles are as likely to express comparable amounts of Arc in response to structured visual stimulation as their neighbors without tangles. Probability of experience-dependent Arc response was not affected by tau tangles in both visual cortex and hippocampal pyramidal neurons as determined postmortem. Moreover, whole brain analysis showed that network-wide activity-driven Arc expression was not affected by tau pathology in any of the brain regions, including brain areas with the highest tangle load. Our findings suggest that intraneuronal NFTs do not affect signaling cascades leading to experience-dependent gene expression required for long-term synaptic plasticity.
    Acta neuropathologica communications. 06/2014; 2(1):63.
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    ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is the strongest known genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). It influences amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance and aggregation, which likely contributes in large part to its role in AD pathogenesis. We recently found that HJ6.3, a monoclonal antibody against apoE, significantly reduced Aβ plaque load when given to APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) mice starting before the onset of plaque deposition. To determine whether the anti-apoE antibody HJ6.3 affects Aβ plaques, neuronal network function, and behavior in APP/PS1 mice after plaque onset, we administered HJ6.3 (10 mg/kg/week) or PBS intraperitoneally to 7-month-old APP/PS1 mice for 21 weeks. HJ6.3 mildly improved spatial learning performance in the water maze, restored resting-state functional connectivity, and modestly reduced brain Aβ plaque load. There was no effect of HJ6.3 on total plasma cholesterol or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of anti-apoE immunotherapy, HJ6.3 was applied to the brain cortical surface and amyloid deposition was followed over 2 weeks using in vivo imaging. Acute exposure to HJ6.3 affected the course of amyloid deposition in that it prevented the formation of new amyloid deposits, limited their growth, and was associated with occasional clearance of plaques, a process likely associated with direct binding to amyloid aggregates. Topical application of HJ6.3 for only 14 d also decreased the density of amyloid plaques assessed postmortem. Collectively, these studies suggest that anti-apoE antibodies have therapeutic potential when given before or after the onset of Aβ pathology.
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 05/2014; 34(21):7281-92.
  • Tara L Spires-Jones, Bradley T Hyman
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    ABSTRACT: The collapse of neural networks important for memory and cognition, including death of neurons and degeneration of synapses, causes the debilitating dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We suggest that synaptic changes are central to the disease process. Amyloid beta and tau form fibrillar lesions that are the classical hallmarks of AD. Recent data indicate that both molecules may have normal roles at the synapse, and that the accumulation of soluble toxic forms of the proteins at the synapse may be on the critical path to neurodegeneration. Further, the march of neurofibrillary tangles through brain circuits appears to take advantage of recently described mechanisms of transsynaptic spread of pathological forms of tau. These two key phenomena, synapse loss and the spread of pathology through the brain via synapses, make it critical to understand the physiological and pathological roles of amyloid beta and tau at the synapse.
    Neuron. 05/2014; 82(4):756-771.
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    ABSTRACT: Dynamin is a 96 kDa protein that has multiple oligomerization states that influence its GTPase activity. A number of different dynamin effectors, including lipids, actin filaments, and SH3-domain containing proteins, have been implicated in the regulation of dynamin oligomerization, though their roles in influencing dynamin oligomerization have been studied predominantly in vitro using recombinant proteins. Here, we identify higher order dynamin oligomers such as rings and helices in vitro and in live cells using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). FLIM detected GTP- and actin-dependent dynamin oligomerization at distinct cellular sites, including the cell membrane and transition zones where cortical actin transitions into stress fibers. Our study identifies a major role for direct dynamin-actin interactions and dynamin's GTPase activity in the regulation of dynamin oligomerization in cells.
    Traffic 05/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, the underlying pathology most often linked to the clinical diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia, is rapidly increasing. Mutations in 7 known genes (MAPT, GRN, C9orf72, VCP, CHMP2B, and, rarely, TARDBP and FUS) are associated with frontotemporal dementia, and the pathologic classification of frontotemporal lobar degeneration has recently been modified to reflect these discoveries. Mutations in one of these genes (GRN), which encodes progranulin, have been implicated in up to a quarter of cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43)-positive inclusions; currently, there are more than 60 known pathogenic mutations of the gene. We present the clinical, pathologic, and genetic findings on 6 cases from 4 families, 5 of which were shown to have a novel GRN c.708+6_+9delTGAG mutation.
    Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology. 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) heralds the transition from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia and is a major source of burden for both the patient and caregiver. Objective: To investigate the relationship between IADL and regional cortical thinning and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers cross-sectionally and longitudinally in clinically normal (CN) elderly, MCI, and mild AD dementia subjects. Methods: Two hundred and twenty nine CN, 395 MCI, and 188 AD dementia subjects participating in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative underwent baseline magnetic resonance imaging, baseline lumbar puncture, and clinical assessments, including the Functional Activities Questionnaire used to measure IADL, every 6 to 12 months up to 3 years. General linear regression and mixed effects models were employed. Results: IADL impairment was associated with the interactions between lower inferior temporal cortical thickness and diagnosis (p < 0.0001), greater lateral occipital cortical thickness and diagnosis (p < 0.0001), and greater amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ1-42) and diagnosis (p = 0.0002) at baseline (driven by AD dementia). Lower baseline supramarginal (p = 0.02) and inferior temporal (p = 0.05) cortical thickness, lower Aβ1-42 (p < 0.0001), and greater total tau (t-tau) (p = 0.02) were associated with greater rate of IADL impairment over time. Conclusions: Temporal atrophy is associated with IADL impairment in mild AD dementia at baseline, while baseline parietal and temporal atrophy, lower CSF Aβ1-42, and greater t-tau predict worsening IADL impairment over time across the AD spectrum. These results emphasize the importance of assessing IADL at the stage of MCI and even at the transition from CN to MCI.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 03/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, ~16% of participants in an anti-Aβ passive immunotherapy trial for mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) had a negative baseline amyloid PET scan. Whether they have AD or are AD clinical phenocopies remains unknown. We examined the 2005-2013 NACC autopsy database and found that ~14% of autopsied subjects clinically diagnosed with mild-to-moderate probable AD have none or sparse neuritic plaques, which would expectedly yield a negative amyloid PET scan. More than half of these "Aβ negative" subjects have low neurofibrillary tangle Braak stages. These findings support the implementation of a positive amyloid biomarker as inclusion criterion in future anti-Aβ drug trials. ANN NEUROL 2014. © 2014 American Neurological Association.
    Annals of Neurology 03/2014; · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological predictors of progression from normal to early clinical stages of Alzheimer disease (AD). From a total sample of 559 older adults from the Massachusetts Alzheimer's Disease Research Center longitudinal cohort, 454 were included in the primary analysis: 283 with clinically normal cognition (CN), 115 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 56 with subjective cognitive concerns (SCC) but no objective impairment, a proposed transitional group between CN and MCI. Two latent cognitive factors (memory-semantic, attention-executive) and two neuropsychiatric factors (affective, psychotic) were derived from the Alzheimer's Disease Centers' Uniform Data Set neuropsychological battery and Neuropsychiatric Inventory brief questionnaire. Factors were analyzed as predictors of time to progression to a worse diagnosis using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with backward elimination. Covariates included baseline diagnosis, gender, age, education, prior depression, antidepressant medication, symptom duration, and interaction terms. Higher/better memory-semantic factor score predicted lower hazard of progression (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.4 for 1 standard deviation [SD] increase, p <0.0001), and higher/worse affective factor score predicted higher hazard (HR = 1.3 for one SD increase, p = 0.01). No other predictors were significant in adjusted analyses. Using diagnosis as a sole predictor of transition to MCI, the SCC diagnosis carried a fourfold risk of progression compared with CN (HR = 4.1, p <0.0001). These results identify affective and memory-semantic factors as significant predictors of more rapid progression from normal to early stages of cognitive decline and highlight the subgroup of cognitively normal elderly with SCC as those with elevated risk of progression to MCI.
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 02/2014; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Converging evidence indicates that clusterin, a chaperone glycoprotein, influences Alzheimer disease neurodegeneration. However, the precise role of clusterin in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis is still not well understood. OBJECTIVE To elucidate the relationship between clusterin, amyloid-β (Aβ), phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and the rate of brain atrophy over time among nondemented older individuals. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This longitudinal cohort included cognitively normal older participants and individuals with mild cognitive impairment assessed with baseline lumbar puncture and longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging. We examined 241 nondemented older individuals from research centers across the United States and Canada (91 participants with a Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0 and 150 individuals with a Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0.5). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Using linear mixed-effects models, we investigated interactions between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clusterin, CSF Aβ1-42, and CSF p-tau at threonine 181 (p-tau181p) on the atrophy rate of the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. RESULTS Across all participants, we found a significant interaction between CSF clusterin and CSF Aβ1-42 on the entorhinal cortex atrophy rate but not on the hippocampal atrophy rate. Cerebrospinal fluid clusterin was associated with the entorhinal cortex atrophy rate among CSF Aβ1-42-positive individuals but not among CSF Aβ1-42-negative individuals. In secondary analyses, we found significant interactions between CSF Aβ1-42 and CSF clusterin, as well as CSF Aβ1-42 and CSF p-tau181p, on the entorhinal cortex atrophy rate. We found similar results in subgroup analyses within the mild cognitive impairment and cognitively normal cohorts. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In nondemented older individuals, Aβ-associated volume loss occurs in the presence of elevated clusterin. The effect of clusterin on Aβ-associated brain atrophy is not confounded or explained by p-tau. These findings implicate a potentially important role for clusterin in the earliest stages of the Alzheimer disease neurodegenerative process and suggest independent effects of clusterin and p-tau on Aβ-associated volume loss.
    JAMA neurology. 02/2014; 71(2):180-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is characterized pathologically by aggregation of amyloid beta into senile plaques and aggregation of pathologically modified tau into neurofibrillary tangles. While changes in amyloid processing are strongly implicated in disease initiation, the recent failure of amyloid-based therapies has highlighted the importance of tau as a therapeutic target. "Tangle busting" compounds including methylene blue and analogous molecules are currently being evaluated as therapeutics in Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies indicated that methylene blue can reverse tau aggregation in vitro after 10minutes, and subsequent studies suggested that high levels of drug reduce tau protein levels (assessed biochemically) in vivo. Here, we tested whether methylene blue could remove established neurofibrillary tangles in the rTg4510 model of tauopathy, which develops robust tangle pathology. We find that 6 weeks of methylene blue dosing in the water from 16 months to 17.5 months of age decreases soluble tau but does not remove sarkosyl insoluble tau, or histologically defined PHF1 or Gallyas positive tangle pathology. These data indicate that methylene blue treatment will likely not rapidly reverse existing tangle pathology.
    Neuroscience Letters 01/2014; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Optical imaging using multiphoton microscopy and whole body near infrared imaging has become a routine part of biomedical research. However, optical imaging methods rely on the availability of either small molecule reporters or genetically encoded fluorescent proteins, which are challenging and time consuming to develop. While directly labeled antibodies can also be used as imaging agents, antibodies are species specific, can typically not be tagged with multiple fluorescent reporters without interfering with target binding, and are bioactive, almost always eliciting a biological response and thereby influencing the process that is being studied. We examined the possibility of developing highly specific and sensitive optical imaging agents using aptamer technology. We developed a fluorescently tagged anti-Aβ RNA aptamer, β55, which binds amyloid plaques in both ex vivo human Alzheimer's disease brain tissue and in vivo APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Diffuse β55 positive halos, attributed to oligomeric Aβ, were observed surrounding the methoxy-XO4 positive plaque cores. Dot blots of synthetic Aβ aggregates provide further evidence that β55 binds both fibrillar and non-fibrillar Aβ. The high binding affinity, the ease of probe development, and the ability to incorporate multiple and multimodal imaging reporters suggest that RNA aptamers may have complementary and perhaps advantageous properties compared to conventional optical imaging probes and reporters.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e89901. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

21k Citations
2,642.66 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2014
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1991–2014
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Alzheimer Research Unit
      • • Neurochemistry Research Laboratory
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Clinical Neurosciences
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • Emory University
      • Department of Neurology
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2005–2013
    • Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2012
    • Universität Ulm
      • Clinic of Neurology
      Ulm, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Radiology
      San Diego, CA, United States
    • McLaughlin Research Institute
      Great Falls, Montana, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • Partners HealthCare
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Neurology
      New York City, NY, United States
    • Uppsala University
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2005–2011
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Neurology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2004–2011
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • • Center for Vascular and Inflammatory Diseases
      • • Department of Surgery
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Pennsylvania
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • Georgetown University
      • Department of Neuroscience
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Neurology
      Birmingham, AL, United States
    • University of Cologne
      • Department of Neurology
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2001–2006
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States