ABSTRACT: We compared EEG coherence in children with and without AD/HD, and sought to relate observed anomalies to AD/HD symptoms.
Forty children with AD/HD and 40 age- and sex-matched controls had eyes-closed resting EEG coherence calculated for eight interhemispheric electrode pairs and eight intrahemispheric pairs (four within each hemisphere) in the delta, theta, alpha, beta and "40 Hz" gamma bands.
At short-medium inter-electrode distances, the AD/HD group had increased intrahemispheric coherence in delta and theta, and reduced (L>R) laterality in delta, alpha, beta and gamma. Over longer inter-electrode distances, the AD/HD group had reduced intrahemispheric coherence in alpha. In interhemispheric comparisons, the AD/HD group had reduced frontal coherence in delta, alpha and gamma, increased temporal theta and reduced temporal alpha coherences, and increased central/parietal/occipital coherence in theta. Smaller left-lateralized coherences in AD/HD correlated negatively with DSM Inattentive and DSM Total scores, and smaller frontal interhemispheric coherence in alpha correlated negatively with DSM Hyperactive/Impulsive score.
The negative correlations between AD/HD coherence anomalies and symptoms suggest that several anomalies reflect compensatory brain function.
Coherence differences in AD/HD may reflect anomalous frontal right-hemisphere linkages that help compensate functional brain anomalies in the left frontal regions in this disorder.
Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 02/2011; 122(7):1327-32. · 3.12 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) have well-described abnormalities in the four traditional EEG bands. However, to date the gamma band has not been widely investigated. This study investigated resting-state EEG in children with AD/HD and matched controls, with a particular focus on gamma activity.
Forty children with AD/HD, and 40 age- and sex-matched controls, participated. EEG was recorded from 19 sites during an eyes-closed resting condition and Fourier transformed to provide estimates for absolute and relative power in the delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands.
Children with AD/HD had elevated levels of absolute delta and theta power, and decreased levels of absolute beta and gamma power, compared to controls. With relative power measures, children with AD/HD showed enhanced delta and theta activity, with reduced alpha, beta and gamma activity. Inattention scores on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale were negatively correlated with absolute gamma.
These patients demonstrate the typical EEG profile in the eyes-closed resting state, over the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands, associated with AD/HD. In addition, compared with controls, they demonstrate reduced absolute and relative gamma activity. These differences appear to contribute importantly to their dysfunctional stimulus processing, and impact their behavioural outcomes.
This resting-state study extends the well-established fast-wave EEG deficits in children with AD/HD to the gamma band, and links that to increased inattention, which is of special importance in understanding their cognitive-processing problems.
Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 11/2010; 121(11):1871-7. · 3.12 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Although stimulant medications are the most commonly-used treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), as many as 20% of treated children do not respond clinically to stimulants. This study investigated the effects of an acute dose of atomoxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), on the electroencephalogram (EEG) and performance of children with AD/HD. An initial pre-medication EEG was recorded during an eyes-closed resting condition. Within two weeks, a second EEG was recorded 1 h after ingestion of 20 mg of atomoxetine. Data were Fourier transformed to provide absolute and relative power estimates for the delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands. Compared to controls, the unmedicated AD/HD children had significantly elevated global absolute and relative delta, with reduced global relative alpha, and absolute and relative gamma, and many topographic differences. Atomoxetine produced significant global increases in absolute and relative beta, with several topographic changes in other bands, and a significant reduction in omission errors on a Continuous Performance Task. These results indicate that SNRIs can produce substantial normalisation of the AD/HD EEG profile, together with behavioural performance improvements. Although EEG changes induced by acute administration of psychostimulants (methylphenidate/dexamphetamine) and atomoxetine are not identical, both classes of AD/HD drugs produce similar EEG band changes. Further analysis of EEG responses to SNRIs and psychostimulants could reveal common neurophysiological processes closely linked to clinical improvement of AD/HD symptoms in response to pharmacotherapy, providing translational markers for clinical efficacy studies and potential translational biomarkers for AD/HD drug discovery.
Neuropharmacology 09/2009; 57(7-8):702-7. · 4.81 Impact Factor