[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although the standard treatment of acute appendicitis (AA) consists of an early appendectomy, there has recently been both an interest and an increase in the use of antibiotic therapy as the primary treatment for uncomplicated AA. However, the use of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of uncomplicated AA is still controversial.Methods/design: The APPAC trial is a randomized prospective controlled, open label, non-inferiority multicenter trial designed to compare antibiotic therapy (ertapenem) with emergency appendectomy in the treatment of uncomplicated AA. The primary endpoint of the study is the success of the randomized treatment. In the antibiotic treatment arm successful treatment is defined as being discharged from the hospital without the need for surgical intervention and no recurrent appendicitis during a minimum follow-up of one-year (treatment efficacy). Treatment efficacy in the operative treatment arm is defined as successful appendectomy evaluated to be 100%. Secondary endpoints are post-intervention complications, overall morbidity and mortality, the length of hospital stay and sick leave, treatment costs and pain scores (VAS, visual analoque scale). A maximum of 610 adult patients (aged 18--60 years) with a CT scan confirmed uncomplicated AA will be enrolled from six hospitals and randomized by a closed envelope method in a 1:1 ratio either to undergo emergency appendectomy or to receive ertapenem (1 g per day) for three days continued by oral levofloxacin (500 mg per day) plus metronidazole (1.5 g per day) for seven days. Follow-up by a telephone interview will be at 1 week, 2 months and 1, 3, 5 and 10 years; the primary and secondary endpoints of the trial will be evaluated at each time point. DISCUSSION: The APPAC trial aims to provide level I evidence to support the hypothesis that approximately 75--85% of patients with uncomplicated AA can be treated with effective antibiotic therapy avoiding unnecessary appendectomies and the related operative morbidity, also resulting in major cost savings.Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01022567.
BMC Surgery 02/2013; 13(1):3. · 1.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The data concerning the effects and safety of androgen in human breast tissue are conflicting.
Our aim was to analyze the effects of androgens on normal human breast tissue (HBT).
We cultured explants of HBT (obtained from reduction mammoplasty operations of postmenopausal women) with or without testosterone (T) and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or in combination with 17β-estradiol (E(2)) for 7 and 14 d to study the effects of androgens on proliferation, apoptosis, target gene expression, and steroid receptors. The androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) dependences of the effects were studied with the antihormones bicalutamide and fulvestrant, respectively.
The hormone responsiveness of cultured breast tissue was assessed by assaying apolipoprotein-D and prostate-specific antigen expression increased by androgens and amphiregulin and trefoil factor-1 expression induced by E(2) treatment. T and DHT reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in breast epithelium, the effects of which were reversed by bicalutamide. In combination with E(2), they suppressed E(2)-stimulated proliferation and cell survival. DHT also inhibited basal (P < 0.05) and E(2)-induced expression of cyclin-D1 mRNA (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that T (P < 0.05) and DHT (P < 0.05) increased the relative number of AR-positive cells, whereas ERα-positive (P < 0.001) cell numbers were strongly decreased. The percentage of ERβ-positive cells remained unchanged. E(2) treatment increased ERα-positive (P < 0.01) cells, whereas AR- (P < 0.05) and ERβ-expressing (P < 0.001) cells diminished. These effects were repressed in combination cultures of E(2) with T and DHT.
T and DHT inhibited proliferation and increased apoptosis in the epithelium of cultured normal HBT and opposed E(2)-stimulated proliferation and cell survival in an AR-dependent manner. These effects were associated with changes in the proportions of ERα- and AR-positive epithelial cells.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 04/2012; 97(7):E1116-27. · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long-term efficacy of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in the treatment of morbid obesity has been demonstrated. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) as a single procedure has shown promising short-term results, but the long-term efficacy of SG has not yet been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to determine the preliminary 30-day morbidity and mortality of RYGB and SG in a prospective multicenter randomized setting.
A total of 240 morbidly obese (BMI = 35-66 kg/m²) patients evaluated by a multidisciplinary team were randomized to undergo either RYGB or SG. There were 117 patients in the RYGB group and 121 in the SG group; two patients had to be excluded after randomization. Both study groups were comparable regarding age, gender, BMI, and comorbidities.
There was no 30-day mortality. The median operating time was significantly shorter in the SG group (66 min vs. 94 min, p < 0.001). All complications were recorded thoroughly. There were 7 (5.8 %) major complications following SG and 11 (9.4 %) after RYGB (p = 0.292). Nine (7.4 %) SG patients and 20 (17.1 %) RYGB patients had minor complications (p = 0.023). The overall morbidity was 13.2 % after SG and 26.5 % after RYGB (p = 0.010). There were three (2.5 %) early reoperations after SG and four (3.3 %) after RYGB (p = 0.719).
At 30-day analysis SG is associated with a shorter operating time and fewer early minor complications compared to RYGB. There were no significant differences in major complications or early reoperations. Long-term follow-up is required to determine the effect on weight loss, resolution of obesity-related comorbidities, and improvement of quality of life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: White matter maturation is characterised by increasing fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreasing mean diffusivity (MD). Contradictory results have been published on the effect of premature birth on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age.
To assess the association of gestational age and low birth-weight-for-gestational-age (z-score) with white matter maturation.
Infants (n = 76, 53 males) born at different gestational ages were imaged at term-equivalent age. Gestational age and birth weight z-score were used as continuous variables and the effect on diffusion parameters was assessed. Brain maturation was studied using regions-of-interest analysis in several white matter areas.
Gestational age showed no significant effect on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. Children with low birth weight z-score had lower FA in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.012 and P = 0.032; correlation, P = 0.009 and P = 0.006, respectively), and higher MD in the splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.002; correlation, P = 0.0004) compared to children whose birth weight was appropriate for gestational age.
Children with low birth weight relative to gestational age show delay and/or anomaly in white matter maturation at term-equivalent age.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Local inflammation after a surgical incision is an essential prerequisite for wound healing and later scar formation both in children and adults. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are still poorly known and need further investigations. In this study, one hundred sternotomy patients, operated on routinely for cardiac disease, were studied with the Cellstick device to harvest wound inflammatory cells for differential count and subsequent computerized analysis using an artificial neural network. As a result a nonparametric line of ranked nodes was obtained reflecting wound inflammatory cell response in individual patients at hour 24 post surgery. A number of preoperative and operative parameters were recorded to see their possible correlation with the node values of wound inflammatory cell response. It was found that the age of the patient had a remarkable role in this respect while a majority of laboratory values, if within reference values of healthy persons, had a minor correlation or no correlation at all. Therefore, individual and genetic factors seemed to play a dominant role providing that the patient had a good or moderate general condition and surgical site infection was avoided.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diffusion tensor parameters can be analysed by fitting regions of interest (ROIs) to selected brain structures. The clinical usefulness of these measurements is influenced by their reproducibility and validity.
To investigate the reproducibility of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) measurements.
Seventy-six infants were imaged once at term-equivalent age. We measured several brain regions. Reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method.
Intra-observer reproducibility was excellent for FA in the calcarine cortex (right) and frontal white matter (left), and for MD in the corpus callosum (anterior), internal capsule, corona radiata, putamen, frontal white matter, optic radiation (left), thalamus (right) and calcarine cortex (right). Inter-observer reproducibility was excellent for FA in the corpus callosum (posterior) and for MD in the internal capsule and corona radiata (right). Inter-observer reproducibility was poor for FA in frontal and posterior white matter (right) and for MD in the inferior colliculus (right). Reproducibility was fair to good in other areas. The Bland-Altman plots showed no considerable bias, and variance was independent of the mean value.
Reproducibility of ROI measurement was fair to good for both FA and MD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this validation study was to assess the reliability of gas exchange measurement with indirect calorimetry among subjects who undergo non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured in twelve healthy volunteers. Respiratory quotient (RQ) and resting energy expenditure (REE) were then calculated from the measured VO2 and VCO2 values. During the measurement period the subjects were breathing spontaneously and ventilated using NIV. Two different sampling air flow values 40 and 80 l/min were used. The gas leakage from the measurement setup was assessed with a separate capnograph. The mean weight of the subjects was 93 kg. Their mean body mass index was 29 (range 22-40) kg/m2. There was no statistically significant difference in the measured values for VO2, VCO2, RQ and REE during NIV-supported breathing and spontaneous breathing. The change of sampling air flow had no statistically significant effect on any of the above parameters. We found that REE can be accurately measured with an indirect calorimeter also during NIV-supported breathing and the change of sampling air flow does not distort the gas exchange measurement. A higher sampling air flow in indirect calorimetry decreases the possibility for air leakages in the measurement system and increases the reliability of REE measurement.
International Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 12/2011; 26(1):37-43.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective The objective of this study was to analyse whether electronic medical records (EMRs) of total hip and knee arthroplasty can be used to manage the optimal time of surgery. Design Retrospective registry study. Setting Data on waiting time for operation, age, gender, body mass index (BMI), operable condition pre-operatively and the functional scores at 3 and 12 months after arthroplasty were obtained from EMRs and from an electronic implant database. Participants The participants of the study were 162 arthroplasty patients. Results An increase in waiting time of hip patients decreased significantly the change in functional scores at 3 months (P = 0.006, n = 56). The score reductions of older patients were more marked than of younger patients and of patients of normal weight compared with overweight patients. In patients undergoing knee arthroplasty, the association between a longer waiting time and profound change in functional score was statistically significant after 1 year (P = 0.03, n = 75). After adjustment of the results for pre-operative scores, age group, BMI class, American Society of Anesthesiologists class and gender, the waiting time turned out to affect only the scores of patients undergoing hip arthroplasty at 3 months post-operatively. Conclusions Data from electronic patient entries complemented with data of the operable condition can be used for defining the optimal operation time with regard to the pre-operative condition of the patients. The implication of prolonged waiting times was not very profound, but elderly patients benefit from a short waiting time.
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11/2011; · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) has become the method of choice in the surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), replacing its open counterpart without confirmation by the long-term results of controlled clinical studies. The goal of the present study was to compare the 15-year outcome of a randomized controlled comparison study of LNF versus open Nissen fundoplication (ONF).
From 1992 to 1995, 110 consecutive patients were randomized to undergo LNF or ONF. The 15-year objective results were evaluated by endoscopy, and the subjective symptomatic outcome was assessed by interviews.
A total of 86 patients (48 in the LNF [LAP] and 38 in the ONF [OPEN] group) participated in the study. The late long-term symptomatic outcome was similar in the two patient groups. In the LAP group, 91.7% of the patients gave a positive evaluation of their surgical result, as compared with 76.3% of the patients in the OPEN group (p=0.0484). A significantly greater number of disrupted plications (p=0.0115) and incisional hernias (p<0.001) occurred in the OPEN than in the LAP group. Both the subjective outcome and the objective endoscopic and clinical findings in the present study were in accord with our previously reported outcomes at 11-years after laparoscopic versus open fundoplication. The study found a trend toward (p=0.0851) an increasing need for the regular use of a proton pump inhibitor with the passage of time after Nissen fundoplication.
The 15-year results obtained in the present study define laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication as the procedure of choice in the surgical management of GERD. The long-term symptomatic outcomes of open and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication appear to remain unaltered after the first 10 postoperative years.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 11/2011; 93(1):228-33. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xylitol studies suggest caries reductions in the order of 50%. Based on animal/microbial studies, erythritol potentially has caries-preventive properties. However, clinical studies are required to confirm this. The aim of the study was to investigate the additional caries-preventive effect of xylitol/maltitol and erythritol/maltitol lozenges delivered at school, relative to controls receiving comprehensive prevention, in a low-caries prevalence population.
A 4-year, cluster-randomized, double-blinded clinical trial. Five hundred and seventy-nine 10-year-old consenting subjects from 21 schools were randomly assigned to one of five groups. Four groups used the lozenges on school days, in three teacher-supervised sessions daily, over 1 or 2 years. The daily amount was 4.7 g/4.6 g for xylitol/maltitol and 4.5 g/4.2 g for erythritol/maltitol. The groups received free examinations and care in the public health centre. Four hundred and ninety-six children were analysed. The main outcome measure was dentin caries increment based on a clinical examination at 4 years since the start. The groups were compared in relation to the increment using hierarchical logistic regression to adjust for potential clustering.
Use of xylitol/maltitol or erythritol/maltitol lozenges did not result in caries reduction. A strong relationship between baseline caries prevalence and the 4-year increment was observed (OR = 7.38; 95% CI: 3.78-14.41).
The results suggest that in relatively low-caries conditions the school-based use of xylitol/maltitol or erythritol/maltitol lozenges would not have additional caries-preventive effect when compared with comprehensive prevention.
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 09/2011; 22(3):180-90. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Female gender is a well-known risk factor for the development of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis, but the underlying mechanism for this increased risk has remained unknown. We hypothesize that cannulation difficulty might play a part in this association. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the female papilla is more difficult to cannulate than the male papilla.
Prospective data collection with emphasis on cannulation was conducted in 364 consecutive biliary ERCP procedures performed by very experienced ERCP endoscopists through native papilla in a tertiary referral university hospital.
Although the cannulation times seemed to be longer and alternative cannulation techniques seemed to be needed more frequently for successful cannulation in female than male patients, no statistically significant differences (p = 0.061 and 0.054, respectively) in the cannulation process could be found between the genders.
The study was not able to confirm that the cannulation of the female papilla is more troublesome than the cannulation of the male papilla.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2011; 46(12):1498-502. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pemetrexed has emerged as standard chemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM).
MPMs at two Finnish University Hospitals during 7 years (2000-2006) were reviewed in order to evaluate the treatments, survival and prognostic factors. The results in two periods (before pemetrexed use in 2000-2002 and with pemetrexed in 2003-2006) were compared.
Data were collected from the individual patient records retrospectively, and analysed.
Altogether 197 patients were diagnosed with following histologies: 136 (69%) epithelioid, 19 (10%) sarcomatoid, 17 (9%) mixed, 25 (13%) not specified; 141 (72%) patients received treatment (five extrapleural pneumonectomy, 36 pleurectomy/decortication, 126 chemotherapy). Median survival was 12.9 months and the 1-, 2- and 3-year survivals were 51.8%, 21.8% and 12.1%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed no significant difference in survival between the patients diagnosed before or during the pemetrexed era (P = 0.124). The patients receiving pemetrexed or other chemotherapy had median survivals of 16.7 and 15.3 months, respectively. The independent prognostic factors for survival were histology and asbestos exposure. Non-epithelioid histology yielded 17 times higher risk of dying than epithelioid. Asbestos exposure doubled the risk of dying, but only in patients diagnosed in 2003-2006.
Pemetrexed is beneficial for selected patients, but it has not changed the outcome of the whole MPM population as much as perhaps anticipated. Patient groups with various treatments or symptomatic care only reached survival results comparable to those reported in chemotherapy trials, thus emphasising the need for better subtyping of mesothelioma and individualising the treatment.
The Clinical Respiratory Journal 06/2011; 6(2):96-103. · 1.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In several recent studies, CD44 expression has been associated with aggressive behavior in cancers of different types. CD44 expression is also linked to cancer stem cells, which have been shown to play a significant role in tumor progression and poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), as well as in other cancers. Although CD44 is a potential prognostic marker, it has not been adopted to wider clinical use as a part of treatment planning in HNSCC patients. The aim of this research was to study whether CD44 overexpression is associated with 5year overall survival in HNSCC. We also studied site-specific associations between increased CD44 expression and 5year overall survival. Associations between relative tumor CD44 expressions and smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, histological grade of cancer, TNM staging and HNSCC staging were also studied. In total, 135 paraffin-embedded blocks from HNSCC patients were stained immunohistochemically with a CD44 antibody and were classified by the anatomic location of the tumor. CD44 overexpression had statistically significant association with decreased 5year survival rates when all HNSCC samples were studied (p<0.001). Significant association between intense CD44 expression and poor 5year survival rates was found in the patients with SCC of the oro- and hypopharynx (p<0.001) and the larynx (p=0.042). In patients suffering from HNSCC in the oral cavity, CD44 overexpression did not have a significant effect on overall 5year survival rates. Heavy smoking of over 10 pack years had a significant association with tumor CD44 overexpression (p=0.009). Only pharyngeal (p=0.046) and laryngeal (p=0.047) SCC, but not oral-cavity SCC, had statistically significant associations between heavy smoking and CD44 overexpression when HNSCC was studied in regional groups. Alcohol consumption and tumor grade did not have a significant association with the tumor's CD44 expression. Our results suggest that CD44 overexpression could be used as a sign of aggressiveness, in addition to the HNSCC staging, as a prognostic factor in pharyngeal and laryngeal HNSCC and to assist in treatment selection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional outcomes such as survival, tumour recurrence and complication rates after surgery for rectal cancer have been rigorously assessed, but the importance of maintaining quality of life (QOL) after surgery for rectal cancer has received less attention. The aim of the current study was to analyse QOL and the occurrence of pelvic dysfunction after the surgical treatment of rectal cancer.
Between May 2005 and May 2008, 150 patients with rectal cancer underwent abdominoperineal resection (APR) or anterior resection (AR). Seventy-four answered two preoperative questionnaires. At a follow up of 1 year, 65 were alive without sign of recurrence and answered the same questionnaires: (a) validated RAND 36-item health survey QOL questionnaire; and (b) self-administered disease-related questionnaire with special reference to anorectal and urogenital function.
The postoperative general QOL was similar after surgery, and mental functioning was better (P < 0.001). Problems with physical functions were associated with anal dysfunction after AR (P < 0.001) and problems with social functioning were associated with urinary dysfunction (P = 0.038). At 1 year after surgery, urinary incontinence was worse (P = 0.026) after all operations, and the incidence of dysuria was higher after APR than AR (P = 0.001). Male sexual function also worsened (P = 0.060). Anorectal dysfunction caused more inconvenience among patients who underwent AR (P = 0.028). Preoperative radiation was associated with postoperative ejaculation problems (P = 0.028) and anal incontinence (P = 0.012).
Factors affecting QOL and pelvic floor function should be taken into account when making treatment decisions in rectal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate risk factors for reduced survival in subjects with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
A retrospective follow-up of three decades included 192 subjects with TBI. Cognitive testing was carried out on average 2 years after the injury (at mean age of 39.0 years), during the years 1966-1972. Cox's regression and logistic regression analyses were used and the survival of the subjects was compared with the general population using the standardized mortality ratio (SMR).
Reduced survival was significantly associated with age at injury (p < 0.001) and vocational outcome (p = 0.003). Vocational outcome in turn was associated with age (p = 0.010), TBI severity (p < 0.001), cognitive impairment (p = 0.010), later TBIs (p = 0.007) and alcohol abuse (p = 0.015). Mortality in the younger patient group (age at death <40 years) was higher than in the general population (SMR 4.50, 95% CI = 2.02-10.01).
A reduced working ability, influenced by age-, injury- and lifestyle-related factors, is associated with long-term survival after TBI. The mortality among younger patients is high, a finding which should be considered when planning the care after TBI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze event related potentials mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a in childhood cancer patients at the time of diagnosis (Study 1) and after treatment (Study 2) to evaluate their clinical usefulness in screening potential treatment-related neurotoxicity.
The MMN and P3a to phonetic stimuli were examined in 27 childhood cancer patients with age- and sex-matched controls. Neuropsychological tests were also studied.
The MMN peak amplitude was attenuated in the patient group at Study 1. Between the studies, poorer enhancement of the MMN peak amplitude correlated with deterioration in the Verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in leukaemia patients. In addition, prolongation of the MMN peak latency correlated significantly with deterioration in the Full Scale and Performance IQ in the patient group. Deterioration in the Arithmetic subtest and Performance IQ correlated negatively with the age at diagnosis.
The MMN changes between the studies associated with deterioration in the neuropsychological tests indicating that the method could be clinically useful. The performance of the younger patients was more likely to deteriorate during the treatment.
Changes in the MMN response during cancer treatment seem to be of clinical importance as indicates of the cognitive outcome of childhood cancer patients.
Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 01/2011; 122(1):62-72. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of endotracheal intubation tube or jet ventilation cannula can compromise free view and access to operation area in certain endolaryngeal operations. The objective of this prospective study was to test whether adequate level of anaesthesia could be obtained in adults using tubeless sevoflurane inhalation anaesthesia with spontaneous breathing. In 23 ASA 1-2 patients, 31 treatments were included in the study of which 19 were laser-assisted papilloma or other tumour resections and 12 were fascia injection laryngoplasties. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained by insufflating sevoflurane mixture to the patient's oropharynx. The adequacy of the anaesthesia level was assessed by monitoring bispectral index, haemodynamic parameters and peripheral oxygen saturation during the anaesthesia. The ENT surgeon estimated operating conditions, whilst the two participating anaesthesiologists assessed the quality of anaesthesia using a 100 mm VAS scale. Sevoflurane contamination in the operating theatre was measured during five treatments. Mean bispectral index was below 40 throughout the operation. Haemodynamic parameters showed only minor changes during the anaesthesia. Both attending anaesthesiologists and operating ENT surgeon were satisfied with the quality of the anaesthesia and operating conditions (VAS 83 ± 15, mean ± SD, range 42-100, and VAS 93 ± 10, range 55-100, respectively). Sevoflurane room air contamination was high in most measured cases. The modification of tubeless inhalation anaesthesia used in this study produced adequate level of anaesthesia with stable haemodynamics and good operating conditions. Sevoflurane contamination can be reduced with more efficient scavenging systems.
Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 01/2011; 268(1):93-9. · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the rate of maternal complications related to cesarean section (CS) and to compare morbidity between elective, emergency and crash-emergency CS. To establish risk factors associated with maternal CS morbidity.
A prospective multicenter cohort study.
Twelve delivery units in Finland.
Women delivering by CS (n = 2,496) during a 6 months period in the study hospitals.
Data on pregnant women, CS, and maternal recovery during the hospital stay was collected prospectively on report forms. The complication rates by different CSs were calculated, and factors associated with morbidity were analyzed by odds ratios (OR).
Maternal complication rates in different types of CS. The association of risk factors with morbidity.
About 27% of women delivering by CS had complications; 10% had severe complications. The complication rate was higher in emergency CS than in elective CS, and highest in crash-emergency CS. Significant independent risk factors for maternal morbidity were emergency CS and crash-emergency CS compared to elective CS (OR 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-2.2), pre-eclampsia (OR 1.5; CI 1.1-2.0), maternal obesity (OR 1.4; CI 1.1-1.8) and maternal increasing age (OR 1.1; CI 1.03-1.2 per each 5 years).
Maternal complications are frequent in CS, and although performing CS electively reduces the occurrence of complications, the frequency is still high. The complication rate depends on the degree of emergency, and increases with maternal obesity, older age and pre-eclampsia.