ABSTRACT: Acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) has emerged as an important mediator of allergic asthma in both animal models and in humans. Recently, chitotriosidase has been suggested to play a role in innate immunity because of its phagocytic-specific expression. Thus, AMCase and chitotriosidase may play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic nasal mucosa. The expression and pattern of distribution of AMCase and chitotriosidase were, therefore, determined in normal and allergic nasal mucosa.
Controlled, prospective study.
Normal inferior turbinate mucosa was obtained in patients who were admitted for augmentation rhinoplasty. Allergic turbinate mucosa was obtained from patients who had perennial allergic rhinitis during septo-turbinate surgery. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting were applied to the normal and allergic nasal mucosa.
The expression of AMCase and chitotriosidase mRNAs and proteins analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot were detected in all normal and allergic turbinate mucosa tested. The levels of expression of AMCase and chitotriosidase mRNAs and proteins were increased in allergic turbinate mucosa compared with normal turbinate mucosa. In both normal and allergic turbinate mucosa, AMCase and chitotriosidase were detected in the epithelium, inflammatory cells, and submucosal glands. The staining intensity for AMCase and chitotriosidase was stronger in allergic nasal mucosa than normal nasal mucosa.
AMCase and chitotriosidase are constitutively expressed in normal turbinate mucosa, suggesting involvement in defense against chitin-containing pathogens. Upregulation of these chitinases in allergic condition suggests that they may play a role in the nasal allergic reaction like other inflammatory mediators in allergic rhinitis. Laryngoscope, 2010.
The Laryngoscope 05/2010; 120(5):870-5. · 1.75 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To investigate the expression levels and distribution patterns of elafin and cystatin C in normal and inflammatory human sinus mucosa and to evaluate their roles in chronic sinusitis.
A controlled, prospective study.
A tertiary academic institution.
Normal sinus mucosa was obtained from the ethmoid sinus during surgery in 30 patients with blowout fractures. Inflammatory sinus mucosa was obtained from 30 patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic polypoid sinusitis.
Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blotting.
Expression levels and distribution patterns of elafin and cystatin C in normal and inflammatory mucosa.
Expression of elafin and cystatin C messenger RNAs and proteins analyzed by means of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot was detected in all normal and inflammatory sinus mucosa tested. Their expression levels were increased in inflammatory vs normal mucosa. Elafin in normal and inflammatory sinus mucosa was distinctly expressed in goblet cells, which are increased in inflammatory sinus mucosa. Elafin in submucosal glands was usually weak in staining intensity, except for a few scattered submucosal glands showing moderate intensity in inflammatory sinus mucosa. Cystatin C was also localized in goblet cells and submucosal glands in normal and inflammatory mucosa. Staining intensity was increased more in inflammatory vs normal sinus mucosa.
Elafin and cystatin C may play an important role in the protection of normal sinus mucosa and further in regulation of the inflammatory condition in chronic sinusitis.
Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery 09/2009; 135(8):771-5. · 1.92 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This paper describes a phase-locked loop (PLL) clock generator
with low sensitivity to power supply noise. A voltage controlled
oscillator employing a source follower reduces power supply noise
sensitivity with the proposed power-efficient low-ripple DC-DC
converter. Simulated clock jitter is less than ±20 ps, with a 200
mV peak-to-peak sinusoidal noise signal of 1 MHz to 400 MHz applied to a
power supply. The proposed PLL simulated in a 0.65 μm double-poly
double-metal CMOS process consumes 27 mW at 200 MHz from a 3 V supply.
The prototype is under fabrication
VLSI and CAD, 1999. ICVC '99. 6th International Conference on; 02/1999