[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The advancing antimicrobial drug resistance among Enterobacteriaceae renders the evaluation of potential novel therapeutic options necessary. We sought to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of fosfomycin against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility to fosfomycin and 12 additional antibiotics of MDR Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected between November 2007 and April 2009 at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, was examined using the Etest method. A total of 152 MDR Enterobacteriaceae isolates were studied, including Klebsiella pneumoniae (76.3%), Escherichia coli (17.1%), Proteus mirabilis (4.6%) and other species (2.0%). Antimicrobial susceptibility rates were highest for fosfomycin (92.8%), tigecycline (92.1%) and colistin (73.0%) followed by imipenem (35.5%), tetracycline (20.4%), gentamicin (19.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (12.5%) and ciprofloxacin (10.5%). Of the 152 isolates, 85 (55.9%) were extensively drug-resistant (XDR), of which 78 (91.8%) remained susceptible to fosfomycin. Susceptibility to fosfomycin of the 79 carbapenemase-producing, 34 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing and 24 metallo-beta-lactamase-producing isolates was 94.9%, 94.1% and 83.3%, respectively. In conclusion, in this study fosfomycin exhibited good in vitro antimicrobial activity against MDR and XDR Enterobacteriaceae. We suggest further evaluation of the potential clinical utility of fosfomycin against infections caused by these pathogens.
International journal of antimicrobial agents 03/2010; 35(3):240-3. DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2009.10.019 · 4.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the in vitro activity of fosfomycin against urinary isolates in a region in Greece that exhibits considerable antimicrobial resistance by evaluating retrospectively relevant susceptibility data retrieved from the microbiological library of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. We examined 578 urinary isolates. In total, 516 (89.2%) were susceptible to fosfomycin; 415 isolates were gram negative, and 101 isolates were gram positive. Fosfomycin appears to exhibit good levels of in vitro activity against the examined urinary isolates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report our experience in patients with spontaneous perirenal hemorrhage (SPH) seen at our institution over a 10-year period.
Over the years from 1992 to 2002, 13 patients with SPH without a history of trauma, were treated at our hospital. There were 5 male and 8 female patients with a mean age of 55.7 years (range 36-79 years). The patients' records were reviewed retrospectively with respect to etiology, clinical presentation, radiologic findings and therapeutic management of SPH.
All patients were presented with flank or abdominal pain. Radiological evaluation included ultrasonography (U/S) in 7 cases and computed tomography (CT) in 13 cases. An underlying renal mass was indentified employing U/S in 2 cases and using CT in 10 cases respectively. The etiology of SPH was determined in 12 cases. The most common causes were angiomyolipoma (5 patients) and renal cell carcinoma (4 patients). Out of the remaining 4 cases with SPH, one was associated with anticoagulant therapy; polyarteritis nodosa and Wegener angeitis were the underlying diseases in 2 cases respectively; finally, the etiology could not be determined in 1 case. All but two patients were managed surgically. Complete nephrectomy was performed in 6 cases, partial nephrectomy in 4 and simple evacuation of the haematoma was performed in 1 case.
SPH presence should arouse suspicions concerning its etiology, since the most common cause is a renal tumor and approximately 50% of such tumors are malignant. CT scanning is a useful imaging modality for the initial evaluation of SPH, permitting identification of the underlying cause in most instances.
International Urology and Nephrology 02/2004; 36(1):15-9. DOI:10.1023/B:UROL.0000032680.65742.9a · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To define factors associated with the failure of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in the treatment of ureteral stones.
We retrospectively studied 405 men and 283 women (mean age 52.6 years) who underwent SWL with a second-generation lithotripter in the period 1994 to 2001. We evaluated available clinical and radiologic features that might have been related to failure of SWL therapy.
Treatment was successful in 502 patients (73%). The 186 patients (27%) in whom treatment failed underwent endourologic alternatives or open surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that unsuccessful outcome was significantly related to: (1) pelvic ureteral stones (odds ratio [OR] 4.02; 95% CI 1.97, 8.19); (2) stone size >10 mm (OR 3.46; 95% CI 2.16, 5.53); (3) obstruction (OR 1.93; 95% CI 0.99, 3.77); and (4) obesity (OR 1.87; 95% CI 0.95, 3.77). Although the predictive value of each individual parameter was relatively low (15.3%-27.9%) the cumulative risk was 82.95% when patients had all four features. The strongest independent predictors of failure were pelvic stones and stones >10 mm (cumulative predictive value 57.3%).
These variables may enable identification of a subgroup of patients who will fail initial SWL. These patients may be candidates for endourologic alternatives as first-line treatment.
Journal of Endourology 05/2003; 17(4):201-5. DOI:10.1089/089277903765444302 · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied gastrointestinal (GI) colonization by Candida albicans in patients receiving oral norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin as monotherapy for urinary tract infections. Quantitative stool cultures for C. albicans were performed before, at the end and 1 week after the end of treatment. All 3 quinolones increased GI colonization by C. albicans. Ciprofloxacin caused the highest increase, which was not statistically significant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two unusual cases of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis studied by both magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, are presented. Extension of the disease depicted by both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging was compatible with the findings at surgery. Computed tomography seems to be sufficient for xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis imaging evaluation, while magnetic resonance imaging is not recommended on a routine basis, since no additional valuable information is yielded.
European Journal of Radiology 09/1998; 28(1):98-101. DOI:10.1016/S0720-048X(97)00084-3 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of antibiotics used for prophylaxis in women with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) on the aerobic intestinal flora were investigated. Twenty-one patients with recurrent UTIs were randomly divided into three groups. The patients of each group received monotherapy with oral norfloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or nitrofurantoin for one month. Urine and stool quantitative aerobic cultures were performed before prophylaxis, 2 and 4 weeks after the initiation of therapy, and 2 weeks after antibiotics were discontinued. The gram-negative aerobic flora was strongly suppressed during the administration of norfloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, while Enterococcus spp. were not affected. Resistant strains of Escherichia coli were detected in two patients, one in the norfloxacin and one in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group. The aerobic intestinal flora was not affected by nitrofurantoin. These findings help in the selection of the most appropriate antimicrobial agent for prophylaxis in recurrent UTIs, so as to reduce the possibility of emergence of resistant bacterial strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case of mucinous adenocarcinoma probably originating in the renal pelvis of an ectopic pyelic kidney with infiltration of the adjacent urinary bladder is reported. Review of the literature shows that this is the 42nd case of such a tumor, the second one reported in the pelvis of an ectopic pyelic kidney, and the first infiltrating the urinary bladder.