ABSTRACT: Despite years of salt iodization, goitre continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. We examined the prevalence of goitre in the post-iodization phase and the relationship of goitre with micronutrient status and thyroid autoimmunity in school children of Chandigarh, north India.
Two phase study; in the first phase, 2148 children of 6 to 16 yr were screened for goitre by two independent observers as per the WHO grading system. In the second phase, a case-control study, 191 children with goitre and 165 children without goitre were compared with respect to urinary iodine, iodine content of salt, serum levels of T3, T4, TSH, anti-TPO (thyroid peroxidase) antibody, haemoglobin, ferritin and selenium.
Prevalence of goitre in the studied subjects was 15.1 per cent (13.9% in 6 to 12 yr and 17.7% in 13 to 16 yr age group, P = 0.03). Median urinary iodine excretion in both the groups was sufficient and comparable (137 and 130 μg/l). 3.2 per cent children with goitre and 2.4 per cent without goitre had hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical) and only one child with goitre had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Nine (4.9%) children in the goitre group and 3 (1.9%) in control group had anti-TPO antibody positivity. The median serum selenium levels were not different in both the groups (181.9 and 193.5 μg/l). Seventy one (37.4%) of the goitrous children had anaemia (haemoglobin <12 g/dl) as compared to 41 (24.8%) of the control group (P < 0.01). More number of goitrous children (39, 20.6%) were depleted of tissue iron stores (serum ferritin <12 μg/l) as compared to controls (11, 6.4%; P < 0.001). Serum ferritin level negatively correlated with the presence of goitre (r = -0.22, P = 0.008) and had an OR of 2.8 (CI 1.20-6.37, P = 0.017).
There was a high prevalence of goitre in young children despite iodine repletion and low thyroid autoimmunity. The concurrent iron deficiency correlated with the presence of goiter. However, the cause and effect relationship between iron deficiency state and goitre requires further elucidation.
The Indian journal of medical research 01/2011; 133:103-9. · 1.84 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Progressive and inexorable beta-cell dysfunction is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and beta-cell regeneration using stem cell therapy may prove to be an effective modality. A total of 10 patients (8 men) with T2DM for >5 years, failure of triple oral antidiabetic drugs, currently on insulin (> or = 0.7 U/kg/day) at least for 1 year, and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody negative were included. Patients on stable doses of medications for past 3 months were recruited. Primary end points were reduction in insulin requirement by > or = 50% and improvement in glucagon-stimulated C-peptide levels at the end of 6 months of autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell transplantation (SCT), while secondary end points were a change in weight and HbA1c and lipid levels as compared to baseline. Seven patients were responders and showed a reduction in insulin requirement by 75% as compared to baseline. Mean duration to achieve the primary objective was 48 days. Three patients were able to discontinue insulin completely, although it was short-lived in one. Mean HbA1c reduction was 1% and 3 of the 7 responders had HbA1c value <7%. A significant weight loss of 5.5 kg was noted in the responders, whereas, nonresponders gained 2.2 kg of weight. However, weight loss did not correlate with reduction in insulin requirement (r = 0.68, P = 0.06). There was a significant improvement in both fasting and glucagon-stimulated C-peptide level in the group (P = 0.03) and responders (P = 0.03). HOMA-B increased significantly in the whole group (P = 0.02) and responders (P = 0.04) whereas, HOMA-IR did not change significantly (P = 0.74). Reduction in insulin doses correlated with stimulated C-peptide response at the baseline (r = 0.83, P = 0.047) and mononuclear cell count of infused stem cells (r = 0.57, P = 0.04). No serious adverse effects were noted. Our observations indicate that SCT is a safe and effective modality of treatment to improve beta-cell function in patients with T2DM. However, further large-scale studies are needed to substantiate these observations.
Stem cells and development 08/2009; 18(10):1407-16. · 4.15 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To assess the vitamin D status and its seasonal variability in healthy young adults in Chandigarh, a city in northern India.
The history was elicited and examination was performed pertaining to metabolic bone disease in 329 young adults (18 to 25 years of age) at the end of summer and 237 subjects from the same cohort at the end of winter. The calcium profile, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and intact parathyroid hormone were measured during both the seasons.
Among the young adults in this study cohort, 25(OH)D sufficiency (≥ 30 ng/mL) was found in 72.5% in summer and in 50.7% in winter. A significantly higher number of men were 25(OH)D sufficient in comparison with women in summer (P = .001). The mean (standard deviation) serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher at the end of summer-52.9 (33.7) ng/mL-in comparison with that at the end of winter-31.8 (21.1) ng/mL; P<.001. The intact parathyroid hormone levels were significantly lower in the 25(OH)D-sufficient group (P = .001) and began to increase at 25(OH)D levels below 25 ng/mL. The serum 25(OH)D levels correlated positively with the duration of exposure to sunlight during summer (r = 0.111; P = .05) and also the calcium intake during summer (r = 0.129; P = .03).
Vitamin D sufficiency may be a reality with a combination of young skin, optimal and effective exposure to sunlight, and adequate calcium intake.
Endocrine Practice 17(2):185-91. · 2.49 Impact Factor