[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Typical features of celiac disease are small-bowel villus atrophy, crypt hyperplasia, and inflammation which develop gradually concomitant with ingestion of gluten. In addition, patients have anti-transglutaminase 2 (TG2) autoantibodies in their serum and tissues. The aim of this study was to establish whether celiac disease can be passively transferred to mice by serum or immunoglobulins. Serum aliquots or purified immunoglobulins (Ig) were intraperitoneally injected into Hsd:Athymic Nude-Foxn1nu mice for 8 or 27 days. As mice do not have proper IgA transport from peritoneum to blood, sera with a high content of IgG class anti-TG2 antibodies from untreated IgA-deficient celiac patients were used. Mouse sera were tested for celiac disease-specific autoantibodies, and several tissues were analyzed for autoantibody deposits targeted to TG2. Morphological assessment was made of the murine small intestinal mucosa. Injection of celiac disease patient sera or total IgG led to a significant delay in weight gain and mild diarrhea in a subset of mice. The mice injected with celiac patient sera or IgG had significantly decreased villus height crypt depth (Vh/CrD) ratios and celiac disease-specific autoantibody deposits targeted to TG2 in several tissues, including the small intestine. None of these features were observed in control mice. We conclude that administration of IgA-deficient celiac disease patient serum or total IgG induces both deterioration of the intestinal mucosa and clinical features of celiac disease in mice. The experimentally induced condition in the mice injected with patient serum or IgG resembles early developing celiac disease in humans.
Journal of Molecular Medicine 09/2014; · 4.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) in angiogenesis is unclear and contradictory. Here we show that inhibition of extracellular TG2 protein crosslinking or downregulation of TG2 expression leads to inhibition of angiogenesis in cell culture, the aorta ring assay and in vivo models. In a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) co-culture model, inhibition of extracellular TG2 activity can halt the progression of angiogenesis, even when introduced after tubule formation has commenced and after addition of excess vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In both cases, this leads to a significant reduction in tubule branching. Knockdown of TG2 by short hairpin (shRNA) results in inhibition of HUVEC migration and tubule formation, which can be restored by add back of wt TG2, but not by the transamidation-defective but GTP-binding mutant W241A. TG2 inhibition results in inhibition of fibronectin deposition in HUVEC monocultures with a parallel reduction in matrix-bound VEGFA, leading to a reduction in phosphorylated VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) at Tyr(1214) and its downstream effectors Akt and ERK1/2, and importantly its association with β1 integrin. We propose a mechanism for the involvement of matrix-bound VEGFA in angiogenesis that is dependent on extracellular TG2-related activity.
Cell Death & Disease 09/2013; 4:e808. · 5.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A characteristic feature of celiac disease is the presence of circulating autoantibodies targeted against transglutaminase 2 (TG2), reputed to have a function in angiogenesis. In this study we investigated whether TG2-specific autoantibodies derived from celiac patients inhibit angiogenesis in both ex vivo and in vivo models and sought to clarify the mechanism behind this phenomenon. We used the ex vivo murine aorta-ring and the in vivo mouse matrigel-plug assays to address aforementioned issues. We found angiogenesis to be impaired as a result of celiac disease antibody supplementation in both systems. Our results also showed the dynamics of endothelial cells was affected in the presence of celiac antibodies. In the in vivo angiogenesis assays, the vessels formed were able to transport blood despite impairment of functionality after treatment with celiac autoantibodies, as revealed by positron emission tomography. We conclude that celiac autoantibodies inhibit angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo and impair vascular functionality. Our data suggest that the anti-angiogenic mechanism of the celiac disease-specific autoantibodies involves extracellular TG2 and inhibited endothelial cell mobility.
PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e65887. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac patient-derived anti-transglutaminase 2 (TG2) antibodies disturb several steps in angiogenesis, but the detailed molecular basis is not known. Therefore, we here analyzed by microarray technology the expression of a set of genes related to angiogenesis and endothelial cell biology in order to identify factors that could explain our previous data related to vascular biology in the context of celiac disease. To this end, in vitro models using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) or in vivo models of angiogenesis were used. A total of 116 genes were analyzed after treatment with celiac patient autoantibodies against TG2. Compared to treatment with control IgA celiac patient, total IgA induced a consistent expression change of 10 genes, the up-regulation of four and down-regulation of six. Of these genes the up-regulated RhoB was selected for further studies. RhoB expression was found to be up-regulated at both messenger RNA and protein level in response to celiac patient total IgA as well as anti-TG2-specific antibody derived from a celiac patient. Interestingly, down-regulation of RhoB by specific small interfering RNA treatment in endothelial cells could rescue the deranged endothelial length and tubule formation caused by celiac disease autoantibodies. RhoB function is controlled by its post-translational modification by farnesylation. This modification of RhoB required for its correct function can be prevented by the cholesterol lowering drug simvastatin, which was also able to abolish the anti-angiogenic effects of celiac anti-TG2 autoantibodies. Taken together, our results would suggest that RhoB plays a key role in the response of endothelial cells to celiac disease-specific anti-TG2 autoantibodies.
Journal of Molecular Medicine 01/2012; 90(7):817-26. · 4.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multifunctional, protein cross-linking transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is the main autoantigen in celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder with defined etiology. Glutamine-rich gliadin peptides from ingested cereals, after their deamidation by TG2, induce T-lymphocyte activation accompanied by autoantibody production against TG2 in 1-2% of the population. The pathogenic role and exact binding properties of these antibodies to TG2 are still unclear. Here we show that antibodies from different celiac patients target the same conformational TG2 epitope formed by spatially close amino acids of adjacent domains. Glu153 and 154 on the first alpha-helix of the core domain and Arg19 on first alpha-helix of the N-terminal domain determine the celiac epitope that is accessible both in the closed and open conformation of TG2 and dependent on the relative position of these helices. Met659 on the C-terminal domain also can cooperate in antibody binding. This composite epitope is disease-specific, recognized by antibodies derived from celiac tissues and associated with biological effects when passively transferred from celiac mothers into their newborns. These findings suggest that celiac antibodies are produced in a surface-specific way for which certain homology of the central glutamic acid residues of the TG2 epitope with deamidated gliadin peptides could be a structural basis. Monoclonal mouse antibodies with partially overlapping epitope specificity released celiac antibodies from patient tissues and antagonized their harmful effects in cell culture experiments. Such antibodies or similar specific competitors will be useful in further functional studies and in exploring whether interference with celiac antibody actions leads to therapeutic benefits.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2011; 109(2):431-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) involves disturbance of the small-bowel mucosal vascular network, and transglutaminase autoantibodies (TGA) have been related to angiogenesis disturbance, a complex phenomenon probably also influenced by common genetic variants in angiogenesis-related genes. A set of genes with "angiogenesis" GO term identified in a previous expression microarray experiment (SCG2, STAB1, TGFA, ANG, ERBB2, GNA13, PML, CASP8, ECGF1, JAG1, HIF1A, TNFSF13 and TGM2) was selected for genetic and functional studies. SNPs that showed a trend for association with CD in the first GWAS were genotyped in 555 patients and 541 controls. Gene expression of all genes was quantified in 15 pairs of intestinal biopsies (diagnosis vs. GFD) and in three-dimensional HUVEC and T84 cell cultures incubated with TGA-positive and negative serum. A regulatory SNP in TNFSF13 (rs11552708) is associated with CD (p = 0.01, OR = 0.7). Expression changes in biopsies pointed to TGM2 and PML as up-regulated antiangiogenic genes and to GNA13, TGFA, ERBB2 and SCG2 as down-regulated proangiogenic factors in CD. TGA seem to enhance TGM2 expression in both cell models, but PML expression was induced only in T84 enterocytes while GNA13 and ERBB2 were repressed in HUVEC endothelial cells, with several genes showing discordant effects in each model, highlighting the complexity of gene interactions in the pathogenesis of CD. Finally, cell culture models are useful tools to help dissect complex responses observed in human explants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease is a multisystemic dietary, gluten-induced autoimmune disorder characterized by the presence of transglutaminase (TG) 2 serum autoantibodies. Distinct autoantibodies targeting members of the TG family (TG2, TG3 and TG6) are found deposited in small-bowel mucosa and in extraintestinal tissues affected by the disease. Serum autoantibodies against other self-antigens also emerge in untreated celiac disease patients. Although villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia in small-bowel biopsy samples are still the gold standards in diagnostics, celiac disease-specific antibodies are widely used as diagnostic aids. Gluten-induced small-bowel mucosal T-cell response is the cornerstone in the pathogenesis of the disorder, but humoral immunity may also play a central role. This review article is focused on the autoantibodies that occur in the context of celiac disease. The article summarizes the diagnostic utility of different celiac-related antibodies and discusses their roles in the pathogenesis of the disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier work has demonstrated that serum autoantibodies from coeliac patients targeted against transglutaminase 2 (TG2) inhibit in vitro angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to establish whether coeliac patient-derived monoclonal TG2-targeted antibodies produced by recombination technology exert similar anti-angiogenic effects to serum-derived coeliac autoantibodies. In addition, we studied whether the monoclonal patient autoantibodies modulate endothelial cell TG2 activity and whether such modulation is related to the anti-angiogenic effects.
The influence of coeliac patient-derived monoclonal TG2-targeted antibodies on endothelial cell tubule formation was studied using a three-dimensional angiogenic cell culture model. Endothelial cell TG2 enzymatic activity was determined by means of a live-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Coeliac patient-derived monoclonal TG2-targeted antibodies produced by recombination technology inhibited endothelial tubule formation and enhanced the crosslinking activity of TG2. When this enzymatic activity was inhibited using site-directed irreversible TG2 inhibitors in the presence of autoantibodies, in vitro angiogenesis reverted to the control level.
Since we found a significant negative correlation between endothelial cell angiogenesis and TG2 activity, we suggest that the anti-angiogenic effects of coeliac patient-derived TG2-targeted autoantibodies are exerted by enhanced enzymatic activity of TG2.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2010; 45(4):421-7. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease is characterized by the presence of specific autoantibodies targeted against transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in untreated patients' serum and at their production site in the small-bowel mucosa below the basement membrane and around the blood vessels. As these autoantibodies have biological activity in vitro, such as inhibition of angiogenesis, we studied if they might also modulate the endothelial barrier function. Our results show that celiac disease patient autoantibodies increase endothelial permeability for macromolecules, and enhance the binding of lymphocytes to the endothelium and their transendothelial migration when compared to control antibodies in an endothelial cell-based in vitro model. We also demonstrate that these effects are mediated by increased activities of TG2 and RhoA. Since the small bowel mucosal endothelium serves as a "gatekeeper" in inflammatory processes, the disease-specific autoantibodies targeted against TG2 could thus contribute to the pathogenic cascade of celiac disease by increasing blood vessel permeability.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 09/2009; 66(20):3375-85. · 5.86 Impact Factor