[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heterosis, the phenotypic superiority of a hybrid over its parents, has been demonstrated for many traits in Arabidopsis thaliana, but its effect on defence remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that hybrids between some A. thaliana accessions show increased resistance to the biotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Comparisons of transcriptomes between these hybrids and their parents after inoculation reveal that several key salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis genes are significantly upregulated in hybrids. Moreover, SA levels are higher in hybrids than in either parent. Increased resistance to Pst DC3000 is significantly compromised in hybrids of pad4 mutants in which the SA biosynthesis pathway is blocked. Finally, increased histone H3 acetylation of key SA biosynthesis genes correlates with their upregulation in infected hybrids. Our data demonstrate that enhanced activation of SA biosynthesis in A. thaliana hybrids may contribute to their increased resistance to a biotrophic bacterial pathogen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To incorporate the far-red light (FR) signal into a strategy for optimizing plant growth, FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 (FHY1) mediates the nuclear translocation of the FR photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) and facilitates the association of phyA with the promoters of numerous associated genes crucial for the response to environmental stimuli. However, whether FHY1 plays additional roles after FR irradiation remains elusive. Here, through the global identification of FHY1 chromatin association sites through ChIP-seq analysis and by the comparison of FHY1-associated sites with phyA-associated sites, we demonstrated that nuclear FHY1 can either act independently of phyA or act in association with phyA to activate the expression of distinct target genes. We also determined that phyA can act independently of FHY1 in regulating phyA-specific target genes. Furthermore, we determined that the independent FHY1 nuclear pathway is involved in crucial aspects of plant development, as in the case of inhibited seed germination under FR during salt stress. Notably, the differential presence of cis-elements and transcription factors in common and unique FHY1- and/or phyA-associated genes are indicative of the complexity of the independent and coordinated FHY1 and phyA pathways. Our study uncovers previously unidentified aspects of FHY1 function beyond its currently recognized role in phyA-dependent photomorphogenesis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2014; 111(32). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1412528111 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CSN5 is a subunit of the COP9 Signalosome (CSN) and carries the metallo-protease catalytic center for the complex. This highly conserved gene has been a subject of intense research in part because human Csn5 (Jab1) has been tightly linked to cancer. We briefly summarize recent research advances on the structure and mechanisms of the CSN in general, and then focus on the Arabidopsis CSN5 genes and their products, AtCSN5A and AtCSN5B. We also briefly discuss CSN6 genes, which are closely related share many similarities to CSN5. CSN5 and CSN6 genes are duplicated in mustard family of plants as well as in several plant species that have no phylogenetic correlation. Sequence homology comparison further suggests that at least some of the duplication events occurred independently. We review and analyze the phenotypic and expression differences of the two CSN5 genes in Arabidopsis, and suggest that they play overlapping as well as specialized roles in plant development. Arabidopsis CSN5 protein sequences are more similar to those of complex organisms such as humans than to yeasts and unicellular alga, suggesting that the structure and mechanism of Arabidopsis CSN5 likely resembles more to those of human than to yeast. We argue that possession of two different isoforms of CSN5s gives Arabidopsis a unique advantage as a genetic model of CSN5 to dissect the multifaceted functions and mechanistic versatilities of this important cellular regulator.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The far-red light (FR) photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) contains no DNA binding domain but associates with the CHALCONE SYNTHASE promoter through its chaperone FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 and transcription factors. Here, we performed a genome-wide identification of phyA targets using a combination of phyA chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA sequencing methods in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results indicate that phyA signaling widely affects gene promoters involved in multiple FR-modulated aspects of plant growth. Furthermore, we observed an enrichment of hormone- and stress-responsive elements in the phyA direct target promoters, indicating that a much broader than expected range of transcription factors is involved in the phyA signaling pathway. To verify our hypothesis that phyA regulates genes other than light-responsive ones through the interaction with corresponding transcription factors, we examined the action of phyA on one of its direct target genes, NAC019, which encodes an abscisic acid-dependent transcription factor. The phyA signaling cascade not only targets two G-boxes on the NAC019 promoter for subsequent transcriptional regulation but also positively coordinates with the abscisic acid signaling response for root elongation inhibition under FR. Our study provides new insight into how plants rapidly fine-tune their growth strategy upon changes in the light environment by escorting photoreceptors to the promoters of hormone- or stress-responsive genes for individualized modulation.
The Plant Cell 05/2014; 26(5). DOI:10.1105/tpc.114.123950 · 9.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Populus euphratica, a typical hydro-halophyte, is ideal for studying salt stress responses in woody plants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that fulfilled an important post-transcriptional regulatory function. MiRNA may regulate tolerance to salt stress but this has not been widely studied in P. euphratica. In this investigation, the small RNAome, degradome and transcriptome were studied in salt stress treated P. euphratica by deep sequencing. Two hundred and eleven conserved miRNAs between Populus trichocarpa and P. euphratica have been found. In addition, 162 new miRNAs, belonging to 93 families, were identified in P. euphratica. Degradome sequencing experimentally verified 112 targets that belonged to 51 identified miRNAs, few of which were known previously in P. euphratica. Transcriptome profiling showed that expression of 15 miRNA-target pairs displayed reverse changing pattern under salt stress. Together, these results indicate that, in P. euphratica under salt stress, a large number of new miRNAs could be discovered, and both known and new miRNA were functionally cleaving to their target mRNA. Expression of miRNA and target were correspondingly induced by salt stress but that it was a complex process in P. euphratica.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 (FHY3) and its homolog FAR-RED IMPAIRED RESPONSE1 (FAR1), two transposase-derived transcription factors, are key components in phytochrome A signaling and the circadian clock. Here, we use chromatin immunoprecipitation-based sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify 1559 and 1009 FHY3 direct target genes in darkness (D) and far-red (FR) light conditions, respectively, in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. FHY3 preferentially binds to promoters through the FHY3/FAR1 binding motif (CACGCGC). Interestingly, FHY3 also binds to two motifs in the 178-bp Arabidopsis centromeric repeats. Comparison between the ChIP-seq and microarray data indicates that FHY3 quickly regulates the expression of 197 and 86 genes in D and FR, respectively. FHY3 also coregulates a number of common target genes with PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3-LIKE5 and ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5. Moreover, we uncover a role for FHY3 in controlling chloroplast development by directly activating the expression of ACCUMULATION AND REPLICATION OF CHLOROPLASTS5, whose product is a structural component of the latter stages of chloroplast division in Arabidopsis. Taken together, our data suggest that FHY3 regulates multiple facets of plant development, thus providing insights into its functions beyond light and circadian pathways.
The Plant Cell 07/2011; 23(7):2514-35. DOI:10.1105/tpc.111.085126 · 9.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that play essential roles in plant growth, development, and stress response. Populus euphratica is a typical abiotic stress-resistant woody species. This study presents an efficient method for genome-wide discovery of new drought stress responsive miRNAs in P. euphratica. High-throughput sequencing of P. euphratica leaves found 197 conserved miRNAs between P. euphratica and Populus trichocarpa. Meanwhile, 58 new miRNAs belonging to 38 families were identified, an increase in the number of P. euphratica miRNAs. Twenty-six new and 21 conserved miRNA targets were verified by degradome sequencing, and target annotation showed that these targets were involved in multiple biological processes, including transcriptional regulation and response to stimulus. Furthermore, comparison of high-throughput sequencing with miRNA microarray profiling data indicated that 104 miRNA sequences were up-regulated, whereas 27 were down-regulated under drought stress. This preliminary characterization provides a framework for future analysis of miRNA genes and their roles in key poplar traits such as stress resistance, and could be useful for plant breeding and environmental protection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Populus euphratica is an ideal model system for research into the abiotic stress resistance research of woody plants. Although microRNAs have been found in poplars and have been shown to have diverse biological functions, a majority of them are genus- or specie-specific and few microRNAs have been found in P. euphratica to date. In this study, microRNA cloning and computational expressed sequence tag analysis were used to identify 72 putative miRNA sequences in P. euphratica. These sequences could be classified into 21 families, 12 of which were novel, increasing the number of known poplar microRNA families from 42 to 54. Expression analysis indicated that five P. euphratica microRNAs were induced by dehydration stress. Bioinformatics prediction showed that the 130 target genes are involved in development, resistance to stress, and other cellular processes. These results suggest several roles for miRNAs in the regulatory networks associated with the abiotic stress resistance of tree species.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2009; 388(2):272-7. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.07.161 · 2.30 Impact Factor