ABSTRACT: Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Metastatic or locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (SCCP) is generally incurable, but it can be palliated with systemic chemotherapy. Two retrospective studies, involving <10 patients each, showed that cisplatin plus continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) may be effective and well tolerated. Cisplatin, methotrexate and bleomycin, cisplatin and irinotecan and taxanes can also play an important role for patients with locally advanced/metastatic SCCP. Finally, anti-EGFR therapy may also be effective in advanced SCCP. Although cisplatin plus continuous infusion of 5-FU is widely used in clinical practice for palliation of SCCP, toxicity and efficacy data regarding this schedule include a total of 14 patients with SCCP, treated more than two decades ago. In our retrospective study, cisplatin plus continuous infusion of 5-FU was used for palliative purposes in a homogenous sample of 25 patients with SCCP. Partial responses and stable disease were observed in 8 (32%) and 10 (40%) patients, respectively, with a median progression-free survival of 20 weeks. Neutropenia was the most important grade 3-4 side effect observed, occurring in 20% of patients. These data provide confirmation that such a combination regimen is moderately effective and well tolerated in patients with SCCP. OBJECTIVE: • To investigate the activity and toxicity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as a first-line treatment in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (SCCP). METHODS: • The medical records of 78 patients with SCCP treated between January 2000 and June 2011 at the four participating centres were reviewed. • Data regarding patients treated with first-line 5-FU were extracted. • Patients were included in the study if radiological reports were available for determination of response and progression-free survival (PFS) according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST) 1.1. RESULTS: • Between January 2000 and June 2011, 25 patients were treated with i.v. cisplatin on day 1 followed by 5-FU as a continuous 24-h infusion for 4 days every 3 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Partial responses and stable disease were observed in eight (32%) and 10 (40%) patients, respectively, with a disease control rate of 72%. • Severe neutropenia was the most important grade 3-4 side effect observed, occurring in 20% of patients. • The median (interquartile range [IQR]) PFS was 20 (11-20) weeks and the median (IQR) overall survival (OS) was 8 (7-12) months. CONCLUSION: • 5-FU is associated with a moderate response rate and is well tolerated in patients with metastatic SCCP.
BJU International 09/2012; · 2.84 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To determine the activity and tolerability of docetaxel re-treatment after first-line therapy with docetaxel in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
Between November 2005 and January 2009, 45 patients initially responding to docetaxel and then experiencing disease progression after a period of biochemical remission of at least 5 months were enrolled in a prospective multicenter study and re-treated with docetaxel. The primary endpoint was the biochemical response (biochemical partial response defined as > 50% prostate-specific antigen [PSA] decline); secondary endpoints were objective response, toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
Partial PSA responses were observed in 11 patients (24.5%), 4 (25%) of whom also had an objective response. The treatment was well tolerated, with grade 1-2 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, vomiting and peripheral neuropathy noted in 18 (40%), 11 (24.5%), 8 (17.8%), and 6 (13.3%) patients, respectively. The most common grade 3 toxicity was neutropenia, which was observed in 8 patients (17.8%). Median PFS was 5 months and median OS was 13 months.
Docetaxel re-treatment preserves anti-tumour activity and is well tolerated in a selected population of pretreated patients with CRPC. Further randomized trials are needed to confirm our preliminary results.
BJU International 01/2011; 107(2):234-9. · 2.84 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Sunitinib and everolimus have been approved for first- and second-line treatment, respectively, in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The role of sorafenib, which is approved for second-line treatment after cytokines failure, is presently to be defined.
To determine whether third-line sorafenib after sequential use of sunitinib and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (everolimus or temsirolimus) is feasible and effective.
One hundred fifty medical records of patients with mRCC treated with first-line sunitinib between January 2006 and January 2010 were reviewed at four participating centers. Data regarding patients treated with the sequence sunitinib-everolimus or temsirolimus-sorafenib were extracted. Central analysis of radiographic images was performed using RECIST criteria to determine progression-free survival (PFS) and overall response rate (oRR) to sorafenib treatment.
PFS and oRR to sorafenib were the primary end points. Secondary outcomes were safety and overall survival (OS).
Thirty-four patients were eligible for the study. A median PFS of 4 mo (range: 3-6 mo) and a median OS of 7 mo since sorafenib treatment (range: 6-10 mo) were reported. Of the patients, 23.5% showed response to sorafenib, with an overall disease control rate (complete responses plus partial responses plus stable disease) of 44%. Selection bias, data incompleteness, and absence of study design are inevitable limitations of the study, although central review can strengthen the quality of presented data.
Third-line sorafenib appears to be active and well tolerated in mRCC after first-line sunitinib and second-line everolimus or temsirolimus, with no patients interrupting sorafenib because of toxicity or lack of compliance. Prospective, placebo-controlled trials are completely lacking and are required in this setting.
European urology 09/2010; 58(6):906-11. · 7.67 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: No previous prospective trials have been reported with sorafenib in patients with sunitinib-refractory metastatic renal cell cancer (MRCC). We conducted a multicenter study to determine the activity and tolerability of sorafenib as second-line therapy after sunitinib progression in MRCC.
Between January 2006 and September 2008, 52 patients were enrolled onto this single-arm phase II study. All patients received sorafenib 400 mg orally twice a day until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. The primary end point was objective response rate (complete or partial response) evaluated every 8 weeks by use of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors; secondary end points were toxicity, time to progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS).
All patients were included in response and safety analyses. Partial responses were observed in 9.6% of patients (five of 52 patients; 95% CI, 5% to 17%) after two cycles. Grade 1 to 2 fatigue, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, rash, and neutropenia were the most common side effects, noted in 16 (30.8%), 19 (36.5%), 20 (38.5%), 19 (36.5%), and 20 patients (38.5%), respectively. The most common grade 3 toxicity was diarrhea, noted in six patients (11.5%). Median TTP was 16 weeks (range, 8 to 40 weeks), and median OS was 32 weeks (range, 16 to 64 weeks).
Although well tolerated, sorafenib shows limited efficacy in sunitinib-refractory MRCC. Further randomized trials comparing sorafenib with other drugs that target different biologic pathways are needed to define the best second-line treatment option in these patients.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2009; 27(27):4469-74. · 18.37 Impact Factor