[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) proteins are traditionally considered intracellular antiviral proteins that mediate antiviral activity through the synthesis of 2'-5'-linked oligoadenylates and subsequent activation of the endoribonuclease RNase L. However, we have recently demonstrated that exogenous recombinant OAS1 is taken up by cells and reduces viral replication both in cell culture and in vivo, independent of RNase L. These results demonstrate a novel paracrine antiviral activity of OAS working in parallel with the classical RNase L pathway. In this study, we investigate the uptake kinetics of recombinant porcine OAS1 and show that it is rapidly and efficiently internalized in a manner that can be blocked by heparin. Heparin, furthermore, abolishes the antiviral activity of OAS1, demonstrating the requirement of the intracellular localization of OAS1 to inhibit the virus. In addition, we demonstrate that exogenous OAS1 affects an early step of the viral replication cycle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) family of proteins are antiviral restriction factors that target a wide range of RNA and DNA viruses. They function as intracellular double stranded RNA (dsRNA) sensors that upon binding to dsRNA undergo a conformational change and are activated to synthesize 2'-5' linked oligoadenylates (2-5A). 2-5As of sufficient length act as second messengers to activate RNase L and thereby restrict viral replication. We expressed human OAS3 using the baculovirus system and purified it to homogeneity. We show that recombinant OAS3 is activated at a substantially lower concentration of dsRNA compared to OAS1, making it a potent in vivo sensor of dsRNA. Moreover, we find that OAS3 synthesizes considerably longer 2-5As than previously reported and that OAS3 can activate RNase L intracellularly. The combined high affinity for dsRNA and the capability to produce 2-5As of sufficient length to activate RNase L suggests that OAS3 is a potent activator of RNase L. In addition, we provide experimental evidence to support one active site of OAS3 located in the C-terminal OAS domain and generate a low resolution structure of OAS3 using SAXS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to climate change and the propagation of competent arthropods worldwide, arboviruses have become pathogens of major medical importance. Early transmission to vertebrates is initiated by skin puncture and deposition of virus together with arthropod saliva in the epidermis and dermis. Saliva components have the capacity to modulate skin cell responses by enhancing and/or counteracting initial replication and establishment of systemic viral infection. Here, we review the nature of the cells targeted by arboviruses at the skin level and discuss the type of cellular responses elicited by these pathogens in light of the immunomodulatory properties of arthropod vector-derived salivary factors injected at the inoculation site. Understanding cutaneous arbovirus–host interactions may provide new clues for the design of future therapeutics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RNA viruses are responsible for major human diseases such as flu, bronchitis, dengue, Hepatitis C or measles. They also represent an emerging threat because of increased worldwide exchanges and human populations penetrating more and more natural ecosystems. A good example of such an emerging situation is chikungunya virus epidemics of 2005-2006 in the Indian Ocean. Recent progresses in our understanding of cellular pathways controlling viral replication suggest that compounds targeting host cell functions, rather than the virus itself, could inhibit a large panel of RNA viruses. Some broad-spectrum antiviral compounds have been identified with host target-oriented assays. However, measuring the inhibition of viral replication in cell cultures using reduction of cytopathic effects as a readout still represents a paramount screening strategy. Such functional screens have been greatly improved by the development of recombinant viruses expressing reporter enzymes capable of bioluminescence such as luciferase. In the present report, we detail a high-throughput screening pipeline, which combines recombinant measles and chikungunya viruses with cellular viability assays, to identify compounds with a broad-spectrum antiviral profile.
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE. 01/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Searching for stimulators of the innate antiviral response is an appealing approach to develop novel therapeutics against viral infections. Here, we established a cell-based reporter assay to identify compounds stimulating expression of interferon-inducible antiviral genes. DD264 was selected out of 41,353 compounds for both its immuno-stimulatory and antiviral properties. While searching for its mode of action, we identified DD264 as an inhibitor of pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. This metabolic pathway was recently identified as a prime target of broad-spectrum antiviral molecules, but our data unraveled a yet unsuspected link with innate immunity. Indeed, we showed that DD264 or brequinar, a well-known inhibitor of pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway, both enhanced the expression of antiviral genes in human cells. Furthermore, antiviral activity of DD264 or brequinar was found strictly dependent on cellular gene transcription, nuclear export machinery, and required IRF1 transcription factor. In conclusion, the antiviral property of pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors is not a direct consequence of pyrimidine deprivation on the virus machinery, but rather involves the induction of cellular immune response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 58-year-old woman living in Reunion Island and returning from Madagascar was hospitalized for neuroinvasive encephalitis and died 1 month later. West Nile virus (WNV) infection was biologically confirmed by detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactive with WNV antigens in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and weak neutralizing activity was also detected. A veterinary survey performed in her traveling area showed a seroprevalence of WNV of 28.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1-36.3) in adult poultry, confirming an active circulation of the virus. Development of a severe form could be related to a weak antibody response, because the patient presented low IgM and IgG titers. This case report underlines the constant risk of emergence of West Nile in Indian Ocean territories, including Reunion Island where competent vectors are widely present during the whole year.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 06/2013; · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, recently reemerged in the Indian Ocean, India and Southeast Asia, causing millions of cases of severe polyarthralgia. No specific treatment to prevent disease or vaccine to limit epidemics is currently available. Here we describe a recombinant live-attenuated measles vaccine (MV) expressing CHIKV virus-like particles comprising capsid and envelope structural proteins from the recent CHIKV strain La Reunion. Immunization of mice susceptible to measles virus induced high titers of CHIKV antibodies that neutralized several primary isolates. Specific cellular immune responses were also elicited. A single immunization with this vaccine candidate protected all mice from a lethal CHIKV challenge, and passive transfer of immune sera conferred protection to naïve mice. Measles vaccine is one of the safest and most effective human vaccines. A recombinant MV-CHIKV virus could make a safe and effective vaccine against chikungunya that deserves to be further tested in human trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue displays a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations that may vary from asymptomatic to severe and even fatal features. Plasma leakage/hemorrhages can be caused by a cytokine storm induced by monocytes and dendritic cells during dengue virus (DENV) replication. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are innate immune cells and in response to virus exposure secrete IFN-α and express membrane TRAIL (mTRAIL). We aimed to characterize pDC activation in dengue patients and their function under DENV-2 stimulation in vitro. METHODS FINDINGS: Flow cytometry analysis (FCA) revealed that pDCs of mild dengue patients exhibit significantly higher frequencies of mTRAIL compared to severe cases or healthy controls. Plasma levels of IFN-α and soluble TRAIL are increased in mild compared to severe dengue patients, positively correlating with pDC activation. FCA experiments showed that in vitro exposure to DENV-2 induced mTRAIL expression on pDC. Furthermore, three dimension microscopy highlighted that TRAIL was relocalized from intracellular compartment to plasma membrane. Chloroquine treatment inhibited DENV-2-induced mTRAIL relocalization and IFN-α production by pDC. Endosomal viral degradation blockade by chloroquine allowed viral antigens detection inside pDCs. All those data are in favor of endocytosis pathway activation by DENV-2 in pDC. Coculture of pDC/DENV-2-infected monocytes revealed a dramatic decrease of antigen detection by FCA. This viral antigens reduction in monocytes was also observed after exogenous IFN-α treatment. Thus, pDC effect on viral load reduction was mainly dependent on IFN-α production.
This investigation characterizes, during DENV-2 infection, activation of pDCs in vivo and their antiviral role in vitro. Thus, we propose TRAIL-expressing pDCs may have an important role in the outcome of disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the genomic features and the taxonomic classification of Sebokele virus 1 (SEBV1), a previously unclassified arbovirus isolated in 1972 from rodents collected in Botambi, Central African Republic. The complete genome sequence was obtained using a deep sequencing approach (Illumina technology) and dedicated bioinformatics workflows for data analysis. Molecular analysis identified SEBV1 as a picornavirus, most closely related to Ljungan viruses of the genus Parechovirus. The genome has a typical Ljungan virus-like organization, including the presence of two unrelated 2A protein motifs. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that SEBV1 belongs to the parechovirus phylogroup and was most closely related to the Ljungan virus species. However, it appeared clearly distinct from all members of this phylogroup, suggesting that it represents a novel species of the genus Parechovirus.
Journal of General Virology 04/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retrospective studies and surveillance on humans and animals revealed that Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) has been circulating on Mayotte for at least several years. A study was conducted in 2011 to estimate the seroprevalence of RVF in humans and in animals and to identify associated risk factors. Using a multistage cluster sampling method, 1420 individuals were enrolled in the human study, including 337 children aged 5 to 14 years. For the animal study, 198 seronegative ruminants from 33 randomly selected sentinel ruminant herds were followed up for more than one year. In both studies, information on environment and risk factors was collected through a standardized questionnaire. The overall weighted seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the general population aged ≥5 years was 3.5% (95% CI 2.6-4.8). The overall seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the ruminant population was 25.3% (95% CI 19.8-32.2). Age (≥15), gender (men), place of birth on the Comoros, living in Mayotte since less than 5 years, low educational level, farming and living close to a water source were significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in humans. Major risk factors for RFV infection in animals were the proximity of the farm to a water point, previous two-month rainfall and absence of abortions disposal. Although resulting in few clinical cases in humans and in animals, RVFV has been circulating actively on the island of Mayotte, in a context of regular import of the virus from nearby countries through illegal animal movements, the presence of susceptible animals and a favorable environment for mosquito vectors to maintain virus transmission locally. Humans and animals share the same ways of RVFV transmission, with mosquitoes playing an important role. The studies emphasize the need for a one health approach in which humans and animals within their ecosystems are included.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74192. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Resequencing DNA microarray (RMA) technology uses probes designed to identify a panel of viral sequences. It can be used for detecting emerging viruses by revealing the nucleotide polymorphisms within the target of interest. OBJECTIVES/STUDY DESIGN: As a new tool for molecular diagnosis of arbovirus infection, high density PathogenID v2.0 RMA (PID2-RMA) was assessed for the detection and genetic analysis of dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya viruses in spiked blood samples or sera from individuals infected with dengue virus. Viral RNAs extracted from biological samples were retrotranscribed into cDNA and amplified using the Phi 29 polymerase-based method. This amplified cDNA was used for hybridization on PID2-RMA. RESULTS: A good specificity of RMA-based detection was demonstrated using a panel of arboviruses including Dengue, West Nile and Chikungunya viruses. This technology was also efficient for the detection and genetic analysis of the different serotypes of dengue virus in sera of infected patients. Furthermore, the mixing of dengue, West Nile and Chikungunya prototype viruses within a single sample of human blood did not interfere with the sensitivity of PID2-RMA. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that high density PID2-RMA was suitable for the identification of medically important arboviruses. It appears to be particularly adapted to the genetic analysis of dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya viruses in urgent clinical situations where the rapid identification and characterization of the pathogen is essential.
Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 12/2012; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several haemorrhagic fevers are caused by highly pathogenic viruses that must be handled in Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment. These zoonotic infections have an important impact on public health and the development of a rapid and differential diagnosis in case of outbreak in risk areas represents a critical priority. We have demonstrated the potential of a DNA resequencing microarray (PathogenID v2.0) for this purpose. The microarray was first validated in vitro using supernatants of cells infected with prototype strains from five different families of BSL-4 viruses (e.g. families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae and Paramyxoviridae). RNA was amplified based on isothermal amplification by Phi29 polymerase before hybridization. We were able to detect and characterize Nipah virus and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in the brains of experimentally infected animals. CCHFV was finally used as a paradigm for epidemics because of recent outbreaks in Turkey, Kosovo and Iran. Viral variants present in human sera were characterized by BLASTN analysis. Sensitivity was estimated to be 10(5) -10(6) PFU/mL of hybridized cDNA. Detection specificity was limited to viral sequences having ∼13-14% of global divergence with the tiled sequence, or stretches of ∼20 identical nucleotides. These results highlight the benefits of using the PathogenID v2.0 resequencing microarray to characterize geographical variants in the follow-up of haemorrhagic fever epidemics; to manage patients and protect communities; and in cases of bioterrorism.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 10/2012; · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infectious clones of West Nile virus (WNV) have previously been generated and used to decipher the role of viral proteins in WNV virulence. The majority of molecular clones obtained to date have been derived from North American, Australian, or African isolates. Here, we describe the construction of an infectious cDNA clone of a Mediterranean WNV strain, IS-98-ST1. We characterized the biological properties of the recovered recombinant virus in cell culture and in mice. The growth kinetics of recombinant and parental WNV were similar in Vero cells. Moreover, the phenotype of recombinant and parental WNV was indistinguishable as regards viremia, viral load in the brain, and mortality in susceptible and resistant mice. Finally, the pathobiology of the infectious clone was examined in embryonated chicken eggs. The capacity of different WNV strains to replicate in embryonated chicken eggs closely paralleled their ability to replicate in mice, suggesting that inoculation of embryonated chicken eggs could provide a practical in vivo model for the study of WNV pathogenesis. In conclusion, the IS-98-ST1 infectious clone will allow assessment of the impact of selected mutations and novel genomic changes appearing in emerging European strains pathogenicity and endemic or epidemic potential. This will be invaluable in the context of an increasing number of outbreaks and enhanced severity of infections in the Mediterranean basin and Eastern Europe.
PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e47666. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted pathogen responsible for an acute infection of abrupt onset, characterized by high fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia, headaches, chills, and rash. In 2006, CHIKV was responsible for an epidemic outbreak of unprecedented magnitude in the Indian Ocean, stressing the need for therapeutic approaches. Since then, we have acquired a better understanding of CHIKV biology, but we are still missing active molecules against this reemerging pathogen. We recently reported that the nonstructural nsP2 protein of CHIKV induces a transcriptional shutoff that allows the virus to block cellular antiviral response. This was demonstrated using various luciferase-based reporter gene assays, including a trans-reporter system where Gal4 DNA binding domain is fused to Fos transcription factor. Here, we turned this assay into a high-throughput screening system to identify small molecules targeting nsP2-mediated shutoff. Among 3040 molecules tested, we identified one natural compound that partially blocks nsP2 activity and inhibits CHIKV replication in vitro. This proof of concept suggests that similar functional assays could be developed to target other viral proteins mediating a cellular shutoff and identify innovative therapeutic molecules.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening 09/2012; · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 3 (OAS3) exerts antiviral effect against alphaviruses including Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) by inhibiting viral RNA accumulation. Here, we identified a CHIKV variant exhibiting a remarkable resistance to the antiviral action of OAS3 in human epithelial HeLa cells. Using a molecular clone of CHIKV with Renilla luciferase inserted as a reporter gene in the non-structural region, we demonstrated that a single glutamine-to-lysine amino acid change at position 166 of the envelope E2 glycoprotein restores CHIKV replication in OAS3 expressing HeLa cells. Viral entry assays showed that CHIKV with a lysine at position E2-166 was more efficient at entering the replicative pathway. The E2-E166K substitution promotes a greater efficiency of CHIKV replication in human myoblasts leading to severe apoptosis through a more robust activation of the PKR pathway. These observations provide a new insight into the role of E2 into the pathogenicity of CHIKV in human cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in North America and caused numerous cases of human encephalitis, thus urging the development of a vaccine. We previously demonstrated the efficacy of a recombinant measles vaccine (MV) expressing the secreted form of the envelope glycoprotein from WNV to prevent WNV encephalitis in mice. In the present study, we investigated the capacity of this vaccine candidate to control WNV infection in a primate model. We first established experimental WNV infection of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). A high titer of virus was detected in plasma on day 2 after infection, and viremia persisted for 5 days. A single immunization of recombinant MV-WNV vaccine elicited anti-WNV neutralizing antibodies that strongly reduced WNV viremia at challenge. This study demonstrates for the first time the capacity of a recombinant live attenuated measles vector to protect nonhuman primates from a heterologous infectious challenge.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/2012; 206(2):212-9. · 5.85 Impact Factor