Philippe Desprès

University of La Réunion, Saint-Denis, Réunion, Reunion

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Publications (103)471.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Arboviruses represent an emerging threat to human. They are transmitted to vertebrates by the bite of infected arthropods. Early transmission to vertebrates is initiated by skin puncture and deposition of virus in this organ. However, events at the bite site remain largely unknown. Here, we report that Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV), despite belonging to distinct viral families, elicit a common antiviral signature in primary human dermal fibroblasts, attesting for the up regulation of interferon signalling pathways and leading to an increased expression of IFN-β, interleukins and chemokines. Remarkably, CHIKV and WNV enhance IL-1β expression and induce maturation of caspase-1, indicating the capacity of these pathogens to elicit activation of the inflammasome program in resident skin cells. CHIKV and WNV also induce the expression of the inflammasome sensor AIM2 in dermal fibroblasts, whereas inhibition of caspase-1 and AIM2 with siRNA interferes with both CHIKV- and WNV-induced IL-1β production by these cells. Finally, inhibition of the inflammasome via caspase-1 silencing was found to enhance CHIKV replication in dermal fibroblasts. Together, these results indicate that the skin contributes to the pro-inflammatory and anti-viral microenvironment via the activation of the inflammasome in the early stages following infection with arboviruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 04/2015; 32. DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2015.03.025 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) can be separated into 5 genotypes (g1 to g5) based on sequence similarity. JEV g5 strains have been rarely isolated, and are poorly characterized. We report here the full characterization of a g5 virus generated using a cDNA-based technology, and its comparison with a widely studied g3 strain. We did not observe any major differences between those viruses when their infectious cycles was studied in various cell linesin vitro. Interestingly, the JEV g5 strain was highly pathogenic when inoculated to BALB/c mice, which are known to be largely resistant to JEV g3 infection. The study of chimeric viruses between JEV g3 and g5 showed that there was a poor viral clearance ofviruses that express JEV g5 structural proteins in BALB/c mice blood, that correlated with viral invasion of the central nervous system, and encephalitis. In addition, using an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier, we were able to show that JEV g5 does not have an enhanced capacity at entering the central nervous system, when compared to JEV g3. Overall,in addition to providing a first characterization of the understudied JEV g5, our work highlights the importance of sustaining an early viremia inthe development of JEV encephalitis. Genotype 5 viruses are genetically and serologically distinct from other JEV genotypes and can been associated with human encephalitis, which warrants the need for their characterization. In this study, we characterized the in vitro and in vivo properties of a JEV g5 strain, and showed that it was more neuropathogenic in a mouse model than a well-characterized JEV g3 strain. The enhanced virulence of JEV g5 was associated with poor viral clearance but not with enhanced crossing of the blood-brain barrier, thus providing new insights into JEV pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Journal of Virology 03/2015; 89(11). DOI:10.1128/JVI.00358-15 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) represent a rare immune cell type, they are the most important source of type I interferons (IFNs) upon viral infection. Phagocytosed RNA viruses and RNA virus-infected cells are detected by pDCs with the endosomal pattern recognition receptor (PRR) toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). We showed that replication of the yellow fever live vaccine YF-17D in human pDCs and pDC-like cell lines stimulated type I IFN production through RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I), a member of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family of cytosolic PRRs. Thus, human pDCs sense replicative viral RNA. In contrast, direct contact between pDCs and YF-17D-infected cells stimulated a TLR7-dependent, viral replication-independent production of type I IFN. We also showed that the RLR pathway was dampened by the activities of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases 1 and 4 (IRAK1 and IRAK4), which are downstream effectors of the TLR7 pathway, suggesting that both kinases play opposing roles downstream of specific PRRs. Together, these data suggest that a virus can stimulate either TLR or RLR signaling in the same cell, depending on how its nucleic acid content is delivered. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Science Signaling 03/2015; 8(366):ra25. DOI:10.1126/scisignal.aaa1552 · 7.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) represent a rare immune cell type, they are the most important source of type I interferons (IFNs) upon viral infection. Phagocytosed RNA viruses and RNA virus–infected cells are detected by pDCs with the endosomal pattern recognition receptor (PRR) toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). We showed that replication of the yellow fever live vaccine YF-17D in human pDCs and pDC-like cell lines stimulated type I IFN production through RIG-I (retinoic acid–inducible gene I), a member of the RIG-I–like receptor (RLR) family of cytosolic PRRs. Thus, human pDCs sense replicative viral RNA. In contrast, direct contact between pDCs and YF-17D–infected cells stimulated a TLR7-dependent, viral replication–independent production of type I IFN. We also showed that the RLR pathway was dampened by the activities of interleukin-1 receptor–associated kinases 1 and 4 (IRAK1 and IRAK4), which are downstream effectors of the TLR7 pathway, suggesting that both kinases play opposing roles downstream of specific PRRs. Together, these data suggest that a virus can stimulate either TLR or RLR signaling in the same cell, depending on how its nucleic acid content is delivered.
    Science Signaling 03/2015; · 7.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chikungunya is an emerging arthropod-borne disease that has spread from tropical endemic areas to more temperate climates of the USA and Europe. However, no specific treatment or preventive measure is yet available. We aimed to investigate the immunogenicity and safety of a live recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine. We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, phase 1, dose-escalation study at one centre in Vienna, Austria. Healthy men and women aged 18-45 years with no comorbidities were randomly assigned, by computer-generated block randomisation (block size of 14), to receive either one of three escalating doses of the measles-virus-based candidate vaccine (low dose [1·5 × 10(4) median tissue culture infection doses (TCID50) per 0·05 mL], medium dose [7·5 × 10(4) TCID50 per 0·25 mL], or high dose [3·0 × 10(5) TCID50 per 1·0 mL]), or the active comparator-Priorix. Participants were additionally block-randomised to receive a booster injection on either day 28 or day 90 after the first vaccination. Participants and study investigators were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was the presence of neutralising anti-chikungunya antibodies on day 28, as assessed by 50% plaque reduction neutralisation test. Analysis was by intention to treat and per protocol. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2013-001084-23. Between Nov 22, 2013, and Feb 25, 2014, we randomly assigned 42 participants to receive the low dose (n=12), the medium dose (n=12), or the high dose (n=12) of the measles-virus-based candidate vaccine, or Priorix (n=6), of whom 36 participants (86%; n=9, n=12, n=10, n=5, respectively) were included in the per-protocol population. The candidate vaccine raised neutralising antibodies in all dose cohorts after one immunisation, with seroconversion rates of 44% (n=4) in the low-dose group, 92% (n=11) in the medium-dose group, and 90% (n=10) in the high-dose group. The immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine was not affected by pre-existing anti-measles immunity. The second vaccination resulted in a 100% seroconversion for all participants in the candidate vaccine groups. The candidate vaccine had an overall good safety profile, and the rate of adverse events increased with vaccine dose and volume. No vaccination-related serious adverse events were recorded. The live recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine had good immunogenicity, even in the presence of anti-vector immunity, was safe, and had a generally acceptable tolerability profile. This vaccine is the first promising measles-virus-based candidate vaccine for use in human beings. Themis Bioscience GmBH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 02/2015; 15(5). DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(15)70043-5 · 19.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue disease is caused by four different flavivirus serotypes, which infect 390 million people yearly with 25% symptomatic cases and for which no licensed vaccine is available. Recent phase III vaccine trials showed partial protection, and in particular no protection for dengue virus serotype 2 (refs 3, 4). Structural studies so far have characterized only epitopes recognized by serotype-specific human antibodies. We recently isolated human antibodies potently neutralizing all four dengue virus serotypes. Here we describe the X-ray structures of four of these broadly neutralizing antibodies in complex with the envelope glycoprotein E from dengue virus serotype 2, revealing that the recognition determinants are at a serotype-invariant site at the E-dimer interface, including the exposed main chain of the E fusion loop and the two conserved glycan chains. This 'E-dimer-dependent epitope' is also the binding site for the viral glycoprotein prM during virus maturation in the secretory pathway of the infected cell, explaining its conservation across serotypes and highlighting an Achilles' heel of the virus with respect to antibody neutralization. These findings will be instrumental for devising novel immunogens to protect simultaneously against all four serotypes of dengue virus.
    Nature 01/2015; 520(7545). DOI:10.1038/nature14130 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) proteins are traditionally considered intracellular antiviral proteins that mediate antiviral activity through the synthesis of 2'-5'-linked oligoadenylates and subsequent activation of the endoribonuclease RNase L. However, we have recently demonstrated that exogenous recombinant OAS1 is taken up by cells and reduces viral replication both in cell culture and in vivo, independent of RNase L. These results demonstrate a novel paracrine antiviral activity of OAS working in parallel with the classical RNase L pathway. In this study, we investigate the uptake kinetics of recombinant porcine OAS1 and show that it is rapidly and efficiently internalized in a manner that can be blocked by heparin. Heparin, furthermore, abolishes the antiviral activity of OAS1, demonstrating the requirement of the intracellular localization of OAS1 to inhibit the virus. In addition, we demonstrate that exogenous OAS1 affects an early step of the viral replication cycle.
    Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research 12/2014; 35(5). DOI:10.1089/jir.2014.0140 · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to humans is initiated by puncture of the skin by a blood-feeding Aedes mosquito. Despite the growing knowledge accumulated on CHIKV, the interplay between skin cells and CHIKV following inoculation still remains unclear. In this study we questioned the behavior of human keratinocytes, the predominant cell population in the skin, following viral challenge. We report that CHIKV rapidly elicits an innate immune response in these cells leading to the enhanced transcription of type I/II and type III interferon genes. Concomitantly, we show that despite viral particles internalization into Rab5-positive endosomes and efficient fusion of virus and cell membranes, keratinocytes poorly replicate CHIKV as attested by absence of nonstructural proteins and genomic RNA synthesis. Accordingly, human keratinocytes behave as an antiviral defense against CHIKV infection rather than as a primary targets for initial replication. This picture significantly differs from that reported for Dengue and West Nile mosquito-borne viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Virology 12/2014; 476C:1-10. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2014.11.013 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) family of proteins are antiviral restriction factors that target a wide range of RNA and DNA viruses. They function as intracellular double stranded RNA (dsRNA) sensors that upon binding to dsRNA undergo a conformational change and are activated to synthesize 2'-5' linked oligoadenylates (2-5A). 2-5As of sufficient length act as second messengers to activate RNase L and thereby restrict viral replication. We expressed human OAS3 using the baculovirus system and purified it to homogeneity. We show that recombinant OAS3 is activated at a substantially lower concentration of dsRNA compared to OAS1, making it a potent in vivo sensor of dsRNA. Moreover, we find that OAS3 synthesizes considerably longer 2-5As than previously reported and that OAS3 can activate RNase L intracellularly. The combined high affinity for dsRNA and the capability to produce 2-5As of sufficient length to activate RNase L suggests that OAS3 is a potent activator of RNase L. In addition, we provide experimental evidence to support one active site of OAS3 located in the C-terminal OAS domain and generate a low resolution structure of OAS3 using SAXS.
    Journal of Virology 10/2014; DOI:10.1128/JVI.01763-14 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to climate change and the propagation of competent arthropods worldwide, arboviruses have become pathogens of major medical importance. Early transmission to vertebrates is initiated by skin puncture and deposition of virus together with arthropod saliva in the epidermis and dermis. Saliva components have the capacity to modulate skin cell responses by enhancing and/or counteracting initial replication and establishment of systemic viral infection. Here, we review the nature of the cells targeted by arboviruses at the skin level and discuss the type of cellular responses elicited by these pathogens in light of the immunomodulatory properties of arthropod vector-derived salivary factors injected at the inoculation site. Understanding cutaneous arbovirus–host interactions may provide new clues for the design of future therapeutics.
    Virology 09/2014; s 464–465:26–32. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2014.06.023 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Desprès P, Belarbi E, Roques P.
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    ABSTRACT: editorial - no abstract
    Virologie 05/2014; 18(2):55-8. DOI:10.1684/vir.2014.0565 · 0.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RNA viruses are responsible for major human diseases such as flu, bronchitis, dengue, Hepatitis C or measles. They also represent an emerging threat because of increased worldwide exchanges and human populations penetrating more and more natural ecosystems. A good example of such an emerging situation is chikungunya virus epidemics of 2005-2006 in the Indian Ocean. Recent progresses in our understanding of cellular pathways controlling viral replication suggest that compounds targeting host cell functions, rather than the virus itself, could inhibit a large panel of RNA viruses. Some broad-spectrum antiviral compounds have been identified with host target-oriented assays. However, measuring the inhibition of viral replication in cell cultures using reduction of cytopathic effects as a readout still represents a paramount screening strategy. Such functional screens have been greatly improved by the development of recombinant viruses expressing reporter enzymes capable of bioluminescence such as luciferase. In the present report, we detail a high-throughput screening pipeline, which combines recombinant measles and chikungunya viruses with cellular viability assays, to identify compounds with a broad-spectrum antiviral profile.
    Journal of Visualized Experiments 01/2014; DOI:10.3791/51222
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    Frédéric Tangy, Philippe Desprès
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 10/2013; DOI:10.1093/infdis/jit551 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Searching for stimulators of the innate antiviral response is an appealing approach to develop novel therapeutics against viral infections. Here, we established a cell-based reporter assay to identify compounds stimulating expression of interferon-inducible antiviral genes. DD264 was selected out of 41,353 compounds for both its immuno-stimulatory and antiviral properties. While searching for its mode of action, we identified DD264 as an inhibitor of pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. This metabolic pathway was recently identified as a prime target of broad-spectrum antiviral molecules, but our data unraveled a yet unsuspected link with innate immunity. Indeed, we showed that DD264 or brequinar, a well-known inhibitor of pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway, both enhanced the expression of antiviral genes in human cells. Furthermore, antiviral activity of DD264 or brequinar was found strictly dependent on cellular gene transcription, nuclear export machinery, and required IRF1 transcription factor. In conclusion, the antiviral property of pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors is not a direct consequence of pyrimidine deprivation on the virus machinery, but rather involves the induction of cellular immune response.
    PLoS Pathogens 10/2013; 9(10):e1003678. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003678 · 8.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retrospective studies and surveillance on humans and animals revealed that Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) has been circulating on Mayotte for at least several years. A study was conducted in 2011 to estimate the seroprevalence of RVF in humans and in animals and to identify associated risk factors. Using a multistage cluster sampling method, 1420 individuals were enrolled in the human study, including 337 children aged 5 to 14 years. For the animal study, 198 seronegative ruminants from 33 randomly selected sentinel ruminant herds were followed up for more than one year. In both studies, information on environment and risk factors was collected through a standardized questionnaire. The overall weighted seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the general population aged ≥5 years was 3.5% (95% CI 2.6-4.8). The overall seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the ruminant population was 25.3% (95% CI 19.8-32.2). Age (≥15), gender (men), place of birth on the Comoros, living in Mayotte since less than 5 years, low educational level, farming and living close to a water source were significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in humans. Major risk factors for RFV infection in animals were the proximity of the farm to a water point, previous two-month rainfall and absence of abortions disposal. Although resulting in few clinical cases in humans and in animals, RVFV has been circulating actively on the island of Mayotte, in a context of regular import of the virus from nearby countries through illegal animal movements, the presence of susceptible animals and a favorable environment for mosquito vectors to maintain virus transmission locally. Humans and animals share the same ways of RVFV transmission, with mosquitoes playing an important role. The studies emphasize the need for a one health approach in which humans and animals within their ecosystems are included.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74192. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0074192 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 58-year-old woman living in Reunion Island and returning from Madagascar was hospitalized for neuroinvasive encephalitis and died 1 month later. West Nile virus (WNV) infection was biologically confirmed by detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactive with WNV antigens in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and weak neutralizing activity was also detected. A veterinary survey performed in her traveling area showed a seroprevalence of WNV of 28.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1-36.3) in adult poultry, confirming an active circulation of the virus. Development of a severe form could be related to a weak antibody response, because the patient presented low IgM and IgG titers. This case report underlines the constant risk of emergence of West Nile in Indian Ocean territories, including Reunion Island where competent vectors are widely present during the whole year.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 06/2013; 89(2). DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.12-0003 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, recently reemerged in the Indian Ocean, India and Southeast Asia, causing millions of cases of severe polyarthralgia. No specific treatment to prevent disease or vaccine to limit epidemics is currently available. Here we describe a recombinant live-attenuated measles vaccine (MV) expressing CHIKV virus-like particles comprising capsid and envelope structural proteins from the recent CHIKV strain La Reunion. Immunization of mice susceptible to measles virus induced high titers of CHIKV antibodies that neutralized several primary isolates. Specific cellular immune responses were also elicited. A single immunization with this vaccine candidate protected all mice from a lethal CHIKV challenge, and passive transfer of immune sera conferred protection to naïve mice. Measles vaccine is one of the safest and most effective human vaccines. A recombinant MV-CHIKV virus could make a safe and effective vaccine against chikungunya that deserves to be further tested in human trials.
    Vaccine 06/2013; 31(36). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.05.086 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue displays a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations that may vary from asymptomatic to severe and even fatal features. Plasma leakage/hemorrhages can be caused by a cytokine storm induced by monocytes and dendritic cells during dengue virus (DENV) replication. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are innate immune cells and in response to virus exposure secrete IFN-α and express membrane TRAIL (mTRAIL). We aimed to characterize pDC activation in dengue patients and their function under DENV-2 stimulation in vitro. METHODS FINDINGS: Flow cytometry analysis (FCA) revealed that pDCs of mild dengue patients exhibit significantly higher frequencies of mTRAIL compared to severe cases or healthy controls. Plasma levels of IFN-α and soluble TRAIL are increased in mild compared to severe dengue patients, positively correlating with pDC activation. FCA experiments showed that in vitro exposure to DENV-2 induced mTRAIL expression on pDC. Furthermore, three dimension microscopy highlighted that TRAIL was relocalized from intracellular compartment to plasma membrane. Chloroquine treatment inhibited DENV-2-induced mTRAIL relocalization and IFN-α production by pDC. Endosomal viral degradation blockade by chloroquine allowed viral antigens detection inside pDCs. All those data are in favor of endocytosis pathway activation by DENV-2 in pDC. Coculture of pDC/DENV-2-infected monocytes revealed a dramatic decrease of antigen detection by FCA. This viral antigens reduction in monocytes was also observed after exogenous IFN-α treatment. Thus, pDC effect on viral load reduction was mainly dependent on IFN-α production. This investigation characterizes, during DENV-2 infection, activation of pDCs in vivo and their antiviral role in vitro. Thus, we propose TRAIL-expressing pDCs may have an important role in the outcome of disease.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 06/2013; 7(6):e2257. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002257 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined the genomic features and the taxonomic classification of Sebokele virus 1 (SEBV1), a previously unclassified arbovirus isolated in 1972 from rodents collected in Botambi, Central African Republic. The complete genome sequence was obtained using a deep sequencing approach (Illumina technology) and dedicated bioinformatics workflows for data analysis. Molecular analysis identified SEBV1 as a picornavirus, most closely related to Ljungan viruses of the genus Parechovirus. The genome has a typical Ljungan virus-like organization, including the presence of two unrelated 2A protein motifs. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that SEBV1 belongs to the parechovirus phylogroup and was most closely related to the Ljungan virus species. However, it appeared clearly distinct from all members of this phylogroup, suggesting that it represents a novel species of the genus Parechovirus.
    Journal of General Virology 04/2013; DOI:10.1099/vir.0.053157-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
471.07 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University of La Réunion
      Saint-Denis, Réunion, Reunion
    • Cyclotron Réunion Indian Ocean
      Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France
  • 1991–2013
    • Institut Pasteur
      • Department of Virology
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1989–2013
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011
    • Aarhus University
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
  • 2008
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1995
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Neurology
      Baltimore, MD, United States