[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catalytic antibodies are immunoglobulins endowed with enzymatic activity. Catalytic IgG has been reported in several human autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In particular, low levels of catalytic IgG have been proposed as a prognostic marker for chronic allograft rejection in patients undergoing kidney transplant. Kidney allograft is a treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal failure. Intravenous immunoglobulins, a therapeutic pool of human IgG, is used in patients with donor-specific antibodies, alone or in conjunction with other immunosuppressive treatments, to desensitize the patients and prevent the development of acute graft rejection. Here, we followed for a period of 24 months the levels of catalytic IgG towards the synthetic peptide Pro-Phe-Arg-methylcoumarinimide in a large cohort of patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Twenty-four percent of the patients received IVIg at the time of transplantation. Our results demonstrate a marked reduction in levels of catalytic antibodies in all patients three months following kidney transplant. The decrease was significantly pronounced in patients receiving adjunct IVIg therapy. The results suggests that prevention of acute graft rejection using intravenous immunoglobulins induces a transient reduction in the levels of catalytic IgG, thus potentially jeopardizing the use of levels of catalytic antibodies as a prognosis marker for chronic allograft nephropathy.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e70731. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abzymes are immunoglobulins endowed with enzymatic activities. The catalytic activity of an abzyme resides in the variable domain of the antibody, which is constituted by the close spatial arrangement of amino acid residues involved in catalysis. The origin of abzymes is conferred by the innate diversity of the immunoglobulin gene repertoire. Under deregulated immune conditions, as in autoimmune diseases, the generation of abzymes to self-antigens could be deleterious. Technical advancement in the ability to generate monoclonal antibodies has been exploited in the generation of abzymes with defined specificities and activities. Therapeutic applications of abzymes are being investigated with the generation of monoclonal abzymes against several pathogenesis-associated antigens. Here, we review the different contexts in which abzymes are generated, and we discuss the relevance of monoclonal abzymes for the treatment of human diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the numerous questions remaining opened about catalytic antibodies (abzymes), the understanding of the origin of the genes encoding them is of vital significance. An original statistical analysis of genes encoding abzymes is described in the present report. Results suggested that these genes display a high conservation degree with their germline counterpart and a limited number of amino acid changes. Hence, on the contrary with high-affinity antibodies, maturation process by accumulation of somatic hypermutations is not required for the catalytic function. We demonstrated that despite a weak somatic mutation rate, the physicochemical properties of mutated amino acid (AA) are predominantly dissimilar with that of the germline AA. Further, we developed a novel approach in order to analyze the nature of genes encoding catalytic antibodies. For the first time, an unexpected and significant high level expression of rare gene subgroups was noticed and emphasized. The data described in this paper would lay the foundation for future studies about origin of genes encoding catalytic antibodies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acquired haemophilia A (AHA) is a rare bleeding disorder characterized by the sudden generation of autoantibodies against factor VIII (FVIII) in individuals with no previous history of abnormal haemostasis. Understanding the pathogenesis of this disease has been hampered by the rarity of the patients and the difficulty in obtaining biological material from untreated patients. Still, progress has been made recently in understanding the pathogenesis of AHA. In particular, the importance of CD4(+) T cells in AHA development has been documented and the epitopes targeted by T cells on FVIII have been delineated. Accordingly, a polymorphism in the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 gene (CTLA4), known to participate in the regulation of CD4(+) T-cell responses, and a preferential usage of certain human leukocyte antigen class II haplotypes, have been associated with the disease. Recent findings have documented the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) with proteolytic activity against FVIII and factor IX (FIX) in patients with AHA. While FVIII-hydrolysing IgG has been shown to inactivate FVIII, FIX-hydrolysing IgG from AHA patients activate FIX in vitro. Here, we describe the latest findings on the immuno-pathogenesis of AHA, with a special focus on the potential role played by antibodies endowed with proteolytic properties.
British Journal of Haematology 01/2012; 156(1):3-12. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acquired hemophilia is a rare bleeding disorder characterized by the spontaneous occurrence of inhibitory antibodies against endogenous factor VIII (FVIII). IgG from some patients with acquired hemophilia hydrolyze FVIII. Because of the complex etiology of the disease, no clinical parameter, including the presence of FVIII-hydrolyzing IgG, has been associated with patient's survival or death. Here, we demonstrate the presence of anti-FIX antibodies in acquired hemophilia patients. IgG from some patients were found to hydrolyze FIX. In most cases, IgG-mediated FIX-hydrolysis resulted in FIX activation. IgG-mediated hydrolysis of FIX thus led to the significant generation of activated FIX in 25 of 65 patients. Based on the estimated kinetic parameters, patients' IgG activated up to 0.3nM FIX in 24 hours, an amount that restored thrombin generation in vitro provided the presence of more than or equal to 3% residual FVIII activity in plasma. This work identifies proteolytic IgG as novel molecules able to activate FIX under pathologic conditions. IgG-mediated FIX activation is a prevalent phenomenon among acquired hemophilia patients. The presence of FIX-activating IgG may partly compensate for the antibody-mediated inhibition of endogenous FVIII in restoring thrombin generation. This clinical trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00213473.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitory IgG may arise as alloantibodies to therapeutic FVIII in patients with congenital hemophilia A, or as autoantibodies to endogenous FVIII in individuals with acquired hemophilia. We have described FVIII-hydrolyzing IgG both in hemophilia A patients with anti-FVIII IgG and in acquired hemophilia patients. Here, we compared the properties of proteolytic auto- and allo-antibodies. Rates of FVIII hydrolysis differed significantly between the two groups of antibodies. Proline-phenylalanine-arginine-methylcoumarinamide was a surrogate substrate for FVIII-hydrolyzing autoantibodies. Our data suggest that populations of proteolytic anti-FVIII IgG in acquired hemophilia patients are different from that of inhibitor-positive hemophilia A patients.